Marine Capture Fisheries in Thailand: Review and Synthesis*

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1 Marine Capture Fisheries in Thailand: Review and Synthesis* Pakjuta Khemakorn Department of Fisheries, Thailand PhD Candidate The Australian National Centre for Ocean Resources & Security (ANCORS) University of Wollongong, Australia UNNFF Alumni *A part of PROFISH Project, FAO/RAP The United Nations-The Nippon Foundation of Japan Fellowship Programme Inaugural Asia-Pacific Alumni Meeting Tokyo, Japan April 2009

2 Outline Introduction Marine capture fisheries profile of Thailand Aspects and circumstances related to marine capture fisheries of Thailand

3 Introduction Population about 63,400,000 (2008) Total area of Thai waters within EEZ is about 420,280 sq. km. 304,000 sq. km. of the Gulf of Thailand (86 m max. depth) 116,280 sq. km. of the Andaman Sea (1,200 m max. depth). GoT is recognized as a Large Marine Ecosystem (LME), highly productive water body (fisheries and other marine resources)

4 Introduction Fisheries play an important role in the food security ( , kg/year) Fisheries are also important in the economies and international trade. ( , 2nd top global exporter of fishery commodities) development of trawl fisheries in the 1970s (shrimps) development of purse seine fisheries in the early 1980s (pelagic species) Two main sectors: Capture fisheries, Culture Marine capture fisheries refer all types of harvesting of naturally occurring living resources in marine environments

5 4,500 4,000 3,500 3,000 2,500 2,000 1,500 1, Fisheries production in quantity by sub-sector, 1985 to , , , , ,000 80,000 60,000 40,000 20,000 0 Marine capture fisheries profile Year Marine capture Inland capture Coastal aquaculture Freshwater culture Value of fisheries production by sub-sector, 1985 to 2004 Production (1,000 Ton) Year Marine capture Inland capture Coastal aquaculture Freshwater culture Value (1,000,000 THB)

6 Capture fisheries: Large-scale, Small-scale Definitions by National Statistical Office and DoF, Thailand Small-scale: without boat, non-powered boats, outboard powered and inboard powered boats less than 10 GT, also the fishing gears generally operating inshore Large scale: fishing boats of > 10 GT, and the fisheries operations conducted offshore Large-scale fisheries (LSF) Small-scale fisheries (SSF) 1.Otter board trawl 1. Mackerel gill net 2. Pair trawl 2. Pomfret gill net 3. Beam trawl 3. Mullet gill net 4. Purse seine 4. Shrimp trammel net 5. Anchovy purse seine 5. Crab gill net 6. King mackerel drifting gill net 6. Squid trammel net 7. Mackerel encircling gill net 7. Other gill nets 8. Push net 8. Squid falling net 9. Deep water set net 9. Other cast nets 10. Hand push net 11. Long line 12. Hand line and Pole & line 13. Set bag net 14. Fish trap 15. Crab trap 16. Squid trap 17. Shallow water set net 18. Other stationary gears

7 1,600,000 1,400,000 Collecting she llfish 40,000 35,000 1,200,000 30,000 1,000,000 Crab gill ne t 25,000 LSF (MT) 800,000 Mackerel gill net Squid falling net Shrimp trammel net 20,000 SSF (MT) 600,000 15, ,000 10, ,000 5,000 0 O tter board trawl Purse se ine Pair trawl Anchovy purse seine Push net 0 Large scale fisheries S mall scale fisheries Production of top 5 fishing gears of marine capture fisheries by sub-sector, 2004

8 Others 1.19% Pelagic fish Shellfish 23.95% Shellfish Crabs 0.01% 0.53% Squids 5.77% Shrimps 2.27% 19.23% Pelagic fish 34.18% Demersal fish 4.73% Large scale fisheries Trash fish 30.97% Other food fish 3.10% Trash fish 1.54% Small scale fisheries Squids 13.36% Other food fish 7.12% Demersal fish 19.15% Shrimps 13.79% Crabs 19.10% Composition of marine capture production by sub-sector, 2004

9 P elagic fish 50.00% Others 1.51% Shellfish 6.85% Squids 15.51% Shellfish 0.03% Squids 15.99% Crabs 1.68% Pelagic fish 34.79% Demersal fish 23.42% Trash fish Shrimps 5.38% 13.01% Demersal fish Other food fish 5.77% 5.71% Other food fish Shrimps 3.09% 0.03% Crabs Trash fish 16.50% 0.69% Large scale fisheries Small scale fisheries Composition of marine capture value by sub-sector, 2004

10 Disposition of marine production in Thailand Fish and shrimp production sent to canning and freezing processing plants. Squids sent to freezing processing plants. Fish meal comprises the highest amount disposed from marine production (from trash fish & fish left over) Type of plant Total Other food fish Trash fish & fish left over from processing Shrimps Crabs Squids Shellfish Lobsters Freezing 1,084, , ,551 10, ,630 45,208 1,348 Canning 1,237,017 1,036, ,405 24,127 12,699 40,171 - Fish sauce 110, , Budu sauce 2,226 2, Streaming 12,960 12, Smoking 6,209 6, Dried, salted fish 65,349 65, Dried shrimps 12, , Dried squids 16, , Dried shellfish 47, ,279 - Fish balls 10,354 10, Fish-shrimp chips 8,057 7, Fish meal 1,555, ,586 1,443, Total 4,169,587 1,970,100 1,443, ,875 34, , ,658 1,348

11 Fishing Units (Boats and Crews) Most of them are small-scale fishing units, 79 percent are outboard powered boats or longtail boats. The majority of large-scale fishing boats are 20 to 50 GT boats (41 percent). The average size of crew per fishing unit is related to the size of the boat, as is the net profit per fishing unit.

12 Type of fishing units Fishing vessels statistics 2004 Number of fishing units Intercensal marine survey 2000 SS marine household income survey 2000 Best estimated number Average crew per fishing unit Number of fishing households Family member Number of fishers (peak season) Employees Total Grand Total 71,484 57,801 80,857 87, ,140 SSF Subtotal 60,141 53,343 76,646 17,583 94,229 No boat 3,763 3, ,550 4, ,962 Non-powered boat 2,639 3,112 2, ,559 3, ,282 Outboard powered boat Inboard powered boat 42,217 52,695 47, ,225 60,222 11,164 71,386 < 5 GT 2,751 3,324 3,933 3, ,249 4,573 1,597 6, GT 2,338 2,898 2,892 2, ,760 3,878 4,551 8,429 LSF Sub-total 11,343 4,458 4,211 69,700 73, GT 3,378 2,605 3, ,994 2,350 7,607 9, GT 4,667 2,459 4, ,340 1,256 11,341 12, GT 2,799 1,461 2, ,339 10, GT GT ,413 40,675 > 500 GT 2 2 NA

13 Thai capture fisheries outside the national EEZ Fishing contracts might be arranged between government and government, private sector and government, or private sector and private sector. However, there are generally two main forms of arrangements, i.e. licensing and joint venture. About 1.15 million tonnes of total marine production (2.64 million tonnes) are obtained from overseas (2004). It is from the EEZs of coastal States in Southeast Asia, South Asia, the Middle East and East Africa, such as Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Vietnam, Bangladesh, India, Oman, Yemen, Madagascar and Somalia.

14 Production of marine capture fisheries out of Thai waters, 2004 (tonnes) Species Grand Total Otter board Trawl m Otter board Trawl m Otter board Trawl > 25 m Pair Trawl m Pair Trawl > 18 m Purse seine King Mackerel drifting gill net Grand Total 1,146, , , ,478 1,977 14, ,710 3,269 Pelagic fish 289,641 2,790 19,196 79, , ,632 3,269 Demersal fish 374,331 12, , , , Shrimps & prawns 14,179 1,655 6,307 6, Crabs 6, ,828 3, Squids 79,105 5,527 37,713 33, , Shellfish Other food fish 71,943 4,716 56,136 10, Trash fish 311, , , ,

15 Thai capture fisheries outside the national EEZ There are about 3,000 to 4,000 Thai boats fishing in the EEZs of the other coastal States and two Thai boats fishing on the high sea. Most of these fishing boats are under contracts arranged by private sectors, and not obliged to report to the DoF in Thailand. Since January 2008 hundreds of Thai boats have stopped fishing in Indonesian waters, because of new arrangement applied foreign boats. Change from licensing to joint venture Fly Indonesian flag Can not carry fish back to Thailand

16 Aspects and circumstances related to marine capture fisheries of Thailand Fishery resource aspects Resources depleted (CPUE of GoT from kg/hr in 1961 to 49.8 kg/hr in 1981, and to 29.0 kg/hr in 2006) Resources overexploited (MSY, dermersal and pelagic fish) Fishing aspects Overfishing IUU fishing (national, international) Incapability of Thai distant fishing fleets (education, technology, experiences)

17 Aspects and circumstances related to marine capture fisheries of Thailand Marine resource management aspects The Thai Fisheries Act B.E (1947) o Not updated (in line with international standards) International instruments o Not effectively adopted (ex. Code of Conduct, IPOAs) Lack of MCS

18 Approaches?

19 Thank you

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