RFID LIBRARY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

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1 RFID LIBRARY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM 1. KNOW RFID TECHNOLOGY What Is RFID - Radio Frequency Identification? RFID is an acronym for Radio Frequency Identification - The use of wireless communications to establish the identity of a physical object. RFID technology provides wireless identification of people, books or assets. A RFID tag is attached to an object and contains information about that object. RFID Tag consists of an integrated circuit and an antenna Library needs passive tags (Transponders) : that is, Tags with no power source in it. These Tags takes power from Radio waves emitted by RFID Reader. A RFID Reader illuminates one or more tags, each containing a unique identifying number. The Tags uses the power they receive to operate their integrated circuits and return a signal with their ID to the Reader. A typical stationary RFID reader transmits power up to the legal limit of 1 Watt or 30 dbm. A portable or handheld Reader may transmit lower power to conserve its battery life. The tag integrated circuits require around microwatts to operate. As the tag moves away from the reader antenna, the tag will receive less power from the reader, and at some point too little power would be available to power the tag & tag may not get powered. RFID Readers typically operate in unlicensed spectrum, so individual devices do not require licenses to operate in a certain band of frequencies ( MHz band ) Large stationary Readers used for portals, doors, or conveyor reading usually employ external antennas connected to the Reader via a coaxial cable. In Handheld readers, USB Readers, small capacity Readers, Antennas are in-built. Passive UHF tags are typically just a bit of metal and plastic, with a single integrated circuit hidden somewhere near the middle. Sometimes they are incorporated into a human-readable label; in other cases the tag has its own adhesive and is attached directly to an object. Tags come in a variety of shapes and sizes. ADVANTAGES OF RFID Technology in Library: No line of sight needed while reading the Book like bar code technology. RFID Tags are pasted inside the book & this RFID Tag memory contains Accession series & number of the book. Allows circulation of books several time simultaneously. Performs both Identification and antitheft duties in one single operation. Different shapes and sizes available to Tag Library material like Books, CD, Maps. Able to tag almost anything. Very speedy scanning and identification. Stock verification of 40,000 books per hour. Easy & fast searching of misplace book. Page 1 of 15

2 RFID COMPONENTS: Tag : Tag is made up of an integrated antenna and memory. The information can be written and rewritten on Tag memory. The unique ID written on Tag while manufacturing is known as the EPC (Electronic Product Code). Reader : An RFID reader is a device that is used to read RFID tag data. The reader has an antenna that emits radio waves; the tag responds by sending back data stored in it to Reader. Host Computer : It reads/writes data from / to the tags through the reader. It stores and evaluates obtained data and links the transceiver to applications. Types of RFID Technology Based on frequency at which the technology operates, there are mainly three types of RFID Technology. Low Frequency or LF Frequency KHz 1,25,000 cycles per second High Frequency HF - Frequency MHZ 1,35,60,000 cycles per second Ultra High Frequency UHF - Frequency MHZ 95,60,00,000 cycles per second A Comparison is shown below. Types of RFID LF- Low HF UHF Meaning Low Frequency High Frequency Ultra High Frequency Popular Name Proximity smart / mi-fare UHF RFID Frequency 125 KZ MHZ 868 to 956 MHz Read Range 4 to 33 CM 1 CM 1 to 10 M Tag Memory No Yes Yes Applications Id-Card Id-Card Cost Cheapest Costly Library, Asset tracking etc, Car Tracking, Toll booth application Tags are cheaper but Readers are costly Page 2 of 15

3 TYPES OF UHF READERS USB Reader : The Read range is 3 CM (Centimetres) to 30 centimetres). This low read range is useful for Issue / Retune / Tagging operations in Library. The Reader + Antenna circuit is in-built. Performs both Read & Write Operations. Mobile Reader : The read range is 1 to 3 meters. It has its own memory & scanned Tags EPC code is stored in It & via USB port can be transferred to computer. Network Reader - The Read Range is 1 to 10 Meters. Reader & Antenna are separate. Can be connected to computer network directly. UHF Reader UHF ANTENNA Page 3 of 15

4 2. WHY UHF TECHNOLOGY FOR LIBRARY : UHF RFID outperforms HF RFID in terms of tag Reading rate, Multiple item detection rate, orientation of tag detection and read range for self check machines and detection gates. Low Cost : Due to high read range, UHF technology is adopted by many Industries hence demand of Tags is more. So UHF Tags are cheaper than HF tags. Large number Tags are required in Library so saving is higher. Hence UHF solution is cheaper than HF solution in Library. High Read Range : UHF read rang is almost 100 times HF read range. UHF RFID can read up to 10 meters against 1 to 10 Centimeters in HF. So important Library operations like stock verification, Books search & security system are performed much better & effectively and with ease in UHF RFID. High Multi Read : UHF reads more tags and at faster rates. 100 tags as opposed to 5 tags in HF. So very fast & effective stock verification, Book search & security system. Tag Masking : Tag Masking occurs when tags overlay each other in a stack of thin books. UHF is less prone to Tag masking. When tags mask each other, either one or both tags are not read by Reader. Minimum Mis-read : Though UHF read range is long, misread (means Tag is not read by UHF Reader) is minimum. At security Gate, multiple antenna are installed & each UHF Antenna read at a speed of almost 100 Tags/ second. So each tag is being read multiple times by more than one Antenna. So almost no scope of Mis-read. Page 4 of 15

5 WORK FLOW OF RFID IN LIBRARY: Following activities can be performed in RFID based Library automation System. Tagging - One UHF tag is attached per book. Check In / Check Out offers complete Automated Check In - Check out for the books by staff. Self Check In / Check Out - Offers Automated Check In Check out of the books by Patron himself. Shelf Management Searching of a book & Stock verification using Hand Held Reader. Book Drop - offers flexibility and convenience of returning library items 24 * 7 to Patrons. Security System ( Anti Theft System) - Triggers an alarm when an un-borrowed item passes through gate. Page 5 of 15

6 3. TAGGING OF BOOKS & PATRONS : RFID Tag is pasted on inner side of Front cover page of book & full page Sticker is attached on it to hide it from Patron and Tagging is done using RFID Reader. Tagging means writing RFID EPC code to Library Management Software & writing Accession number with series to Tag memory. With this now book is ready for all RFID operations. Benefits of UHF RFID tags over bar code / magnetic stripe: Very speedy scanning of the data stored on the RFID tag. 40,000 unique Tags scanning per hour. Simple and easy way for patrons to self-checking for material loans and returns. Superior detection rates Minimum false alarms at the Security Gates as compared to other technology. Fast stock verification & book search - reducing time of Library staff for 'shelf-reading' and other inventory activities. Automated return of materials that speeds up sorting of materials and re-shelving for the next patron to access. A longer lifecycle than a barcode. The Tagging Station For Books Removing the RFID Tag from Tag Bundle Pasting tag on Book The Tagging Process - Writing Tag EPC code in Library Software & writing Accession number on Tag Pasting Plain Sticker on Tag to hide the Tag The Tag pasting sample Page 6 of 15

7 Patron RFID Id Card Printing & Tagging : UHF RFID ID card is issued to the students. The process is Photo of student is captured using a digital camera, Signature can be captured using a signature. Patron information such as name, address, designation etc. are already available in Library software. RFID ID card is printed through Plastic card printer. Tagging is done by showing RFID ID card to Reader. Tagging is done using RFID Reader. Tagging means writing Patron RFID ID card EPC code against ID no. of Patron in Library Management & vice-e-versa. Now ID card is RFID enabled. 1. Patron Photo capturing 2. Patron Signature capturing Printed RFID Card RFID Printer 4. Tagging ID to RF-Lib Man Printed RFID Card Page 7 of 15

8 4. SELF - CHECK SYSTEM ISSUE, RETURN, RE-ISSUE Self Check system offers complete Automated Check In and Check out for the library materials. Components: RFID Integrated reader Touch screen Work station with Thermal Printer & Trolley Issue of Books: Identify Borrower (Patron) with smart card / UHF Reader. Select option Issue option in Library Software. Now put the book to be issued on Reader. RFID Reader Reads the tag of the book & updates record in Library Software. Repeat this step for multiple books. Receipt of issued Books can be printed. This is useful to Security staff for verification. The RFID tag in the book is set on quiet mode as a result no alarm will go off at the EAS gates. Return of books: Patron identifies herself. (Optional) Choose Return option and then put book to be returned on the reader. RFID Reader reads the tag & if correct, updates in borrower data. Repeat this step for multiple books. At end receipt can be given to Patron for his record along with a SMS confirmation. If the books are now taken through the EAS (Security) gate now, an alarm would sound. Self Check-In Check-Out Patron Identification Single Book Self - issue by Patron Multiple Books Self Issue by Patron Page 8 of 15

9 Key benefits of self check system: To Librarian: Speeds up book check-in / check-out. Frees staff to better service patrons. Better space planning. To Patrons: Easy to use: books can be read in any orientation. Reduces queuing time. Provides patron privacy. Encourages patrons to come back. Patron login by showing UHF RFID ID Card to Reader 5. Patron issuing Book by putting BOOK on UHF Reader SHELF MANAGEMENT SYSTEM The Shelf Management Solution (Mobile RFID Reader + customized Software) makes locating and identifying items on the shelves an easy task for librarians. It comprises basically of a Portable UHF Reader with memory, Software and a computer connected to Library Management Software. The solution is designed to cover two main requirements: Search for individual books requested. Inventory check of the whole library stock (Stock verification). This is a Portable Stock Take device facilitates the important functions of inventory control (Stock verification) & searching of a book. Books accession number can be captured wirelessly from the RFID Tags without line of sight. The ergonomic designed RFID Handheld Reader provides maximum comfort. The Mobile Reader is able to hold information of more than 1 million items with various memory capacities. The long read range of 3 Meters makes it easy to read items in hard-to-reach areas or when scanning many library materials. This device is very useful for performing stock take or trying to locate materials that have not been shelved properly. Page 9 of 15

10 All these functions are performed by sweeping the portable Reader across the spines of the books on the shelves to gather their identities. Advantages : Easy Process : o No more book handling: just pass the reader across shelved books to perform an instant Books search & stock verification. o Accuracy : Most easy, fast & accurate book searching & stock verification. o 10 books per second. User friendly: o Light weight o High Read range allows easy reading of high and low shelves Saves time and resources: o The fastest stock verification you have ever made : books scanning per hour. Approximate 80% reduction in human resources required for shelf management activities. Page 10 of 15

11 Features of Reader : High performance UHF RFID with read range of 3 Meters. Ideal for fast & easy Stock verification & Book searching. Ergonomic and lightweight handheld RFID Reader 3 hrs continuous scanning and 20 hrs standby duration Able to hold more than 1 million items information Robust and outdoor usable Latest and most secure operating system Long operating hours Gaurav Somani of Master Software discussing Hand Held Reader Technology with Dr S S Gokhale (Director LNM IIT Jaipur in middle) & Librarian Mrs. Shewta Pande (Right) in LNM IIT Jaipur Library Searching of a book For searching of a book, the information is first entered into the portable Reader from the base station and when a suitable category is found on the shelves, a built-in beeper sounds to alert the librarians. Enter Accession Number in to Mobile RFID Reader.. Start Searching Simple & Easy Continue searching Simple & Easy Exact Book Found Book Found By Reader in 5 mins max - Green Signal & Beep sound from Rader. Page 11 of 15

12 stock verification For stock verification the identities collected are compared with the database and a discrepancy report is generated.

13 6. ANTI THEFT DETECTION SYSTEM The RFID EAS Gate is the anti-theft (Security) part of the RFID Library. Portal tracks items upto 3 meters and would trigger the alarm with flash lights when Patron passes through gate with an unborrowed item. It can detect multiple items at a time. The RFID EAS Gate is a standalone unit which is able to operate independently from the Library Management System. Benefits: Most accurate with minimum false / wrong detection. Single technology is required for both inventory and theft management of the library. Library staff is alerted immediately when un-borrowed items passes through the theft detection gates. Theft are minimized. Number of patrons passing through the gate is captured by a counter on the gates. Multi-item and multi-directional detections. Supports remote monitoring and parameter setting. Able to integrate with camera or surveillance station (Opt ional) LNM IIT Jaipur UHF Exit Portal At Library Gate LNM IIT Library.. Patrons. Patron Taking Away Issued Books Patron Trying to take Away un- Security Staff checking for unissued books Green Light at Security Portal Issued Books Red Light glows & Siren Sound to alert Security Staff Page 13 of 15

14 7. BOOK DROP STATION The Book Drop stations are unmanned & and can be placed at strategic locations anywhere within or outside the Library. This offers unprecedented flexibility and convenience of returning library items at anytime of the day, even when the library is closed. Patron inserts the library item into the slot. The RFID Reader inbuilt in Book Drop Station reads Accession number from RFID Tags of returned books and sends to Library Management Software for instant loan cancellation. Patron is acknowledged loan cancellation by beeping sound, flashlight, SMS & receipt. Patron can drop their returning items into Book Drop Station in any orientation with almost zero queuing time. Book Drop Station can be operated in On Line as well as off line mode. The loan is cancelled automatically. Library staff is not involved in return activity saving time of Library staff. They are just required to collect all the books at one time & shelve properly. The station makes backroom Library operation simple, productive & efficient for Library staff. It brings better management & lesser manpower in item processing. Features : Returns / Check in / Cancels the loan of multiple books immediately. Monitored by Librarian from his desk. So supports remote monitoring. Continues to Works in off Line mode also when disconnected from network & forwards transactions once system is back on-line. Visual & audio notification when check-in. Printed receipt & SMS to Patron on return of books. Top View of Book Drop Station Book Drop Station Library Staff removing filled Book Drop Trolley Page 14 of 15

15 Patron Dropping a book Patrons in queue for returning the books in book drop station Patron Collecting the receipt Page 15 of 15

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