World War I. Section 1

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2 The Great War Begins Main Idea Europe in 1914 was on the brink of war. After an assassination, the nations of Europe were drawn one by one into what would be called the Great War, or World War I. Content Statement/Learning Goal Explain how militarism, imperialism, nationalism and alliances were causes of WWI. Explain how advances in technology, communication and transportation improved lives but also had negative consequences. Explain how and why oppression and discrimination resulted in the Armenian Genocide during WWI.

3 vocabulary Franz Ferdinand Neutral Central Powers Allied Powers Western Front

4 vocabulary Franz Ferdinand: Heir to the throne of Austria- Hungary whose assassination by a Serb nationalist started WWI. Neutral: in a war, not aiding either side. Central Powers: the alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary, and the Ottoman Empire during WWI. Allied Powers: the alliance formed between Britain, France, and Russia during WWI. Western Front: during WWI, the deadlocked region in northern France where German and Allied armies faced off.

5 1. Europe on the Brink of War Rising tensions in Europe, 1914 Tensions result of four factors Militarism Alliances Imperialism Nationalism

6 Massive military buildup in Europe Wanted to protect overseas colonies from other nations Large Military = Wars Minor disagreements had potential to turn to armed conflict Especially Germany. 1. Europe on the Brink of War Militarism Alliances Nations formed partnerships to protect against opposing forces Triple Alliance- Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy, Ottoman Empire. Triple Entente- Great Britain France, Russia, Serbia Belief no nation would attack another

7 Nations wanted to build empires Created rivalries 1. Europe on the Brink of War Imperialism Germany, France, Russia, Great Britain vied to become great imperial nations Each did not want others to gain power Nationalism Strong devotion to one s national group or culture Led to revolts and struggles for power Most visible in Balkan Peninsula, southeastern Europe Home to many ethnic groups trying to break free from Ottoman Empire

8 2. Spark that starts WWI/Nationalism -Bosnian city of Sarajevo -Austria had just taken over six years earlier and Bosnians bitterly opposed Austrian rule. -Serbian leaders hoped to unite ethnic Slavs in Bosnia, but now Austria-Hungary stood in the way. *Nationalism -visit fell on St. Vitus Day: holiday celebrating Serbian unity -Black Hand: Serbian terrorist group that plotted to kill Franz Ferdinand. Wanted a Greater Serbia. -Gavril Princip assassinated Ferdinand and wife Sophie. -SPARKS WORLD WAR I

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10 2. War Breaks Out In the midst of the tensions with Serbia, archduke Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary decided to visit the Bosnian city of Sarajevo. The Impact Serbian Gavrilo Princip assassinated archduke & wife Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia Russia prepared to support Serbia Austria-Hungary ally Germany saw Russia as threat Germany declared war on Russia and France Fighting Begins Germany faced war on two fronts: Russia to east, France to west Decided to strike France quickly then move to Russia Began with quick strike into neutral Belgium Attack on neutral country led Great Britain to declare war on Germany

11 3. Militarism Massive military buildup in Europe Wanted to protect overseas colonies from other nations RESULT OF IMPERIALISM Large Military = Wars Minor disagreements had potential to turn to armed conflict Across Europe, the size of armed forces and navies had risen sharply, particularly in Germany

12 Click the icon to play Listen to History audio. Click the icon below to connect to the Interactive Maps.

13 4.Alliances Nations formed partnerships to protect against opposing forces Triple Alliance- Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy (Italy later joins Allies), Ottoman Empire Triple Entente- Great Britain France, Russia, Serbia Leaders hoped that these alliances would keep the peace; served as form of checks and balances. Belief no nation would attack another.

14 4.War Breaks Out Main players in World War I in place Central Powers Germany Austria-Hungary Ottoman Empire Allied Powers Great Britain France Russia Serbia Italy

15 5.Imperialism Nations wanted to build empires Created rivalries Germany, France, Russia, Great Britain vied to become great imperial nations Each did not want others to gain power Nations felt they could not stand idly by while others gained power. NATIONALISM-OR HYPER- PATIRIOTISM.

16 6.Nationalism on Balkan Peninsula -formation of new countries including Germany and Italy ( ) -home to many ethnic groups, trying to break away from Ottoman Empire, which was on the brink of collapse. -Some of the strongest nationalist tensions in the Balkans were in Serbia. -Serbia was an independent nation, however, many Serbs in other nations wanted to expand Serbia s borders and create Greater Serbia -Austria-Hungary opposed Serbian expansion.

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18 World 7.What War did IAustria-Hungary do to Serbia? How Section was Russia 1 involved? -Archduke of Austria-Hungary, Franz Ferdinand, visits Bosnian city of Sarajevo. June 28, 1914 he is assassinated along with his wife by Serbian nationalist. -Austria-Hungary used assassination as an excuse to punish Serbia, after it is found a Serb committed murders. -Austria-Hungary made a series of humiliating demands on Serbia and declares war on Serbia on July 28, Russia saw itself as the defender of Slavic people (Serbs in Serbia and throughout Europe).

19 World 7.Why War I did Germany declare war on Section Russia? 1 -As Russia prepared to fulfill this promise, Germany (Austria-Hungary s ally) declared war on Russia and Russia s ally France. -England eventually declares war on Russia and Austria-Hungary as a result of their commitment to France and due to the attack on neutral Belgium. -Europe s alliances turned the actions of a single assassin into a major conflict.

20 8.Fighting in 1914 Germany s plan Germany wanted to quickly defeat France, move east to fight Russia known as Schlieffen Plan 2 front war Germany moves through neutral Belgium which prompts Britain to enter the war Great Britain s declaration of war on Germany doomed its plan The Great War became bloody stalemate. Early battles Battle of the Frontiers pitted German troops against both French and British Both sides suffered heavy losses Germany victorious Russia enters fighting Russia attacked German territory from the east Russians defeated in Battle of Tannenberg Germany distracted from France, Allies turned on German invaders

21 9.Fighting in 1914 Trench warfare begins Allied troops drove Germans back, Battle of the Marne, September 1914 Retreating Germans dug series of trenches along Aisne River Waited in trenches for Allied attack Trenches elaborately constructed, cleverly concealed Allies dug trenches of their own Major battles for months with little change in positions Deadlocked region became known as Western Front

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23 Trench Warfare

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25 Click the icon to play Listen to History audio. Click the icon below to connect to the Interactive Maps.

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