World War 1: Alliances. Kyra Chan, Rachel Koh, Jeff Lu, Jae Jin Shin, Chris Tang

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1 World War 1: Alliances Kyra Chan, Rachel Koh, Jeff Lu, Jae Jin Shin, Chris Tang

2 What is an Alliance? A union or association formed for mutual benefit, especially between countries or organizations Political coalition or agreement Usually signed by a treaty, but not always

3 Dual Alliance Dual Alliance: 1879 treaty between Germany and Austria-Hungary, made by Germany s chancellor Otto von Bismarck. Dual Alliance was Bismarck s attempt to protect Germany from the threat of Russia and France -Austria-Hungary and Germany promised to help each other militarily if either were attacked by Russia but to maintain 'benevolent [friendly] neutrality' towards each other if either were attacked by another power. -Austria-Hungary promised to remain neutral if France attacked Germany, both were enemies at the time. -The treaty was a secret but other great powers suspected it from the start. Austria-Hungary and Germany had made a defensive agreement, making them permanent allies.

4 Impact of the Dual Alliance

5 The Three Emperors League Bismarck had broken his own principle of always being one of three. 'Nobody wishes to be in a minority. All politics reduce themselves to this formula: to try to be one of three, as long as the world is governed by an unstable equilibrium [balance] of five Powers.' -If Germany were only to be one of two, it was always possible that at least two of the other great powers could get together and attack Germany. -The Three Emperors League: revived in 1881, between Russia, Germany and Austria-Hungary -Each of the three countries promised to remain neutral if one of them were involved in a war with a fourth country. -Bismarck had now succeeded in making Germany both one of two and one of three at the same time. -Germany gained security, allowing Bismarck to dominate European politics

6 The Reinsurance Treaty By 1886, the Three Emperors' League was abolished, due to renewal problems in the Balkans. -Russia wanted to reassert its influence over Bulgaria and the Balkans, possibly by war, but Austria-Hungary, who was related to the Balkan affairs since 1878 and had control over Bosnia-Herzegovina, would not tolerate any Russian action. -Russia wanted to have an alliance with Germany, so that Berlin could restrain Vienna in the Balkans. Without Berlin behind it, Austria-Hungary lacked the strength to fight Russia. -In 1887, Bismarck (Germany) was able to get the Russia to sign the Reinsurance Treaty. -Both countries promised to remain neutral if the other were engaged in a war. -The treaty did not apply if Germany attacked France or if Russia attacked Austria-Hungary. -Germany was back to being one of three.

7 Hungary-Austria Triple Alliance Germany Italy

8 The Triple Alliance In 1882, Italy joined Germany and Austria- Hungary in what came to be called the Triple Alliance. -Allowed Germany to gain a Mediterranean ally against France. -The threat of an Italian attack against Austria-Hungary was eradicated.

9 Bismarck s Fall in Power After the death of William I in 1888, William II replaced the throne and kicked Bismarck out of his authority because he thought that the alliance treaties he signed were too complicated and inefficient. William II wanted to make an alliance with Britain. -Bismarck fell from power in 1890 and his successors were not competent in renewing treaties, allowing Russia to slip out of Germany s control. -It was a big mistake for Germany to let go of all their treaties and alliances -Germany lost power and control over other countries

10 The Franco-Russian Alliance Restored relations between the two imperial powers -A response to the Triple Alliance, which had isolated France -Provided economic, financial, military benefits to both signatory nations -Allowed Russia access to French loans and French access to Russia s raw materials

11 The Entente Cordiale The Entente ended a century of hostility between Britain and France -Though not a military alliance, it was seen as a first step towards Anglo-French Military Alliance (Alpha History) -Anglo means belonging to, involving to, or relating to Britain and Europe

12 The Anglo-Russian Entente Like the Entente Cordiale, the Anglo- Russian Entente did not ask for military assistance -It only served to ease tensions and restore good relations between the two countries -This Entente was required, as Britain and Russia had spent much of the 19th century as antagonists, going to war in Crimea ( )

13 France Triple Entente Russia Britain

14 The Triple Entente - Happened 25 years after the Triple Alliance was created -Consolidated the Entente Cordiale and the Anglo-Russian Entente into a three way agreement -These ententes were not military alliances -Marked the end of British neutrality and isolationism

15 Rise of WWI Serbia s assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, an heir to the Austria-Hungarian Empire sparks war in Although the conflict broke out mainly between Serbia and Austria-Hungary, it was the formation of alliance between numerous European nations, which led to the enlargement of the war in terms of its scale and conflict. -Spread of the War due to alliance treaties: Italy & Germany & Austria- Hungary VS. Serbia & Russia Russia & France France & England England & Japan colonies of England: Australia, Canada, India, New Zealand, and Union of South Africa -By 1914, Europe was divided into two power blocs, the Triple Alliance VS. the Triple Entente.

16 Map of Europe 1914

17 Alliances

18 Impact of the Alliances and Power Blocs -In the 1890s, the alliances were stable, but the European pre-war alliance system evolved. -The alliances balance of power that existed among the European states no longer became even. -The alliances were supposed to provide countries with security, but they started to influence the way the balance of power operated, increasing mutual fear. -This contributed considerably to the division of Europe into two power blocs.

19 : Franco- Prussian war between Germany and France 1881: Bismarck revives the Three Emperors League. 1890: Bismarck s fall in power. Germany begins to lose its power over Russia. 1904: The Entente Cordiale is established between Britain and France. 1914: Austria-Hungary declares war against Serbia. The rise of WWI begins. 1870s 1880s 1890s 1900s 1910s 1879: The Dual Alliance is formed between Germany and Austria-Hungary. 1882: The Triple Alliance is formed. 1887: The Reinsurance Treaty is established between Russia and Germany. 1894: The Franco- Russian Alliance is formed to prevent isolating France. 1907: The Anglo-Russian Entente is formed between Britain and Russia. The Triple Entente is formed.

20 1914

21 Overall impact of Alliance System on WWI -Rise of suspicion between European powers avoid them from solving conflicts preceding the war -Prepared the European nations for war (Alliances associated with military services thus arousing war tension) -Chain effect of a small conflict escalating to a larger war -Germany feels threatened by the Triple Entente

22 Works Cited https://www.mtholyoke.edu/~raina20s/ww1/causes.htm Origins of the First World War - Primary Source activities

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