7 Quadratic Expressions

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1 7 Quadratic Expressions A quadratic expression (Latin quadratus squared ) is an expression involving a squared term, e.g., x + 1, or a product term, e.g., xy x + 1. (A linear expression such as x + 1 is obviously non-quadratic.) 7.1 Expansion (Multiplication) We have seen in Topic, Section how to multiply, or expand, simple expressions involving one linear factor such as (x 5) i.e. (x 5) = (x) 5 = 6x 15. Now we wish to multiply (expand) two linear expressions - the product is naturally a quadratic expression. Always simplify the quadratic expression, if possible. Example: (x 5)(x + ) = x(x + ) 5(x + ) = x x + x 5x 10 = x + 4x 5x 10 = x x 10 on simplification. The order of the factors is unimportant, i.e. (x 5)(x + ) = (x + )(x 5) 7 1

2 Exercises 7.1: Multiply (expand) (i) (x + )(x 4) (ii) (x )(x ) (iii) (x 1)( x) (iv) (x + 1)(y + ) (v) (x ) (vi) (x + 1)(x 1) (vii) (7x + 4)(7x 4) (viii) (x + a)(x + b) (ix) (x + a)(x a) (x) (x a) (xi) (x y)(x + 4y) (xii) (x 5t) Note: In (ix), the factors x + a, x a differ only in the sign in front of a, leading to the difference of squares x a. (The term in ax is +ax ax = 0, i.e., there is no term in ax.) In (x), the square of x a, namely (x a)(x a), will have a term in ax, i.e., ax ax(= ax). The squared terms are x x = x and ( a)( a) = +a. 7. Factorizing In Section 1 above, we were given the factors and we had to find the equivalent unfactored expression. Now we are given an unfactored expression and we are asked to find the factors, i.e., to factorize the expression. Guesswork, to some extent, is involved in this technique, until you become proficient at factorizing. 7

3 Example: Factorize x x 1 Solution: we look for an answer of the kind (x + a)(x + b) [= x + (a + b)x + ab by Exercise 7.1, (viii) above] This means a + b = 1, ab = 1 in our Example. Solving by trial-and-error gives a =, b = 4 (or a = 4, b = ) x x 1 = (x + )(x 4). The order of the factors in the answer is unimportant. Check back to Section 1 Exercise 7.1 (i) for the reverse problem (expansion). When factorizing a more complicated quadratic such as 6x + 7x 0, we apply the same general principles, though the problem is harder. We have x + 5 6x + 7x 0 = (x + 5)(x 4) x - 4 Exercises 7.: Factorize (i) x + 4x + (ii) x 7x + 1 (iii) x x 8 (iv) x + x (v) 6x 7x 0 (vi) 1x x 6 (vii) x 5 (viii) x 6x + 9 (ix) x + ax + a (x) 4x 4x + 1 7

4 7. Functional Notation In everyday language, the statement the number of hours of daylight depends on the time of year could also be expressed as the number of hours of daylight is a function of the time of year. In Mathematics, the word function is used with essentially the same meaning, though somewhat idealized. For example, in y = x x + 5, to a particular value of x there corresponds a unique value of y (e.g. x = 1 gives y = 4). We then say that x x + 5 is a function of x and, for convenience, replacing y by f(x), write f(x) = x x + 5. Read the notation f(x) as f of x where f is a symbol for the particular function of x under consideration. Note: f(x) does not mean f x, i.e. the brackets do not signify multiplication. Any symbol other than f can be used for a function. The value of f(x) when x = say is written f(). Example: Find the value of (i) f(x) = x 4 when x = 1 (ii) f(x) = x + 4x 7 when x =. Solutions: ( ) (i) 1 f = 1 4 = = 1 (ii) f() = ( ) + (4 ) 7 = = 7 4

5 Test for a Factor of f(x): If f(a) = 0, then x a is a factor of f(x). Example: Let f(x) = x 7x + 1 Then f() = = = 0 and f(4) = = = 0 x 7x + 1 = (x )(x 4) (see Exercise 7. (ii), Section above) Exercises 7.: (i) Find the value of f(x) = x + 4x 9 when (a) x = (b) x = 0 (c) x = 1 (d) x = 1 (ii) Test whether x is a factor of (a) g(x) = x x (b) h(x) = x + x 10 Note: A cubic expression has an index in the variable, e.g. x + x 0x is a cubic expression (and it happens to factorize, namely, x + x 0x = x(x } + {{ x 0 } ) = x(x + 5)(x 4)). quadratic It is worth noting, as you can readily check, that { x a = (x a)(x + ax + a ) x + a = (x + a)(x ax + a ) 7 5

6 x 1 = (x 1)(x + x + 1) e.g. x + 8 = (x + )(x x + 4) 8x 7 = (x )(4x + 6x + 9). 7.4 Solving a Quadratic Equation Sometimes a quadratic equation has factors in the quadratic expression. In this case it is easy to solve the equation. Example: Solve x x 1 = 0 Solution: Now x x 1 = (x + )(x 4) (See Topic 7, Section ) (x + )(x 4) = 0 i.e. x + = 0 or x 4 = 0 x =, 4 i.e., there are two solutions of a quadratic equation. Checking gives ( ) ( ) 1 = = 0, and = = 0, so the answer is correct. Solving x 4 = 0 = (x )(x + ), we get x =, which is also written x = ±. Or, taking square roots of both sides of x = 4 (i.e. x 4 = 0), we have x = + 4, 4 = ± 4 = ±. Note that = 4 and also ( ) ( ) = 4. We now obtain a useful formula for solving any quadratic equation ax + bx + c = 0. An Important Formula: If ax + bx + c = 0, then x = b ± b 4ac a Proof: Multiply both sides of ax + bx + c = 0 by 4a to get 4a(ax + bx + c) = 4a 0 4a x + 4abx + 4ac = 0 4a x + 4abx = 4ac Add b to both sides to turn the left-hand side into a perfect square i.e. 4a x + 4abx + b = b 4ac 7 6 (ax + b) = b 4ac

7 Take the square root of both sides. We have ax + b = ± b 4ac = b 4ac, b 4ac ax = b ± b 4ac x = b ± b 4ac a Note: that all of b ± b 4ac is divided by a. Example: Solve x 9x + 5 = 0 Solution: In the formula, substitute a =, b = 9, c = 5 to get x = ( 9) ± ( 9) 4 5 = 9 ± = 9 ± 1 6 = 9 + 1, Of course, if we apply the formula to a quadratic expression which factorizes, the calculations will produce a perfect square under the square root sign, and so will disappear from the answer. Thus, in the Example at the beginning of Section 4, in x x 1 = 0 we have a = 1, b = 1, c = 1. The formula yields x = ( 1) ± ( 1) 4 1 ( 1) 1 = 1 ± = 1 ± 49 = 1 ± 7 = 8, 6 = 4, as obtained in the Example. 7 7

8 Exercises 7.4: Solve (i) x 5x + = 0 (ii) 6x 7x = 0 (iii) x x 1 = 0 (iv) t + 5t + 1 = Operations with Square Roots Here we deal briefly with simple arithmetical operations involving square roots. representative examples are chosen. Example: Simplify (a) 8 (b) 6 Solution: Some (a) 8 = = = since = (b) 6 = = i.e. the square root of a product is the product of the square roots. So, generally, ab = a b. Similarly, a b = a b. Example: Simplify 1. Solution: Multiply by (= 1) 1 = 1 = since ( ) = This process is called rationalising the denominator, i.e. the denominator,, which is irrational, is replaced by a denominator () which is a rational number. 7 8

9 Exercises 7.5: Simplify (i) 7 (ii) (iii) 10 (iv) 1 (v) 5 (vi) 14 (vii) 7 1 Exercises 7.6: Solve (i) x 4x = 0 (ii) w 8w + = 0 Topic Revision Exercises 7.7: (i) Expand (x + )( x) (ii) Factorize 10x + 7x 1 (iii) If f(x) = 8x + x find the value of (a) f ( ) 1 (b) f ( 1 ) (iv) Test whether x is a factor of x x 6 (v) Simplify 48 6 (vi) Solve (a) x 9 = 0 (b) x 8x + = 0 (c) 4x 4x + 1 = 0 7 9

10 7.6 Answers to Exercises 7.1: (i) x x 1 (ii) 6x 1x + 6 (iii) x + 7x (iv) xy + x + y + (this is still a quadratic as it involves the product xy of two variables (x, y)) (v) 4x 1x + 9 (vi) x 1 (vii) 49x 16 (viii) x + (a + b)x + ab (ix) x a (x) x ax + a (xi) x + 5xy 1y (xii) 4x 0xt + 5t 7.: (i) (x + 1)(x + ) (ii) (x )(x 4) (iii) (x + )(x 4) (iv) (x 1)(x + ) 7.: (v) (x + 4)(x 5) (vi) (x + )(4x ) (vii) (x + 5)(x 5) (viii) (x ) (ix) (x + a) (x) (x 1) (i) (a) f() = 7 (b) f(0) = 9 (c) f ( 1 ) = 6 1 (d) f( 1) = 11 (ii) (a) g() = 0 so x is a factor, the other factor being x + 1; (b) no, it is not a factor since h() =

11 7.4: (i) x = 1, (ii) x = 1 1, 1 (iii) x = 1+ 5, 1 5 (iv) t = 5+ 17, : (i) (iii) 5 (v) 5 5 (vii) (ii) 4 (iv) (vi) 7 7.6: (i) x = , 1 10 (ii) w = 4+ 7, : (i) 6x 5x + 6 (ii) (x + )(5x 4) (iii) (a) 1 (b) 7 1 (iv) If g(x) = x x 6, then g() = ( 0) so x is not a factor of g(x) (v) (vi) (a) x =, (b) x = 4± 10 (c) x = 1, 1 (a repeated solution as 4x 4x + 1 = (x 1), i.e. a square.) 7 11

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