The Tissue Level of Organization

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1 Essentials of Anatomy & Physiology, 4th Edition Martini / Bartholomew The Tissue Level of Organization PowerPoint Lecture Outlines prepared by Alan Magid, Duke University Slides 1 to 64

2 Overview of Tissue Science Histology The study of tissues Four Basic Tissue Types Epithelial Connective Muscular Neural

3 Overview of Tissue Science Key Note Tissues are collections of cells and extracellular material that perform a specific but limited range of functions.the four tissue types, in varying combinations, form all of the structures of the human body.

4 Overview of Tissue Science An Orientation to the Tissues of the Body Figure 4-1

5 Epithelial Tissue Epithelium An avascular layer of cells that forms a barrier that covers internal or external surfaces Glands Secretory structures derived from epithelia

6 Epithelial Tissue Characteristics of Epithelia Cells closely packed Apical cells exposed to external or internal surface Cells attached to basement membrane Lack blood vessels Cells continually replaced

7 Epithelial Tissue Functions of Epithelia Physical protection Permeability control Sensation trigger Specialized secretions

8 Epithelial Tissue Two Classes of Glandular Secretion Exocrine secretion Secretion onto a body surface Endocrine secretion Secretion (of hormones) into neighboring tissues and blood

9 Epithelial Tissue Intercellular Connections Cell adhesion molecules Cell junctions Tight junctions Gap junctions Desmosomes

10 Epithelial Tissue Intercellular Connections Figure 4-2

11 Epithelial Tissue The Epithelial Surface Microvilli Abundant on transport cells Dramatically increase surface area Found in intestinal lining, kidney tubules Cilia Beat in coordinated fashion Move fluid along surface Found in airways, oviduct

12 Epithelial Tissue The Surfaces of Epithelial Cells Figure 4-3

13 Epithelial Tissue The Basement Membrane Noncellular meshwork anchors basal cells Underlies all epithelia Hemidesmosomes attach basal cells Resists passage of large molecules Strengthens against distortion

14 Epithelial Tissue Epithelial Renewal and Repair Exposure shortens cell life Epithelium needs constant repair and replacement Epithelial stem cells undergo mitosis Epithelium grows up from base

15 Epithelial Tissue Classifying Epithelia Number of layers Simple (one cell thick) Stratified (multiple cells thick) Cell shape Squamous (flat) Cuboidal (cubic) Columnar (tall columns)

16 Epithelial Tissue Table 4-1

17 Epithelial Tissue Simple Squamous Epithelium Figure 4-4(a)

18 Epithelial Tissue Simple Cuboidal Epithelium Figure 4-4(b)

19 Epithelial Tissue Simple Columnar Epithelium Figure 4-4(c)

20 Epithelial Tissue Pseudostratified Ciliated Columnar Figure 4-5(a)

21 Epithelial Tissue Transitional Epithelium Figure 4-5(b)

22 Epithelial Tissue Stratified Squamous Epithelium Figure 4-5(c)

23 Epithelial Tissue Glandular Epithelia Three secretion mechanisms Merocrine Exocytosis of vesicles Apocrine Release of apical cytoplasm Holocrine Burst of entire contents

24 Epithelial Tissue Mechanisms of Glandular Secretion PLAY Glandular Secretions Figure 4-6

25 Connective Tissues Connective Tissues Components Specialized cells Extracellular matrix Protein fibers Fluid phase (the ground substance)

26 Connective Tissues Functions Structural framework Fluid and solute transport Physical protection Tissue interconnection Fat storage Microorganism defense

27 Connective Tissues Classifying Connective Tissues Connective tissue proper Fluid connective tissues Supporting connective tissues

28 Connective Tissues Major Types of Connective Tissue Figure 4-7

29 Connective Tissues Connective tissue proper Contains varied cell populations and fiber types surrounded by a syrupy ground substance

30 Connective Tissues Connective Tissue Proper Resident and migrating cells Fibroblasts Macrophages Fat cells Mast cells Other white cells

31 Connective Tissues Connective Tissue Proper Protein fibers Collagen fibers Provides toughness Reticular fibers Supports cells Elastic fibers Provides resilience

32 Connective Tissues Cells and Fibers of Connective Tissue Proper Figure 4-8

33 Connective Tissues Connective Tissue Proper Three types Loose connective tissue Example: beneath dermis of skin Adipose tissue Example: love handles Dense connective tissue Examples: dermis, tendons, ligaments

34 Connective Tissues Loose Connective Tissue Figure 4-9(a)

35 Connective Tissues Adipose Tissue Figure 4-9(b)

36 Connective Tissues Dense Connective Tissues Figure 4-9(c)

37 Connective Tissues Fluid Connective Tissues Cells + a liquid ground substance Blood RBCs, WBCs, platelets + plasma Lymph Lymphocytes + lymph fluid

38 Connective Tissues Supporting Connective Tissue Support the body Bone (osseous tissue) Osteocytes + collagen + calcium salts Cartilage Chondrocytes + firm gel

39 Connective Tissues Supporting Connective Tissue Cartilage Avascular Covered by a fibrous perichondrium Three types of cartilage Hyaline cartilage Elastic cartilage Fibrocartilage

40 Connective Tissues Hyaline Cartilage Figure 4-10(a)

41 Connective Tissues Elastic Cartilage Figure 4-10(b)

42 Connective Tissues Fibrocartilage Figure 4-10(c)

43 Connective Tissues Bone (Osseous Tissue) Matrix provides unique properties Collagen fibers resist bending Calcium salts resist compression Diffusion through canaliculi nourishes osteocytes Covered by periosteum

44 Connective Tissues Bone Figure 4-11

45 Membranes Properties of Membranes Barrier or interface Cover and protect An epithelium plus connective tissue Four types of membranes

46 Membranes Types of Membranes Mucous Lines cavities that connect to exterior Mucus moistens surface Examples: oral cavity, airways Serous Line internal cavities Watery fluid moistens surface Example: peritoneal membrane

47 Membranes Types of Membranes (continued) Cutaneous Covers body surface Dry surface waterproofs the body Example: the skin Synovial Lines joints Secretes slippery synovial fluid Lubricates joints Examples: knee, elbow

48 Membranes Membranes Figure 4-12

49 Muscle Tissue Properties of Muscle Tissue Capable of contraction Actin filaments Myosin filaments Three types of muscle tissue Skeletal muscle Cardiac muscle Smooth muscle

50 Muscle Tissue Skeletal Muscle Tissue Contains elongated cells (fibers) Fibers tied together by loose connective tissue Possesses microscopic striations Contains many nuclei Controlled by voluntary nervous system Moves and stabilizes the skeleton

51 Muscle Tissue Skeletal Muscle Tissue Figure 4-13(a)

52 Muscle Tissue Cardiac Muscle Tissue Only in heart Short, branched fibers Single nucleus Striated Involuntary contraction Blood circulation Blood pressure

53 Muscle Tissue Cardiac Muscle Tissue Figure 4-13(b)

54 Muscle Tissue Smooth Muscle Tissue Short, tapering cells No striations Involuntary contraction Blood vessels Urinary bladder Digestive organs Uterus

55 Muscle Tissue Smooth Muscle Tissue Figure 4-13(c)

56 Neural Tissue Properties of Neural Tissue Conduct electrical impulses Transfer, process, and store information Comprises neurons and neuroglia

57 Neural Tissue Neurons Dendrites Information entry Cell body Information integration Axon (nerve fibers) Information transmission Synaptic terminals Information transfer

58 Neural Tissue Neuroglia Several types of neuroglia Provide physical support Maintain extracellular chemistry Supply nutrients Defend against infection

59 Neural Tissue Neural Tissue Figure 4-14

60 Tissue Injuries and Repair An injury harms multiple tissues simultaneously Tissues make coordinated response Responses restore homeostasis Two response types Inflammation Restoration

61 Tissue Injuries and Repair Inflammation Isolation of injured area Cleanup of damaged tissue Four signs of inflammation Warmth Redness Swelling Pain

62 Tissue Injuries and Repair Regeneration Repair/replacement of damaged tissue Restoration of tissue function Scar tissue from fibroblast activity Complete, partial, or no regeneration Tissue fibrosis common outcome

63 Tissues and Aging Tissues Change with Age Healing slows Epithelia become thinner Connective tissues become more fragile Bones weaken, become brittle Neuron and muscle fiber losses accumulate Lifestyle interventions slow decline

64 Tissues and Aging Aging and Cancer Incidence 25% develop cancer Cancer risk rises with age After heart disease, cancer second leading cause of death Smoking linked to 40% of cancers 75% caused by environment

65 Tissue Regeneration!!

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