Background Before The Age of Exploration. Background Before Background Before Why Not Italy? Portuguese Exploration.

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1 Background Before 1450 The Age of Exploration Pacific Ocean Malaysian Sailors explore and settle areas in the Western Pacific (New Guinea, Melanesia) Polynesian Sailors explore and settle areas in the Eastern Pacific (Fiji, Samoa, New Zealand, Hawaii) Map on p. 420 in the textbook Background Before 1450 Indian Ocean Muslim, African, and Malaysian Sailors explore, settle and trade with areas such as Madagascar and the Western Coast of Africa Zheng He and the Ming Dynasty voyages are also included here Map on p. 420 in the textbook Background Before 1450 Atlantic Ocean Much more dangerous than the Indian Ocean (no coastline) Vikings (from Europe) settle Greenland, Iceland and Newfoundland (aka Vinland) Some Western African sailors try to sail around the tip to the Indian Ocean (most unsuccessful) South American Indian groups sail North Map on p. 424 in the textbook Why Not Italy? Iberian Kingdoms (Spain and Portugal) take the lead in European expansion westward More ambitious Italians still rely on trade with Muslim nations Iberians don t care to trade with Muslims since they had been ruling over them Italian ships made for the Mediterranean instead of the Atlantic Portuguese Exploration Focused on Africa Why look to Africa?? Prince Henry the Navigator Not really a navigator, but spent many resources towards exploration Magnetic Compass and Astrolabe Caravel & Lateen Sail Small, agile, powerful 1

2 Portuguese Exploration Bartolomeu Dias First to make it around the southern tip of Africa Vasco da Gama Sailed around Africa and reached India Spanish Exploration Late to the Party Busy getting rid of the rest of the Muslims, putting the country back together, and dispensing with other religious minorities Some guy named Columbus, who isn t even Spanish Truly believed he had reached the Indies (even on the second voyage) until da Gama reached India and proved him wrong Christopher Columbus Spanish Exploration Why America and not Columbia?? Amerigo Vespucci sailed for Spain and Portugal not longer after Columbus 2

3 Treaty of Tordesillas Divided the world between Portugal and Spain Negotiated by the Pope Ferdinand Magellan First to circumnavigate the world Helped to determine the accuracy/fairness of the Treaty of Tordesillas Sailed for SPAIN This is how Spain colonized the Philippines Voyage of Magellan West Africa and Portugal Benin Good trading partner for Portugal Unable to convert Benin rulers to Christianity Kongo (on the Congo River) Bad trading partner for Portugal (less goods available) Easy to convert to Christianity Portuguese figure sculpted by Edo Peoples in Benin Missionary arriving in the kingdom of Kongo East Africa Many eastern African nations viewed Portuguese mariners/merchants with suspicious (unlike western African nations who welcomed the trading opportunity) Ethiopia Previously converted to Christianity and needed a Christian ally to fight with them against the Turks Also going broke and needed a bail out plan Portugal did not come running to their aid Eventually, Portugal did help out the nation, but no permanent alliance b/c they would not turn to Pope in Rome 3

4 Indian Ocean Christopher da Gama aiding Ethiopia against the Turks Portuguese 16th century castle in Ethiopia Portugal s goal was to monopolized the Indian Ocean as their territory (per the Treaty of Tordesillas) At first, the Portuguese were literally laughed at, but began to be taken seriously in later contacts Reactions varied from Eastern Africa to India to China Maintained oceanic control, not land different results than in the New World Straight from the book: In the Americas the Spanish established a vast TERRITORIAL empire, in contrast to the TRADING empires the Portuguese created in Africa and Asia. p. 435 Reactions from the Amerindians were VERY different from those of the peoples in Africa and Asia. Why? ISOLATION Columbus in Hispaniola Arawak Indians First meeting saw gold resources, Arawak not interested in trade Second meeting brings settlers and missionaries let the plundering and conquering begin 4

5 Cortes and the Aztecs Moctezuma sends messengers to see what the Spanish were friend or foe Spanish aided by other native groups conquered by the Aztecs, small pox, cavalry and steel swords Moctezuma captured quickly, capital falls within a year of Spanish contact Moving on to the Inca Empire Just kidding fall of Tenochtitlan We come in peace Cortes meets Moctezuma Pizarro and the Incas Conquers Atahualpa, the Inca leader, in an arranged meeting (these guys were sneaky) Atahualpa tries to bargain with gold, emeralds and other riches He gets a choice of being burned at the stake or being baptized and strangled he converted Cuzco conquered in 1533, Incas done in 1536 Three Reasons the New World Suffers More from European Expansion Amerindian isolation from the rest of the world Spanish military superiority (and resources) Had just finished (re)conquering Granada from the Muslims 5

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