Evaluation of attitudes of individuals towards leisure time activities in different cultures: Ankara-London case

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1 International Journal of Sport Studies. Vol., 4 (2), , 2014 Available online at http: ISSN ; Science and Research Publications Evaluation of attitudes of individuals towards leisure time activities in different cultures: Ankara-London case BEYZA M. AKGÜL *, İ. FATİH YENEL Gazi University School of Physical Education and Sports * Corresponding author, Abstract The purpose of this study is to investigate attitudes towards leisure activities in different cultures as the example of London and Ankara. 1 volunteer state university students who have studied in London and 462 volunteer state university students who have studied in Ankara, totally 683 students, were participated to the study. 631 participants were accepted to the study (Ankara 427 students, London 207 students). First part of the data colection instrument consisted of demographic variables. As a second part, Leisure Attitude Scale (LAS) was employed to gather the data after conducting validity and reliability study of LAS in the coverage of this study. Descriptive statistics, multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVA), analysis of variance (ANOVA) were conducted to analyze the data. The findings suggest that although there is a significant relationship between leisure attitudes of participants in Ankara and gender, there is no significant difference about age, income and belief. On the other hand, there is a significant relationship between leisure attitudes of participants in London and age; and there is no significant difference about gender, income and belief. Key Words: Attitude, Leisure Time, Leisure Attitude Introduction Today attitudes of individuals show specific changes and developments throughout the world. In other words, factors such as increase of urbanization rate, development of technology day by day and the effect of mass communication tools make changes in attitudes of individuals. Attitude is generally attributed to an individual and defined as a tendency which regularly forms his thoughts, emotions and behaviors about a psychological object (Kağıtçıbaşı et al., 2010). These tendencies are products of the society he is included and his own socio-cultural environment. People can display similar attitudes with other people by adapting to this environment. The subject of attitude can be anything (concrete-abstract) and also can be leisure time (İnceoğlu, 2000). Attitudes of individuals towards leisure time is quite important both for developed and developing countries. Since attitude, which is an invisible concept, causes specific visible behaviors, leisure time attitude of individuals can be understood as a result of observing these behaviors. This situation emerges in different ways in different countries, because people reflect the rules, beliefs and values of culture they are affiliated to their attitudes and behaviors. In developed countries, people become more and more interested in having more qualified way of living as the level of economic welfare increases. According to the results of 2002 General Household Research carried out in England which is a developed country, it is seen that individuals participate in various physical, cultural-artistic activities and it can be said that individuals have an active recreational life (Turkish Statistics Institution, 2011). When data of Turkey Statistics Institution (TÜİK) are considered, it can be understood that people living in Turkey generally have passive recreational life (Turkish Statistics Institution, 2011). 137

2 In fact being born in the same period which can be regarded as homogeneous culture and in spite of social status difference, leisure time attitudes can show both specific similarities and differences in different cultures in the perspective of youth which is asserted to share specific common experiences (Şahin, 2007). From this frame, the aim of study is to analyze attitude of individuals in different cultures towards leisure time activities through England/London and Turkey/Ankara cases. Materials and methods In this study which analyzes attitude of individuals, receiving education in London and Ankara, towards leisure time; a descriptive and scanning method was applied and the study was formed in two stages. In order to compose theoretical frame about the subject, available information about the target was given systematically through literature review in the first stage of study. In the practice stage which is the second of study, survey developed according to reach the aim was applied on sample group. Universe and Sample The universe of this study is composed of university students who have education in London and Ankara state universities in Academic year. The research study is composed of 1 volunteer university students having education in London and 462 volunteer university students having education in London. The number of total participants is 683 students. Data Collection Tools Data collection tool used in the study is composed of 2 sections. In the first section of data collection tools, there are statements to determine demographic information of participants included in the research group. In the second section; Leisure Attitude Scale: LAS (Akgül and Gürbüz, 1010) which was developed (Ragheb and Beard, 1982) and translated into Turkish by Akgül and Gürbüz was used in order to measure attitude of university students at London and Ankara towards leisure time. Results Findings of Leisure Attitude Scale Sub-dimensions about Variables of Gender, Age, Income Status and Belief Effect according Ankara and London participants in Ankara according to gender variable are given in Table 1. Table 1: Average and Standard Deviation Values and ANOVA Results of Ankara LAS Scores according to gender variable Gender N x ss Sd F p Cognitive Female ** Male Affective Female Male Behavioral Female Male **p<.01 MANOVA results about scores obtained from Leisure Attitude Scale sub-dimensions put forward that participants in Ankara display meaningful difference in the sense of LAS sub-dimensions according to gender [Wilks Lambda (Λ)=0.956, F (3-397) =6.162, p<.01]. This finding shows that scores that can be obtained from linear components formed of scores obtained from LAS sub-dimensions vary according to gender. According to average and standard deviation values about three factors of scale and one-way ANOVA results on factor basis according to gender. while there is statistically meaningful difference in LAS cognitive sub-dimension scores of participants according to gender [F (1-401) = , p<.01]; there is no statistically meaningful difference in LAS 138

3 affective [F (1-401) =2.188, p>.05] and behavioral [F (1-401) = 1.210, p>.05] sub-dimension scores of participants according to gender. participants in London according to gender variable are given in Table 2. Table 2: Average and Standard Deviation Values and ANOVA Results of London LAS Scores according to gender variable Gender N x ss Sd F p Cognitive Female Male Affective Female Male Behavioral Female Male MANOVA results about scores obtained from Leisure Attitude Scale sub-dimensions put forward that. participants in London do not display meaningful difference in the sense of LAS sub-dimensions according to gender [Wilks Lambda (Λ)=0.980, F (3-200) =1.327, p>.05]. This finding shows that scores that can be obtained from linear components formed of scores obtained from LAS sub-dimensions do not vary according to gender. As it is seen in the table above, according to average and standard deviation values about three factors of scale and one-way ANOVA results on factor basis according to gender, there is no statistically meaningful difference in LAS cognitive [F (1-204) =.009, p>.01]. Affective [F (1-204) =.007,p>.05] and behavioral [F (1-204) = 1.253, p>.05] sub-dimension scores of participants according to gender. participants in Ankara according to age variable are given in Table 3. Table 3: Average and Standard Deviation Values and ANOVA Results of Ankara LAS Scores according to age variable Age N x ss Sd F p Cognitive Above Affective Above Behavioral Above MANOVA results about scores obtained from Leisure Attitude Scale sub-dimensions put forward that. participants in Ankara do not display meaningful difference in the sense of LAS sub-dimensions according to age [Wilks Lambda (Λ)=0.996, F (3-397) =.561, p>.05]. This finding shows that scores that can be obtained from linear components formed of scores obtained from LAS sub-dimensions do not vary according to age. Average and standard deviation values about three factors of scale and one-way ANOVA results on factor basis according to age are given in Table 13. According to this. there is no statistically meaningful difference in LAS cognitive [F (1-401) =.102, p>.01]. affective [F (1-401) =.066, p>.05] and behavioral [F (1-401) =.679, p>.05] subdimension scores of participants according to age. participants in London according to age variable are given in Table

4 Table 4: Average and Standard Deviation Values and ANOVA Results of London LAS Scores according to age variable Age N x ss Sd F p Cognitive ** Above Affective Above Behavioral Above **p<. 01 MANOVA results about scores obtained from Leisure Attitude Scale sub-dimensions put forward that. participants in London display meaningful difference in the sense of LAS sub-dimensions according to age [Wilks Lambda (Λ)=0.938, F (3-200) = 4.417, p<.01]. This finding shows that scores that can be obtained from linear components formed of scores obtained from LAS sub-dimensions vary according to age. Average and standard deviation values about three factors of scale and one-way ANOVA results on factor basis according to age are given in Table 14. According to this, while there is statistically meaningful difference in LAS cognitive sub-dimension scores of participants according to age [F (1-204) = p<.01]; there is no statistically meaningful difference in LAS affective [F (1-401) =2.999, p>.05] and behavioral [F (1-204) =.121, p>.05] sub-dimension scores of participants according to age. participants in Ankara according to income status variable are given in Table 5. Table 5: Average and Standard Deviation Values and ANOVA Results of Ankara LAS Scores according to income status variable Income Status N X Ss Sd F p Cognitive Bad Normal Good Affective Bad Normal Good Behavioral Bad Normal Good MANOVA results about scores obtained from Leisure Attitude Scale sub-dimensions put forward that, participants in Ankara do not display meaningful difference in the sense of LAS sub-dimensions according to income status [Wilks Lambda (Λ)=0.978.,F (9-1518) =1.487, p>.05]. This finding shows that scores that can be obtained from linear components formed of scores obtained from LAS sub-dimensions do not vary according to income status. Average and standard deviation values about three factors of scale and one-way ANOVA results on factor basis according to income status are given in Table 15. According to this, there is no statistically meaningful difference in LAS cognitive [F (1-401) =.567. p>.05], affective [F (1-401) = 1.436, p>.05] and behavioral [F (1-401) =.596, p>.05] sub-dimension scores of participants according to income status. 140

5 participants in London according to income status variable are given in Table 6. Table 6: Average and Standard Deviation Values and ANOVA Results of London LAS Scores according to income status variable Income Status N x Ss Sd F p Cognitive Bad Normal Good Affective Bad Normal Good Behavioral Bad Normal Good MANOVA results about scores obtained from Leisure Attitude Scale sub-dimensions put forward that, participants in London do not display meaningful difference in the sense of LAS sub-dimensions according to income status [Wilks Lambda (Λ)= F (9-1518) =1.499, p>.05]. This finding shows that scores that can be obtained from linear components formed of scores obtained from LAS sub-dimensions do not vary according to income status. Average and standard deviation values about three factors of scale and one-way ANOVA results on factor basis according to income status are given in Table 16. According to this, there is no statistically meaningful difference in LAS cognitive [F (1-201) =.249, p>.05], affective [F (1-201) =.096. p>.05] and behavioral [F (1-201) = 2.612, p>.05] sub-dimension scores of participants according to income status. participants in Ankara according to belief effect variable are given in Table 7. Table 7: Average and Standard Deviation Values and ANOVA Results according to belief effect variable Living Place N x ss Sd F p Cognitive Yes ** No Partly Affective Yes No Partly Behavioral Yes No Partly **p<.01 MANOVA results about scores obtained from Leisure Attitude Scale sub-dimensions put forward that. participants in Ankara do not display meaningful difference in the sense of LAS sub-dimensions according to belief effect [Wilks Lambda (Λ)=0.973, F (6-792) =1.809, p>.05]. This finding shows that scores that can be obtained from linear components formed of scores obtained from LAS sub-dimensions do not vary according to belief effect. Average and standard deviation values about three factors of scale and one-way ANOVA results on factor basis according to belief effect are given in Table 21. According to this, while there is statistically meaningful difference in LAS cognitive sub-dimension scores of participants according to belief effect [F (1-401) = 4.892, p<.01]; there is no statistically meaningful difference in LAS affective [F (1-401) = 1.290, p>.05] and behavioral [F (1-401) =.781, p>.05] sub-dimension scores of participants according to belief effect. 141

6 participants in London according to belief effect variable are given in Table 8. Table 8: Average and Standard Deviation Values and ANOVA Results according to Belief Effect Variable Living Place N x Ss Sd F p Cognitive Yes No Partly Affective Yes No Partly Behavioral Yes No Partly MANOVA results about scores obtained from Leisure Attitude Scale sub-dimensions put forward that, participants in London do not display meaningful difference in the sense of LAS sub-dimensions according to belief effect [Wilks Lambda (Λ)= F (6-396) =1.446, p>.05]. This finding shows that scores that can be obtained from linear components formed of scores obtained from LAS sub-dimensions do not vary according to belief effect. Average and standard deviation values about three factors of scale and one-way ANOVA results on factor basis according to belief effect are given in Table. According to this, there is no statistically meaningful difference in LAS cognitive [F (1-203) = 2.411, p<.01], affective [F (1-203) = 2.423, p>.05] and behavioral [F (1-203) =.699, p>.05] sub-dimension scores of participants. Discussion and Conclusion Leisure attitude generally varies according to the gender of individuals in Ankara (Table 1). In addition to this, it does not vary according to the gender of individuals in London (Table 2). In other words, while being female or male does not make any change in leisure attitude of individuals in London, it is seen that the situation is contrary in Ankara. Moreover, it can be said that leisure attitude of male individuals in Ankara ( X =141, 25±17, 31) is more positive than female individuals ( X =139.29±19.39). This situation can be interpreted as that although roles of females and males are separated with customs in traditional societies such as Turkey, gender difference reflect less on attitude and behavior of people in modern societies such as England. Reflection of these attitudes on behaviors towards leisure time may result from female-male difference (Kaya, 2003). For example; since some activities require more physical activity, females and males have different socialization experience, women are generally in traditional home-centered position and have lower socio-economic status can be reason of this difference (Wilson, 1980). On the other hand, when Leisure Attitude Scale sub-dimensions are considered according to gender of individuals in Ankara, while there is a difference in cognitive sub-dimension, there is no difference in affective and behavioral sub-dimensions. When Leisure Attitude Scale sub-dimensions are considered according to gender of individuals in London, there is no difference in any of the three sub-dimensions. In the study of Deng et al. which compares leisure attitude of the Chinese living in Canada and the English living in Canada, parallel to this finding, there is no difference in three sub-dimensions of leisure attitude of the Chinese and English (Chung and Philips, 2002). Chung and Philips have found significant differences in leisure attitude of highschool students in Taiwan and America. According to this, American students have higher level of leisure attitude than Taiwanese students (Deng et al., 2005). There are some studies which are parallel to our study but not directly include attitude towards leisure time. According to the result of study of Stelzer et al. about attitude of high-school students in Austria Chezch Republic England and America towards physical education; there is no difference between female and male students attitude towards physical education in England (Stelzer et al., 2004). On the other hand, in the study of Taeho in which international college students attitude towards physical activity is analyzed in United States of America, it is stated that there are significant differences according to gender variable. Moreover, it was also emphasized that campus recreation programs which students would like and understand are very important for attitude of students from different nations should be positive towards physical activities in both genders (Taeho, 2009). 142

7 Leisure attitude do not vary generally according to the ages of individuals in Ankara (Table 13). In addition to this, there are specific differences in leisure attitude of individuals according to age (Table 14). In other words, while there is no difference in leisure attitude of individuals at and above years old age in Ankara, leisure attitude in London varies according to age. In addition when Leisure Attitude Scale subdimensions are considered according to age of individuals in London, while there is a difference in cognitive sub-dimension there is no difference in affective and behavioral sub-dimensions and attitude of students at and above years old according to cognitive sub-dimension is more positive than students between ( X =51,42, X =48,66). According to the statements of (Green et al., 2005) in England by developing physical education programs including various activities, students are provided with evaluation choices of leisure time which they would participate throughout their life. As a result, students learn more activities as they get older and in the future they have habit of spending leisure time (Green et al., 2005). In this way, it can be said that the attitude of students towards leisure time increase in positive way as they get older. Similarly, in the study in which (Cheng et al., 2011) compared participation of university students in 6 different countries into recreational sport; they stated that participation in recreational sport varies according to age. According to (University Youth, 2001) Research, when leisure evaluation of university students in Turkey is considered it can be said that more than 53% spend time with entertainment type activities. In this way, it can be said that the way of spending leisure time among students in Turkey does not vary significantly and therefore leisure time attitude does not vary according to age. The effect of income status does not make any change on attitude of individuals both in London and in Ankara (Table 15 and Table 16). In other words, leisure attitude of students does not change according to income status at three sub-dimensions. A study states that students can live off with the income they obtain and income requirement rate of students is balanced with current monthly income (Güngör et al., 2007). In other words it can be said that the reason of income having no change in leisure attitude is the attitude of students towards income is in this direction. In the study about Leisure Time Behavior Profiles of Turkish Society carried out by Karaküçük et al., 35,6% of participation have TL monthly income and 58.8% regard this income level as normal considering general welfare level of people in the society (Karaküçük et al., 2008). Regarding income status as normal can be the reason that income effect has no change in leisure attitude of individuals. In addition, the lowest score is in behavioral sub-dimension according to income status variable in both cities (London X = 126, 12; Ankara X =130, 32). Contrary to these findings, while Deng et al. pointed out no significant difference in cognitive and affective sub-dimension of leisure attitude in the sense of income, they have emphasized that income is quite important at behavioral sub-dimension. Similarly, Karaküçük et al. stated that parallel to increase in income status people have less difficulty in making use of leisure time. It was determined that leisure attitude of individuals in Ankarar does not vary according to belief variable generally (Table 21). In addition to this, there was a difference in cognitive sub-dimension of leisure attitude. In London it was found out that sub-dimensions of leisure attitude do not change according to belief effect (Table ). Attitudes are hidden behind specific value judgments and beliefs. However they are shaped as behavior and act styles against life cases. They exist as the belief and value judgments they are based on sustains. Beliefs are regarded to be under special dynamic pressures as they are more included in attitude structure. Even a belief may lose its characteristics or change within a specific attitude; because beliefs are kept under the pressure with external environmental effects and this may cause them change (Eren, 2001). That is to say, leisure attitude of the youth may not be influenced by belief variable in general sense based on the effect of environmental effects. Parallel to this situation, according to a study of Demir, when the factor effecting participation into leisure activity of university students and effect degree of these factor on leisure time choices, it was stated that belief effect in the last ranks (in 43 rd rank among 45 factors) in recent years (Demir et al., 2011). In this research in which leisure attitude of university students living in London and Ankara was analyzed; it was determined that leisure attitude shows specific differences according to gender, age, income status and belief effect variables in London and Ankara. However, according to the findings of study, it was observed that gender and age variable show more significant difference compared to other variables. According to this; while LAS sub-dimensions and cognitive sub-dimension of participants in Ankara vary significantly in general sense according to gender, LAS sub-dimensions of participants in London do not vary significantly according to gender. In spite of this; while LAS sub-dimensions and cognitive sub-dimension of participants in London vary significantly in general sense according to age, LAS sub-dimensions of participants in Ankara do not vary significantly according to age. This research may assist universities and various institutions working on this field. Moreover; similar studies can be conducted in comparison with other developed countries and/or other countries and repeated again in order have idea about leisure and recreational life of teenagers and other sections (elders, working class etc.) in Turkey within world scale. Researches can especially be carried out in various subjects (gender, income, age etc.) and tried to be analyzed in details. 143

8 References Akgül B.M, Gürbüz B, Leisure Attitude Scale: Validity and Reliability Study. 11 th International Sport Sciences Congress; Antalya. Cheng P, Hashem K.A, Comparative Study on Recreational Sports Participation Among the University Students [online]. Available from: URL: Chung M.H, Philips D.A, The Relationship between Attitude toward Physical Education and Leisure Time Exercise in High School Students. Physical Educator; 59 (3): Demir C, Demir N, The Relation between Factors Effecting Participation of Individuals into Leisure Time Activities and Gender: A Practice Based on Undergraduate Students. Electronic address: Deng J, Walker G, Swinnerton G, Leisure Attitudes: A Comparison between Chinese in Canada and Anglo-Canadians. Leisure/Loisir; 29 (2): Eren E, Organizational Behavior and Management Psychology. 7. Edition. İstanbul: Beta Publication Distribution. Gazi University, University Youth Ankara: Gazi University Communication Faculty Press. Green K, Smith A, Roberts K, Young People and lifelong participation in sport and physical activity: a sociological perspective on contemporary physical education programmes in England and Wales. Leisure Studies; 24 (1): Güngör N, Yaşın C, Gazi University Research of Student Profiles. Ankara: Gazi University Communication Faculty Press. İnceoğlu M, Attitude Perception Communication. 3. Publication. Ankara: İmage Publisher. Kağıtçıbaşı Ç, Person and People Today. 12. Publication. İstanbul: Evrim Publisher. Karaküçük S, Yenel F, Gürbüz B, Özdemir S, Demirel M, Sarol H, Karaküçük (Akgül) BM, Leisure Behavior Profiles of Turkish Society and Hindrances in Participating into Recreational Activities. Ankara Case, Ankara: Gazi University. Kaya S, The effect of Leisure Evaluation Tendency and Activities of the Young in Orphanage on Socialization. Doctorate Thesis. Ankara: Gazi University Institute of Health Sciences. Ragheb M.G, Beard J.G, Measuring Leisure Attitude. Journal of Leisure Research 1982; 14 (2): Şahin M.C, Sociological appearance of Youth Mood differentiating from Industrial Society to Post- Industrial Society. Journal of Social Sciences Researches; 2: Stelzer J, Ernest J, Fenster M.J, Langford G, Attitudes toward Physical Education: A Study of Highschool Students from Four Countries- Austria, Czech republic, England and USA. College Student Journal; 38 (2): Taeho Y, Motivational Attitudes Toward Participating in Physical Activity among International Students Attending Colleges in the United States. College Student Journal; 43 (3): Turkish Statistics Institution, Cinema, Movies Played and Number of Audiences [internet]. Electronic address: Turkish Statistics Institution, The Number of Hall, Seat, Play, Display and Audience in Cities having Opera and Ballroom [internet]. Electronic address: Wilson J, Sociology of Leisure. A Review of Sociology; 6:

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