Using Ellipsoid as Vertical Reference for Seabed Mapping

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1 Using Ellipsoid as Vertical Reference for Seabed Mapping Why? How? Hanne Hodnesdal, Herman Iversen, Birgit K. Lynge, Lars K. Nesheim, Arne E. Ofstad, Stig Øvstedal Presented by Noralf Slotsvik, Norwegian Hydrographic Service (NHS)

2 A definition A specialist is a person far away from home

3 Using Ellipsoid as Vertical Reference for Seabed Mapping v GPS antenna Echo sounder Sea level Mean sea Surface (MSS) D MSS D H Z 0 Ellipsoide =H-D ES -v D ES Chart datum (CD) D K0 MSSH D = D K0 MSS -Z 0 Seabed D MSS =MSSH-D Ellip. D Ellipsoide Ellipsoide

4 The other alternative: Seabed mapping with water level data draught Sea level Echo Sounder Water Level (WL) Depth ES Chart Datum (CD) Depth CD Seabed Depth CD = Depth ES + draught - WL CD

5 Water level at the time of seabed mapping must be removed from the depth data Methods to obtain water level data: Permanent tide gauge possibly combined with tide zone Temporary tide gauge associated with a permanent tide gauge to get the relation to mean sea level Predicted tide (based on tide models) Use GPS to measure water level with ellipsoid as reference

6 Permanent tide gauges operated by NHS 22 gauges along the coast of Norway og one gauge on Svalbard ] Rørvik ] Tromsø Heimsjø Kristiansund Ålesund Måløy Rørvik Andenes Kabelvåg Bodø Trondheim Honningsvåg Hammerfest Tromsø Harstad Narvik Vardø Vardø Bergen Bergen Stavanger Stavanger Oslo Oscarsborg Helgeroa Viker Tregde Oslo

7 Tidal zones: Almost equal tide within a zone Range factor Time delay Tromsø Hammerfest 1,0-25 0, , , ,99-5 0, ,99 5 0,99 0 0, , ,98 10 HAMMERFEST

8 Range factor and time delay from Hammerfest 72 o N (Høgde- og tidskorreksjon fra Hammerfest) (Range factor, time delay) 30' (0.80, -10 min) (0.83, -20 min) o N (0.92, -5 min) (0.92, -15 min) Hammerfest 30' N 8 o 25

9 What we need for using the ellipsoid as vertical reference for seabed mapping? (1 of 2) Mandatory: Vertical position of high quality High quality GPS-receiver Software for post processing of GPS-data (Terrapos) Continuous logging of GPS-data The position of the GPS-receiver must be known in the coordinate system of the vessel The motion of the vessel must be known (attitude data: heave, roll, pitch and heading)

10 What we need for using the ellipsoid as vertical reference for seabed mapping? (2 of 2) Not mandatory: If we want to convert to mean sea level we must know the difference between mean sea level and the ellipsoid. MSS (Mean Sea Surface) models can be used. If we want to convert to Chart Datum (CD) we must know the difference between Chart Datum and mean sea level. Along the Norwegian coast the Chart Datum is equal to LAT (lowest astronomical tide) with a few exceptions. Tide models can be used to estimate LAT at high sea.

11 Accuracy achievable today (95%) Vertical position GNSS height: δgnss = 8 cm Surface models MSS: δmss = 10 cm (high sea) δmss =? cm (coast) LAT: δlat = 30 cm (high sea) δlat = 10 cm (coast) Accuracy is improving In a complete error budget all error sources must be included (echo sounder, sound velocity profile, attitude data, horizontal positioning,...)

12 Advantages and disadvantages Advantages: Water level measurements are not needed Knowledge of the draught is not needed Do not have to consider different tidal zones Less possibility of mismatch in overlapping survey areas by using a consistent reference GPS measured low frequency waves not measured by the heave sensor (GPS measures heave better than the heave sensor?)... Disadvantages High quality vertical position is needed The position of the GPS-antenna relative to the echo sounder must be known Confusing: The ellipsoidal depth will not represent the true ocean depth MSS an LAT-models must be known to convert to mean sea level and and Chart Datum MSS- and LAT-models are continuously improving (version control is necessary)...

13 Seabed mapping at high seas and close to the coast At high seas it is favourable to use the ellipsoid as reference: 1. Difficult to get good water level data at high seas 2. There are good MSS-models covering these areas (except for high latitude and areas with sea ice) 3. It does not matter that the LAT-surface is of less quality at high seas since the requirements for depth accuracy in navigational charts are weak at high seas. NHS can still not use the ellipsoid as reference close to the coast: 1. MSS-models are still of poor quality 2. The requirements for depth accuracy in navigational charts are stringent Still it is attractive in the future to use the ellipsoid close to the coast as well

14 Using ellipsoid as vertical reference How it has been done at NHS so far Existing production line has been used Water level (based on permanent tide gauge in Hammerfest) has been delivered continuously to the vessel GPS has been logged continuously (1 Hz) and post processed with Terrapos H GPS GPS-height has been used to make a file with water level data. WL GPS = H GPS - heave - MSS ( Chart Datum) GPS-water level (WL GPS ) has replaced former delivered water level before depth processing and quality control

15 GPS-water level Calculating GPS-water level WL GPS = H GPS - heave - MSS ( Chart Datum) The calculation is reversible. We store MSS and Chart Datum values GPS-water level contain rests of heave probably because the heave-sensor is not perfect (we want to carry out a test) Test 1: GPS-water level has been compared with traditional water level (Svalbard and Mareano project) Test 2: Depth-data has been processed with both GPS-water level and water level from tide gauge and then compared Test 3: Accuracy of H GPS has been tested

16 Seabed mapping on Svalbard July 2005 Comparing traditional method with seabed mapping with ellipsoid as reference Analysing: July-05 Ellipsoid as reference : KMS04 from Danish National Space Centre Traditional method : Permanent tide gauge in Ny- Ålesund Temporary tide gauge in Hornsund

17 Measured GPS height, 20 July 2005 GPS height with heave GPS height with heave removed 36 [m] :00 06:00 12:00 18:00 00:00 Time

18 Measured GPS height, 20 July 2005 GPS height with heave GPS height with heave removed 36 [m] :07 03:08 03:09 Time

19 GPS-water level and water level from temporary tide gauge 37 Measured GPS height, 20 July [m] 35 GPS height MSS 34 00:00 06:00 12:00 18:00 00: Mean of difference is 12.5 cm GPS height rel. MSS Water level, Hornsund [m] :00 06:00 12:00 18:00 00:00 Time

20 GPS-water level and water level from temporary tide gauge 36 Measured GPS height, 21 July [m] 34 GPS height MSS 33 00:00 06:00 12:00 18:00 00: Mean of difference is 15.5 cm GPS height rel. MSS Water level, Hornsund [m] :00 06:00 12:00 18:00 00:00 Time

21 Range factor and time delay from Hammerfest 72 o N (Høgde- og tidskorreksjon fra Hammerfest) (Range factor, time delay) 30' (0.80, -10 min) (0.83, -20 min) o N (0.92, -5 min) (0.92, -15 min) Hammerfest 30' N 8 o 25

22 Water level relative mean sea level 2.0 Hammerfest (no correction) Hammerfest (average secondary harbour corrections) Hammerfest (interpolated secondary harbour corrections) Water level from GPS /11/06 0:00 05/11/06 12:00 05/11/07 0:00 05/11/07 12:00 05/11/08 0:00

23 Water level relative mean sea level 2.0 Hammerfest (no correction) Hammerfest (average secondary harbour corrections) Hammerfest (interpolated secondary harbour corrections) Water level from GPS Filtered water level from GPS /11/06 0:00 05/11/06 12:00 05/11/07 0:00 05/11/07 12:00 05/11/08 0:00

24 2.0 Hammerfest (no correction) 1.0 Height [m] /11/06 0:00 05/11/06 12:00 05/11/07 0:00 05/11/07 12:00 05/11/08 0:00 Time [s]

25 2.0 Hammerfest (no correction) Hammerfest (average secondary harbour corrections) 1.0 Height [m] /11/06 0:00 05/11/06 12:00 05/11/07 0:00 05/11/07 12:00 05/11/08 0:00 Time [s]

26 2.0 Hammerfest (no correction) Hammerfest (average secondary harbour corrections) Hammerfest (interpolated secondary harbour corrections) 1.0 Height [m] /11/06 0:00 05/11/06 12:00 05/11/07 0:00 05/11/07 12:00 05/11/08 0:00 Time [s]

27 2.0 Hammerfest (no correction) Hammerfest (average secondary harbour corrections) Hammerfest (interpolated secondary harbour corrections) Water level from GPS 1.0 Height [m] /11/06 0:00 05/11/06 12:00 05/11/07 0:00 05/11/07 12:00 05/11/08 0:00 Time [s]

28 2.0 Hammerfest (no correction) Hammerfest (average secondary harbour corrections) Hammerfest (interpolated secondary harbour corrections) Water level from GPS Filtered water level from GPS 1.0 Height [m] /11/06 0:00 05/11/06 12:00 05/11/07 0:00 05/11/07 12:00 05/11/08 0:00 Time [s]

29 Tide gauge Ca 50 m 5-10 m depth, EM3000D GPS - heights

30 Tide gauge GPS - heights Ca 100 m 40 m depth, EM1002

31 Tide gauge GPS - heights Ca 50 m 40 m depth, EM1002

32 Further work at NHS Document the accuracy of GPS-height Test has been carried out Find out how to handle heave Can we use GPS-height to measure heave? Test? Document error sources in connection with traditional water level measurements Compare GPS-water level and traditional water level Consider and possibly implement changes in the production line Should depth data be stored relative to the ellipsoid, mean sea level or chart datum? Provide MSS and Chart Datum surfaces as well as a system for updating and version control

33 Conclusions To use the ellipsoid as vertical reference for seabed mapping is today a relevant method since the GPS-height has become more accurate. At high seas this method is especially favourable since it is difficult to provide reliable water level data There are MSS-models covering high seas. These can be used to convert from ellipsoid to mean sea level Tide models can be used to make Chart Datum surfaces. These can be used to convert from mean sea level to Chart Datum. GPS-height contain heave. When we subtract heave measured by the heave sensor we still observe rests of heave.

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