Colonial and Revolutionary Times

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1 8 th Grade TAKS Review Colonial and Revolutionary Times KEY Famous People: Thomas Jefferson George III Benjamin Franklin Samuel Adams Thomas Paine Who was the main author of the Declaration of Independence? Who was the King of England during the American Revolution? Who was an inventor, scientist, and a minister to France? Who was a leader of the Sons of Liberty and against British taxation? Who Wrote Common Sense supporting American independence from Great Britain? Famous Dates: 1776 In what year was the Declaration of Independence written? 1778 In what year was the U.S. Constitutional Convention held? 1607 In what year was the first permanent settlement English settlement at Jamestown founded? In what years was the American Civil War fought? 1803 In what year did the U.S. purchase the Louisiana Territory? Famous documents and Governments: Declaration of Independence Mayflower Compact Articles of Confederation Magna Carta English Bill of Rights House of Burgesses Fundamental Orders of Conn Famous Events: French and Indian War Lexington and Concord Yorktown Saratoga Paris Geography/Social/Economic: Mercantilism Shipbuilding, fishing, lumber Agriculture Slavery Freedom of Religion What was the document that declared the U.S. was an independent nation? What was the agreement in 1620 that established the concept of self government? What was the first Constitution of the United States? What was the document signed in 1215 which granted Englishmen basic human rights? What was the document passed in 1689 which guaranteed Englishmen certain individual rights? This was the first representative assembly in the Colonies. This was the first written constitution in the Colonies. What conflict caused the British to tax the colonists? What were the opening battles of the American Revolution? Which battle ended the American Revolution? Which battle was the turning point of the American Revolution because France joined the Americans? What treated ended the American Revolution? What was the economic system where a colony provided raw materials to England and served as a market for its finished products? (Colonies could only do business with England) What was the economy in the New England Colonies based on? What was the economy in the Southern Colonies based on? What is the buying and selling of humans for forced labor? What is the right to practice one s religious beliefs without interference from the government?

2 8 th Grade TAKS Review U.S. Constitution and the Bill of Rights Famous People: George Washington James Madison Alexander Hamilton Support Constitution Patrick Henry Famous Compromises: Great Compromise Three-fifths Compromise Senate House of Representatives Federalists Anti-Federalists Principles of the Constitution: Separation of Powers Republicanism Federalism Checks and Balances Limited Government Structure of Government: Legislative Executive Judicial Bill of Rights Unalienable Rights Bill of Rights Who was commander in chief of the Continental Army, president of the Constitutional Convention, and the first president of the U.S.? Who was known as the Father of the Constitution? Co-wrote The Federalist Papers with John Jay and James Madison. Why The Federalist Papers were written. Anti-Federalist from Virginia who opposed the ratification of Constitution. Was also known for a famous speech during the American Revolution. What compromise set up our present government? What was the compromise on how slaves would be counted for representation in Congress? Which House of Congress has two representatives for each state? Which House of Congress has the number of representatives based on a state s population? People who were for the Constitution. People who were against the Constitution. What principle divides the powers of government among the executive, legislative, and judicial branches? What principle says that people hold the powers of government through their elected representatives? What principle distributes the powers of government between the national and state governments? What principle gives each branch of government powers over the other two branches so that no branch becomes too powerful? What principle places restrictions on the powers of government and requires everyone to obey all laws? Branch of government that makes the laws. Branch of government that carries out the laws. Branch of government that enforces and interprets the laws. First 10 Amendments to the Constitution which protect individual rights Rights that cannot be taken away. Added to the Constitution to get support from Anti-Federalists. 8 th Grade TAKS Review

3 Manifest Destiny and Early National Period Famous Presidents: George Washington Who was the first President of the United States? James Madison Who was the President of the U.S. during the War of 1812? Thomas Jefferson Which President purchased the Louisiana Territory in 1803? No European powers in What was stated in the Monroe Doctrine? Western Hemisphere Andrew Jackson Which President was the first one elected by the common people? Famous Events: Northwest Ordinance War of 1812 Nullification Crisis Missouri Compromise Trail of Tears This allowed an orderly procedure to admit states into the U.S. What conflict happened because of impressment and the British capturing American ships? What was the attempt by South Carolina in 1832 to declare the federal tariff law null and void? What agreement in 1820 admitted Missouri as a slave state and Maine a free state? What was the name given to the journey taken by the Cherokee Indians in which a number of them died? Acquisition of Land: Louisiana Territory What land did the U.S. buy from France in 1803? Texas What independent country became part of the U.S. in 1845? This led to the U.S.- Mexican War. Florida What land did the U.S. acquire from Spain in 1819? U.S-Mexican War What conflict fought by the U.S in 1846 led to the acquisition of California and the American Southwest? Oregon What land did the U.S gain in 1846 in a treaty with Great Britain? Moving West: More farmland Manifest Destiny Annexation Why did the U.S. government want to take lands that the Indians lived on? What was the belief in the 19 th century that the U.S. would run from the Atlantic to the Pacific Oceans? What is the process of adding new territory by a country? This happened to Texas in Dates and Documents: Washington s Farewell Address What document warned Americans against political parties, foreign entanglements, and regional differences? Marbury vs Madison What was the U.S. Supreme Court case that established Judicial Review? Laws cannot violate What is Judicial Review? Constitution 1803 What year did the U.S. purchase the Louisiana Territory? Monroe Doctrine What was the document in which the U.S. warned European nations to stay out of the Western Hemisphere? Indian Removal Act What law passed in 1830 required all Native Americans to move west of the Mississippi River? Key Concepts: Federalist Democratic-Republican Sectionalism Free Enterprise Which political party revolved around Alexander Hamilton who believed in a strong government and was supported by industry? Which political party revolved around Thomas Jefferson who believed in a weak central government and was supported by farmers? What is the support and loyalty to a certain region of a country? What is the economic system where businesses are free to trade with little governmental control?

4 8 th Grade TAKS Review Reform and the Coming of the Civil War Famous People: Abraham Lincoln Who was elected President in 1860? Stop slavery Why was the Republican Party formed? Henry Clay Known as the Great Compromiser. Responsible for the Missouri Compromise. John C. Calhoun Leader from South Carolina who played a key role in the Nullification Crisis. Daniel Webster Northern leader who opposed slavery and states rights but would compromise if it meant keeping the U.S. together. States Rights Belief that states don t have to follow a federal law if they feel it violates the Constitution. Author of Uncle Tom s Cabin which presented a negative view of slavery. Reform Movements: Abolitionist Women s Rights Temperance Public Education Reform in America: Elizabeth Cady Stanton Seneca Falls Convention Frederick Douglass Declaration of Sentiments Horace Mann Movement to end slavery. Movement to provide equal rights for females. Movement to limit or ban the use of alcohol. Movement to provide free schooling to all children. Who was the leader of the women s rights movement in the 19 th century? What was the meeting in 1848 that called for equal rights for women? Who was the African American abolitionist leader who was a former slave and spoke about equal rights? What was the document passed in 1848 that stated all men and women are created equal? Who was the leader for free public school education movement? Famous Events: Dred Scott vs Sanford Which Supreme Court case stated slaves were not citizens and recognized slavery? 1860 Year in which Lincoln was elected causing the Southern States to secede from the Union. Compromise of 1850 What was the compromise where California became a free state and a strict federal fugitive slave law adopted? Kansas-Nebraska Act What law allowed Kansas and Nebraska to use popular sovereignty to decide on the issue of slavery? Key Issues: Slavery States Rights Protective Tariff Succession Sectionalism What was the practice in the South of forced labor of African Americans? What is the belief that states do not have to follow federal laws if they feel they violated the Constitution? What is a tax on imports to protect U.S industries? What is the act of leaving the union of states? What is the support and loyalty to a certain region of the country?

5 8 th Grade TAKS Review Civil War and Reconstruction Famous People: Lincoln Robert E. Lee Jefferson Davis Ulysses S. Grant Civil War Events: Fort Sumter Appomattox Court House Gettysburg Vicksburg Causes of the Civil War: States Rights Succession Slavery Republican Protective Tariff Famous Documents: Emancipation Proclamation Gettysburg Address First Inaugural Address Second Inaugural Address Who was President of the U.S. during the Civil War? Who was the commander of the Confederate (South) Army during the Civil War? What was the president of the Confederate States of American during the Civil War? Who was the commander of the Union (North) Army during the Civil War? What was the battle which started the Civil War? Where did General Lee surrender to General Grant to end the Civil War? Which Civil War battle was the turning point in the East (the South could not mount another offensive after this battle)? Which Civil War battle was the turning point in the West (the North controlled the Mississippi River and split the South in two after this battle)? What is the belief that states did not have to follow a federal law if they believed it violated the Constitution? What is the act of a state leaving the union of states of a country? What was the practice in the South of forced labor of African Americans? Which political party was formed to end slavery? What is a tax on imports meant to protect U.S. industries? Issued by Abraham Lincoln in freeing the slaves in areas of rebellion. Speech issued after battle recommitting the U.S. to bringing the Southern states back into the Union. Speech in which Lincoln stated the North would not interfere with slavery but would preserve the Union by force if necessary. Speech in which Lincoln called for an end to slavery and binding up the wounds of the nation. Reconstruction Amendments: 13 th Which amendment abolished slavery and made it illegal? 15 th Which amendment granted black men the right to vote? 14th Which amendment defined citizenship and guaranteed it at all levels? Suffrage What term means the right to vote?

6 8 th Grade TAKS Review American Economy in the 19 th Century Northern and Southern Economies: Cotton Gin Agriculture Cotton Plantations Virginia Industry Interchangeable Parts Industrialization Getting Around: Railroads Transportation Steamboat Canals Eli Whitney Increased demand John Deere Cyrus McCormick Improved communication What invention by Eli Whitney which separated the cotton seed from the fiber? It created a high demand for slaves. What was the Southern economy based on? What was the main cash crop of the South before the Civil War? What is the name given to large farms that grow cash crops? Slavery began in this colony. What was the Northern economy based on? What is replacing a broken part with an exact duplicate of the part? Eli Whitney came up with this concept. What is the production of goods and products in factories by machines? What used steam engines and tracks to move people and goods across the land? What is the movement of people and goods across land and water? What was the form of water transportation invented by Robert Fulton that used the steam engine to sail up and down rivers? Made travel faster and cheaper. What connected waterways and transported people and goods? Invented the Cotton Gin. The Cotton Gin had this effect on slavery. Invented the Steel Plow. Invented the Mechanical Reaper. Effect of Samuel Morse s invention of the Telegraph.

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