Not much time? Check out these simple fi rst aid tips to help keep children safe.

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1 Page 1 Fast first aid tips Not much time? Check out these simple fi rst aid tips to help keep children safe. First aid for a baby who is choking Key skill: Give back blows and chest thrusts 1. Give up to fi ve back blows. Hold the baby face down along your forearm with their head lower than their bottom and hit them fi rmly on their back between the shoulder blades. If back blows do not dislodge the object, move on to step two. 2. Give up to fi ve chest thrusts. Turn the baby over so they are facing upwards and place two fi ngers in the middle of their chest just below the nipples. Push inwards and upwards. If chest thrusts do not dislodge the object, repeat steps one and two. (Figure 1) 1 3. Call 999 if the object has not dislodged after three cycles of back blows and chest thrusts. First aid for a child who is choking Key skill: Give back blows and abdominal thrusts 1. Give up to fi ve back blows. Hit them fi rmly on their back between the shoulder blades. If back blows do not dislodge the object, move on to step two. 2. Give up to fi ve abdominal thrusts. Hold the child around the waist and pull inwards and upwards above the child s belly button. If abdominal thrusts do not dislodge the object, repeat steps one and two. (Figure 2) 2 3. Call 999 if the object has not dislodged after three cycles of back blows and abdominal thrusts.

2 Page 2 First aid for a baby who is unconscious and not breathing Key skill: Give rescue breaths and chest compressions 2. Tell someone to call 999. (If you are on your own, carry out rescue breaths and chest compressions, as described below, for one minute, and then call 999.) 3. Give fi ve rescue breaths. Tilt their head back, seal your mouth over their mouth and nose, and blow fi ve times into the baby. 4. Give 30 chest compressions. Push fi rmly in the middle of their chest with two fingers so the chest goes inward, then release. 5. Give two rescue breaths, then continue with cycles of 30 chest compressions and two rescue breaths until help arrives. First aid for a child who is unconscious and not breathing Key skill: Give continuous rescue breaths and chest compressions 2. Tell someone to call 999. (If you are on your own, carry out rescue breaths and chest compressions, as described below, for one minute, and then call 999.) 3. Give fi ve rescue breaths. Tilt their head back, seal your mouth over their mouth and pinch their nose. Blow fi ve times into the child. 4. Give 30 chest compressions. Push fi rmly in the middle of their chest with one hand so the chest goes inward, then release. 5. Give two rescue breaths, then continue with cycles of 30 chest compressions and two rescue breaths until help arrives.

3 Page 3 First aid for burns Key skill: Cool the burn 1. Cool the burn under cold running water for at least ten minutes. 2. Cover the burn with cling fi lm, or a clean plastic bag. 3. Call 999 if necessary. First aid for a baby who is unconscious and breathing Key skill: Hold the baby on their side with their head tilted back. 2. Hold the baby on their side with their head slightly tilted back, supported and lower than their bottom. 3. Call 999. First aid for a child who is unconscious and breathing Key skill: Move the child onto their side and tilt their head back 2. Move them onto their side and tilt their head back. 3. Call 999. First aid for meningitis Key skill: Call 999 if you observe any of the symptoms. The baby or child may have fl u-like symptoms, a headache and a high temperature. They may also complain of a stiff neck and be sensitive to light. At a later stage, a rash may form (that does not disappear when a glass is pressed against it). 1. If you observe any of these symptoms, call Give them constant reassurance while waiting for the ambulance.

4 Page 4 First aid for a febrile seizure Key skill: Protect them from injury and reduce their temperature The child may be twitching (limbs and face), arch their back, stiffen their body and have clenched fi sts. They look red-faced, are hot to touch and sweating. 1. Protect the child from injury. Do not restrain them. 2. Remove outer clothing to help cool them. 3. When the seizure is over, help the child to rest on their side with their head tilted back. If the symptoms continue or it is their fi rst seizure, seek medical advice. First aid for a severe allergic reaction Key skill: Call 999 when you observe the symptoms. The baby or child may develop a red, blotchy rash, itchiness or swelling on their hands, feet or face. Their breathing may slow down. 1. When you observe any of these symptoms, call When there is a known allergy, use their auto-injector, following the recommended guidance. 3. Reassure the baby or child, and make them as comfortable as possible while you wait for the ambulance. First aid for a broken bone Key skill: Keep the injury still and supported 1. Support the injury with cushions or items of clothing to prevent unnecessary movement. 2. Call 999.

5 Page 5 First aid for poisoning and harmful substances Key skill: Establish what? When? And how much? 1. Establish what they have taken, when and how much. 2. Call 999. First aid for a head injury Key skill: Apply something cold 1. Get the baby or child to rest and apply something cold to the injury (e.g. frozen vegetables wrapped in a tea towel). 2. If they become drowsy, vomit, or their condition deteriorates call 999. First aid for an asthma attack Key skill: Help them take their medication 1. Help the child to sit in a comfortable position and to take their medication. 2. Reassure the child. If the attack becomes severe, or they don t have their medication, call 999. First aid for bleeding heavily Key skill: Put pressure on the wound 1. Put pressure on the wound with whatever is available to stop or slow down the fl ow of blood. 2. Call Keep pressure on the wound until help arrives.

6 Page 6 First aid for a nosebleed Key skill: Pinch the soft part of the nose and lean forward 1. Pinch the soft part of the child s nose and ask them to lean forward. 2. Continue to pinch the soft part of their nose for ten minutes. 3. Seek medical advice if the bleeding continues for more than half an hour. First aid for a seizure (epilepsy) Key skill: Make them safe and prevent injury The child has collapsed and is making sudden jerking movements. 1. Use a blanket or clothing to protect their head from injury. Do not restrain them. 2. When the seizure is over, help the child to rest on their side with their head tilted back. 3. Call 999 if necessary. First aid for fever Key skill: Reduce their temperature The baby or child has a raised temperature (above 37 C), hot, fl ushed skin and is sweating. 1. Check their temperature by using a thermometer. 2. Remove excess clothes and give them fl uids such as water or diluted juice. 3. Give the recommended dose of paracetamol syrup.

7 Page 7 First aid for croup Key skill: Sit the child up and help them breathe in a steamy atmosphere The child has diffi culty breathing, and a short barking cough. Their cough may also sound like crowing or whistling. 1. When you observe these symptoms, sit the child up and create a steamy atmosphere by boiling a kettle or running a bath. 2. Encourage the child to relax enough to breathe in the steam, and if the symptoms continue seek medical advice. First aid for vomiting and diarrhoea Key skill: Ensure they rest and drink small sips of water often 1. Give the child drinks of boiled water that s been cooled. Encourage them to drink small sips often. 2. Let the child rest. 3. If symptoms persist seek medical advice.

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