EXAMPLES OF MACQUARIE PRACTICE Assessment and Feedback

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1 EXAMPLES OF MACQUARIE PRACTICE Assessment and Feedback Case study: Michael Cavanagh Responding to students feedback on assessment design: The effectiveness of collaborative team planning Discipline Delivery mode Year level Class size Education D2; 3 credit points EDUC258 Mathematics in Schools 200 students enrolled EDUC258: This unit focuses on the factors affecting school students learning of mathematics. Three major themes are addressed: the role of mathematics in human experience; the meaning of selected basic concepts and the pathways by which students learn these concepts; and how teaching influences students learning of, and beliefs about, mathematics. A K-12 perspective is taken in the lectures, but students choose tutorials and practicals with either a primary or a secondary emphasis. The external offering is only available to intending primary teachers. Summary: As a core unit for all pre-service primary and secondary mathematics teachers EDUC258 attracts two very different types of students. Michael Cavanagh, course coordinator, explains that current research suggests pre-service primary teachers have often had difficult experiences of maths at school and come to EDUC258 with lots of apprehension and negativity. The pre-service secondary teachers are often very good at maths and have had good experiences with maths, but often have very traditional ideas about pedagogy. Michael has drawn on the findings of the research on pre-service mathematics teachers to inform the course content, teaching strategies, learning outcomes and assessment. Michael took over the co-ordination of EDUC258 five years ago and felt that the assessment and feedback design could be improved to better meet the needs of students. He could see on the Teaching Evaluation scores that students were not satisfied with the length of time it took for assignments to be returned and were requesting more detailed feedback as well. Taking these issues to the teaching team, Michael and his colleagues redesigned the assessment and feedback approach to address the problems being raised by students. Now, Michael attests to the importance of collaborating with the teaching team to solve teaching and learning problems, as the assessment and feedback in EDUC258 is receiving positive reviews from students taking the course. He also believes that being aware of the prior experiences and knowledge of the student body has assisted him to design appropriate assessments that draw on their experiences and strengthen their learning. Learning and Teaching Centre

2 So you re teaching on EDUC258 could you start by talking about the teaching context on that unit? It s a compulsory numeracy unit for all of the intending primary teachers. Each year about 200 students enroll. There is a two hour tutorial/ workshop and one lecture every week. The unit is also compulsory for the people who are going to teach secondary maths and there are usually about 15 to 20 secondary teaching students. So the bulk of the students are people who are going to teach primary school and most of them are maths phobic. They don t like maths. They never understood it at school and it was all a bit of a mystery to them. They really would prefer not to have to teach it and the thought of having to do a subject in maths freaks them out enormously. The secondary teachers on the other hand are the success stories of maths at school, so they re all good mathematicians and they re not freaked out by it at all. They do tend to want to teach as they were taught which is often a very traditional pedagogy chalk and talk teacher stands up the front doing lots of examples and the students copy them down and they do lots of exercises from the text book. So I m cognizant of the fact that there are these two groups that have come into this course with very different experiences and expectations. It seems like you have two very different types of students in this course. How do you approach teaching the same course to a polarized group? With the primary students I see one of the big aims is to allay their fears, to give them some positive experiences of mathematics learning, to show them that they can do it and that it doesn t have to be a traumatic experience for them in the hope that they will then carry that more positive attitude into their own teaching. There s a lot of research that suggests a vicious cycle going on with a lot of primary teachers. They ve had very bad experiences themselves and so whether consciously or not they convey that fear and that apprehension to their own students who then have very bad experiences when they re at school, and so it goes on. With the secondary students, I m trying to get them to think that there are other alternative pedagogies to the way that they were taught. Working together in small groups, we discuss what it was like to be a learner and how they learned was it by listening to a teacher or was it trying to make sense of it for themselves? Can you describe the activities and experiences you provide for the students? I get them to do a lot of small group work where they try out activities and then reflect on what it was like to try them and what they ve learnt about maths. I ve tried to make the activities ones that are open to interpretation so that they will lose this idea that maths is black and white, which a lot of them have that it s either right or wrong, there s only one way to do it and that s the teacher s way and that s it. How do the course content and teaching strategies relate to your assessment in this unit? The assessment ties in to the course content and teaching strategies quite well. Most of the students have not yet gone out into schools to do any practicum teaching and generally don t have any experience of teaching children. In the beginning, I explain to the students that my goal for them is to become critically reflective of their own school experiences. So the starting point has to be what it was like for them when they were at school. Again, the research suggests that students who come into teacher education programs come in with very fixed ideas about how maths should be taught based on their own school experiences they ve been in classrooms watching teachers teach maths for 12 years, so they ve got fairly clear ideas about how it should be taught. But they tend to be ill-informed for two reasons, one, because their ideas are often from the perspective of the student and two, because most maths teaching is pretty ordinary it s chalk and talk. So it s way of getting them to think about some of the deficiencies of that model of teaching and then at the same time, propose alternative models throughout the unit. Learning and Teaching Centre 2

3 Do the primary students and the secondary students work together throughout the unit? The lectures are common, but the tutorials and the practicals where they do these activities are separated out so that they re pitched at an appropriate level. In the first lecture, I get them to write down a metaphor for maths if maths was a food, what would it be? They write that down and then I get them into small groups in the lecture theatre secondary and some primary students in each group and they talk about that. The secondary students will often talk about maths as bread it s the staple of life or it s like salt, it adds flavour. And the primary students would say it s like broccoli, I don t like it but I suppose I should eat it because it s good for me. So I think they get that experience and I try to then pick up on that through the rest of the common lectures. Could you explain the assessment design and weightings? There are three tasks two assignments worth 30 percent each and one exam worth 40 percent. The assignments are critical reflections on their own experience, often using a stimulus material. For example, there s a reading which talks about different ways of understanding mathematics that just because you can get the right answer, doesn t necessarily mean you understand it on a deep conceptual level. So then I ask the students to think about a time when they were at school when they learnt something on a superficial level and when they learnt something on a deeper level, a more conceptual level and to compare that. What other kinds of tasks do you set in the assignments? There s a task where I ask them to think about the relevance of maths in everyday life look at some examples where they ve used maths in their everyday life and then extrapolate some of those things back to how that should impact on the curriculum. So if we do use maths a lot in everyday life, then surely we should incorporate lots of everyday examples in our teaching. There s a task where I get them to think about the group processes that they ve applied in this course and what does that say about how children learn maths best. It is difficult to talk about maths teaching with students who have no real experience in teaching children? One of the other assessment tasks purposefully chosen to address that issue involves working with a child. I ask them to interview a child about the child s understanding of fractions because fractions for primary kids are typically difficult. This task asks the students to unpack this notion that delving deeper - a student can tell you the answer, but do they understand what they re doing or to what extent do they understand what they re doing? It s trying to get the students in this course to recognize that answers are not the be all and end all, it s how you are thinking and to give them an experience of trying to get inside a child s head and try and work out how they re thinking. What are you aiming for the students to achieve by completing these assessments? The aim is to get them to unpack their experiences at school, in their everyday lives and in this course, and tease out key ideas that can then be taken into the classroom when they teach, as an alternative than to just stand and deliver. That style of teaching tends to be devoid of context and meaning for students, so they just get turned off because it isn t made relevant. It s getting them to think about some of the experiences that they ve already had as learners particularly because they haven t yet started to teach and say well, if I had a bad experience or if I didn t really learn anything from this kind of teaching, then should I be teaching that way to my students? The two assignments serve that dual purpose of not just assessing their engagement in the unit, but also getting them to think about how they can take some of the ideas and apply them in their own classrooms. Learning and Teaching Centre 3

4 And the exam you set is worth 40 percent? Yes, the third component is the exam, which is an open book exam. The rationale for having an open book exam is to allay their fears. Many of them are very fearful about maths, no matter how much I reassure them that it s not a maths exam, it s about what s in this unit, and they re still scared of it. So I thought okay, let s let go of that. The other advantage of having an open book exam is that you can say to them at the beginning, look, it s going to be an open book exam, so if you pay attention to the material, then there re benefits for you in doing well in the exam. So in terms of the history of assessment in this course, has it always been this way? It s always been two assignments and an exam. The weightings I ve changed a bit and I ve reduced the number of tasks. There used to be four separate tasks in each assignment. I ve brought that back to three because I felt that I could make the tasks a little bit richer than they were. So a smaller number, but more meaningful I felt. Also, in the hope that if students have fewer tasks, they might put a bit more effort into them. And also, from a practical point of view, when I took over the course, the biggest complaints from students in the TEDS were slow return of assignments and not adequate feedback on assignments. Were the TEDS scores helpful in illuminating the problems? Yes, so I thought, one way to address those issues was to have fewer tasks and to organize the team of markers such that one or two people were marking the same task across the whole cohort. I found that that has improved the turn-around time significantly and it has reduced the number of complaints from students who think that they read their assignment and read someone else s and say hey look, I think there s inconsistency in the way this was marked. So I guess they are practical things that I felt I needed to address because those issues were consistent in the first couple of years that I ran the course. So with an assignment that had three tasks, you d have three different markers marking that assignment? Six actually. We decided that we can do it with six. So pairs of markers we d get together and sit down with our partners, we establish marking criteria, we do some sample marking and compare scripts and then we go away and mark. And then I moderate the results after that. We decided to mark in pairs because 200 students is too much for one person. So they would mark 100 each. And when you say moderate, what do you mean by that? The 100 assignments are randomly assigned and I think with a sample size that large and a random distribution, you d expect if they are marking well, to have similar means and standard deviations. If they re reasonably close, I leave them but they look like they are a little bit far apart, I combine them together as one group of 200 so everyone sets at the same mean and standard deviation. So that might mean that the harder markers scripts increase marks ever so slightly. And then I combine them together and grade them. So have you done TEDS since making the changes to assessment and feedback? Yeah, they have improved significantly. I did an analysis of it the TEDS and it was pretty amazing there was a steady increase from below 50 percent, to 80 and 90 percent. They were happy with the feedback they were getting, and they were happy with the turn-around time, which I ve got down to two weeks. The number of students coming to see me and saying Look, I m not happy with this assignment, the way it was marked, where are the comments that are going to help me improve? I put a lot of effort into this and I got a bad mark and I don t understand why Those sorts of instances have dropped right away. When I first took over the course, I d be getting a dozen people with those kinds of comments. Learning and Teaching Centre 4

5 How have you managed to get the assignment turn-around down to two weeks what are the factors? We spend a lot of time with the markers establishing how we re going to mark and specific criteria, so that it s relatively easy to spot the things that you re looking for. And just marking one task across the whole cohort is easier to mark because you don t have to change your mindset all the time. You get greater consistency and the quality of the feedback that they re writing down is better because they know what they re looking for all the time. So they re able to write much fuller comments on the assignments because they ve marked them all rather than a small portion. A couple of the people who have been teaching this course with me now for three years have been part of this process, so we re all of a similar mind-set. We want to make these improvements. How do you present the feedback for students with three different markers on each assignment? I redesigned the cover sheet, so now instead of as you normally get with an assignment, grade and comment now it s all task by task and each comment is written by the marker. The only thing that the students don t get is a summative overall comment on their assignment as a single piece of work. But the assignment is not really a single piece of work, it s three separate tasks that are just strung together. So I thought that was a reasonable thing to sacrifice for all of the other benefits that I ve mentioned. It s been a big plus. Can you talk a little bit more about redesigning your assessment in a teaching team and how you ve worked with the other people teaching on the unit? I ve certainly felt that it was important to involve the other people in the course, so I didn t come in and say Look, this is what I think we should do. We had a meeting, and I said Look, these are the problems as I see them the students think we re taking too long to return the assignments, they re not happy with the quality of the feedback that we re giving them. And the markers were saying to me Well, it s difficult to mark these three tasks So someone suggested that we mark one task each. And I thought that was a good idea and we should give it a try. Then we talked about how we could improve consistency by practice-marking sample scripts and discussing the marking scheme and teasing it out. And I gave them my marking scheme. But they then said No, this is not right, I think we can change it. So as a result of the sample scripts that they d marked, they were then able to say I think we should change the marking scheme so I thought that was brilliant and that s what we did. That went through a couple of iterations, and then it was finalized. Was it worth spending all that time going through those iterations with the team and getting their input? I thought having their involvement was really critical, that wasn t something that I just said. And as I say, we ve been doing this with the same people for a couple of years, so we don t even have to sample mark anymore, they know what they re doing and the consistency of the grades that they come up with is pretty good. So you ve designed assessment that essentially addresses the two different types of students the primary and the secondary teachers Certainly I ve designed learning tasks that do that. I guess the assessment tasks do that too, because the assessment tasks essentially ask them to reflect on their own experience. So whatever their experience has been. And how does your assessment link to learning outcomes? By completing assessment tasks and reflecting on their own experience, I can relate that back in to the material I am presenting in the lectures. So they really come together quite well. One of the main aims of the learning outcomes in the lectures is to challenge their existing pedagogies Learning and Teaching Centre 5

6 and to give them an opportunity to think about alternatives. And I think that has more impact if I can relate that to their own experience. So when I m giving my lecture about different ways of understanding, I can say Well look, when I was reading your assignments and some of you were telling me it was very hard to think of an example of a mathematical concept that I really understood at that deep conceptual level, I can say Yes, what are the implications of that where does that come from? It reflects the way you were taught, so let s talk now about how we can change that. So I ve tried to make those links informally when I teach. So you are receiving increasingly good feedback in terms of how you ve provided feedback to students, what about students learning, have you noticed a difference in the way they are participating and engaging? The quality of the discussions that we have is much better. But I always have this question mark in the back of my mind, sometimes it sounds like they re just telling you what they think you want to hear, or they re paraphrasing what you told them. So it s hard to know whether it s really having an impact. But I get the feeling that the way that they re discussing things is encouraging and positive. I m also aware that there s also a lot of research that suggests that this sort of critical reflection is a difficult task even for practicing teachers who are experienced, and for pre-service teachers it is particularly difficult. And you often wonder sometimes whether they re just doing it because that s what you want them to say. What sort of advice would you give to teachers who are rethinking their assessment approach? I think it should reflect the learning outcomes. The students need to see a purpose for what they re doing. If they feel like they re just being asked to jump through hoops to satisfy a requirement for a unit, I don t think that s particularly helpful. So, make those links explicit. I suspect, and I ve probably done this myself in the past, you operate on the assumption that because you ve designed the tasks with links and you can recognize them, that students will automatically recognize them. But I don t think they do. I think you actually have to draw their attention to it. You have to make those links really explicit. So I ve found that by referring to the assessment tasks in lectures and using examples which may not be specific examples, but may just be a jumbled conglomerate that can pick up on the threads, I think that s particularly useful. So students want to see that relevance and they want timely and detailed feedback so you have to think about how you can do that. And that might mean restructuring the way the assessments are organized to facilitate the feedback, like the way I ve done it perhaps. You keep referring to the research about maths teachers and I think that s really interesting because that s informed the way you ve designed assessment. So I suppose that s one resource drawing on research that helps you to design assessment that s really suitable for the students. Absolutely. I m lucky that my research interests dovetail so nicely because a lot of my research is about pre-service teachers and how they develop their identity and pedagogical practices. I m particularly interested in critical reflection and the interplay between what they do in their university subjects and what happens when they go to schools and do their prac teaching. Often, the messages of reform teaching that they get here are not mirrored in what they see in the class room - a lot of maths teaching is still the same old, same old. So how they resolve that is an interesting question. In reading about research on what helps students resolve that dilemma in positive ways, I ve sought to incorporate this notion of critical reflection through journal writing, as a way forward. So yeah, there s a nice coming together there. Learning and Teaching Centre 6

7 Can you talk about other resources that have helped you think about assessment? The other things that I ve done well I m particularly interested when I go to maths education conferences to look for the sessions that are about pre-service primary teachers who are scared of maths and how other lecturers are dealing with these issues in their courses. There are lots of these kinds of sessions because it s a well defined problem. And you can get some deep ideas about the problem, which really encouraged me to pursue this notion of critical reflection on their own school experience. It also gives you little things like I remember there was a course I went to where the presenter showed a YouTube video of a roller coaster and mentioned that she d used that. I ve incorporated that in my first lecture, and I talk about facing your fears and getting on the roller coaster. Students really respond to that kind of stuff. I regularly get s after that first lecture from students who will say This is the first time anyone has acknowledged this feeling I have about maths. I m really looking forward to doing the rest of this course. So that kind of stuff is really good. Talking to colleagues who are doing similar kinds of things who report that what they re doing is making an impact and saying Okay, I ve got to try that. Have you reached a point where the unit is exactly how you want it to be? I ve revised the course every year I m never satisfied with it. There s always something else I think I ve got to tweak that a little bit or try that. One of the big changes I ve made I felt like standing in the lecture theatre and delivering a monologue for 50 minutes while you re telling these people to engage their students in learning was a I was a bit of a fraud. Then I happened to go along to a seminar here and someone was talking about this thing they had called a lectorial, and I thought brilliant, that s what I ll do. So that s what I do now. Now I m not standing out the front and talking. I stop every now and then and they discuss with the people next to them, or I give them a handout or I show them five minutes of a video and we talk about what we ve seen. And I remember the person who talked about this, they said you have to let go of content you have to be comfortable not to cover so much but to engage the students. So I guess that s what I m trying to do with the assessment too I m trying to get them to think about their own experiences rather than just write an essay on a book that they ve read or summarise an article. Rather I say, read the article, and then tell me about something from your experience that connects with what you ve read and what are the implications of that for how you re going to teach? LTC09-A August 2009 Learning and Teaching Centre 7

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