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1 The Trouble with (The Term) Art Auth(s): Carolyn Dean Revied wk(s): Source: Art Journal, Vol. 65, No. 2 (Summer, 2006), pp Published : College Art Association Stable URL: Accessed: 26/02/ :38 Your use JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance Terms & Conditions Use, available at. JSTOR is a -f-prit service that helps scholars, researchers, students discover, use, build upon a wide range content in a trusted digital archive. We use infmation technology ols increase productivity facilitate new fms scholarship. F me infmation about JSTOR, please contact College Art Association is collabating with JSTOR digitize, preserve extend access Art Journal.

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3 Inca,"Funerary Rock," c , sne, Machu Picchu, Peru (phograph auth) Carolyn Dean The Trouble with ( Term) Art Much what is with regard day called art was made as art. This is case early artifacts monuments, but also with only regard made outside West in places where concept art traditionally has been recognized. Not infrequently (although less frequently than in past), many ger called from outside West that re made as art "primitive art." This is so despite fact that art hisrians grouped anthropologists, among s, have been fussing about term "primitive ' art" its synonyms since middle tntieth century. In 19^7, Adrian Gerbrs was one first fer a though sion what he called " substitute field. industrial Suggested term?non- people; problem name."2 Yet his art?was also criticized proposed those discus alternatives?exotic art; traditional art; art pre folk popular art; tribal art; ethnic ethno-art; ethnographical art; ethnological art; native art; indigenous art; pre urban art; art precivilized people; non-western art; indige in - This essay was iginally fmulated as a paper delivered at 2005 Annual Conference College Art Association, in a session entitled "Art Hisry, They, Ancient American Visual Culture" ganized Dana Leibsohn Bryan R. Just. I am grateful f comments suggestions fered many those who attend ed session. My thanks also Shelly Erringn, Carine M. Sousslf, Dana Leibsohn, Elisabeth L. Cameron, Steve Chiappari, an anonymous revier who commented on early versions paper. Funds f manuscript preparation re generously provided Arts Research Insti tute at University Califnia, Santa Cruz. 1. As early as 1942, Leonhard Adam, in Primitive Art (Harmondswth: Pelican Books, 1942), 14, ed that only a certain feignness in fm content linked arts Africa, Oceania, Americas in minds s. He argued that, because linkage is extraneous wks mselves, alleged association African, Oceanic, indigenous American arts depends solely on attitudes s ward said wks. Still, despite his own reserva tions, Adam entitled his book Primitive Art. 2. Adrian Gerbrs, Art as an Element Culture, Especially in Negro-Africa (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1957), One only has peruse pages Current Anthropology in which, over past five decades, some fty anthropologists art hisrians have published ir opinions, see that plenty very smart people have attempted reckon with terms labels this ilk. In 1965, f example, in response a letter from Adriaan G. H. Claerhout, edirs Current Anthropology published comments tlve internationally recognized authities on term "primitive art," which was widely used at that time, but widely disliked as ll. See Claerhout, "The Concept Primitive Applied Art," Current Anthropology 6 (Ocber 1965): Several years earlier Herta Haselberger fered readers nous arts Africa, Oceania, Americas?have all been tiqued.3 Despite array commentary provoked bition its proposed decades discussion, little has been resolved, as was seen in companion catalogue.4 that discussion, from i9?os primitive, exotic, what have even when auth proper definition cally on term "art" as acknowledges in you?rar 1984 William Rubin's "Primitivism" exhi What interests me in all this is fact present, invariably focuses on cri adjective? than noun, "art." This is case that "art" is also a difficult term without agreed-upon usage.5 Thus, it may be time focus currently used scholars writing specifi about many varied auchthonous visual cultures Africa, Oceania, Americas. Such a discussion matters concerns all those who heart issue. only employ those While all can concur that "art" is an studying long-ago faraway places; term, f what art is seems be at very ambiguous term with multifarious inconsistent a meanings, surprisingly small number art hisrians in so-called AOA fields (Africa, Oceania, Americas), those fields focused on cultures most commonly labeled "primitive," face this problem head on.6 Some recent art hisrians wking in diversre AOA fields skirt issue declining say what art is; y focus instead on what those displayed her catalogue in West as art do. Die Reents-Budet is one a few Painting Maya Universe, she es that "Western that have been collected exceptions; recognition non-western art is vulnerable hisrical events, education, sociocultural fashion."7 Outside AOA a, Donald Preziosi has asked "wher our own modernist conceptions art make much sense beyond socio-cultural hizons"; he ansrs his rherical query largely no points out that clearly defined, coherent domain our own spatiotempal in it in negative art hisry, with its indistinct boundaries, has study8 Despite his reservations, assump tion that art is a universal that can perhaps should be found in every society in every hisrical period pervades. Although people everywhere sometimes make aestic distinctions beten above owing precisely value certain se aestic distinctions, "art" as a special categy practices composed subcategies defined variously medium, function, geographic provenance, value, so on, is recognized 25 art journal

4 Current Anthropology a critique various terms used describe what she called Ethnological Art; tnty-four scholars, including Gege Kubier Douglas Fraser, responded her essay. See Haselberger, "Method Studying Ethnological Art," Current Anthropology 2 (Ocber 1964): F additional discussion term "primitive" as applied societies ir cul tures (including "art"), see Lois Mednick, "Mem um on Use Primitive," Current Anthropology I (I960): , Francis L. K. Hsu, "Rethinking Concept 'Primitive,'" Current Anthropology 5 (June 1964): William Rubin, ed., "Primitivism" in 20th Century Art: Affinity Tribal Modern (New Yk: Museum Modern Art, 1984). 5. See, f example, essays Emma Lou Davis Tatiana Proskouriakf (both in Claerhout, ). Discussions about (impossi bility defining art have filled pages The British Journal Aestics The Journal Aestics Art Criticism. See, f example, Mris Weitz, "The Role They in Aestics," Journal Aestics Art Criticism 15, no. I (1956): 27-35; James Carney, "Defining Art," British Journal Aestics 15(1975): ; Robert Matws, "Traditional Aestics Defended," Journal Aestics Art Criticism 38, no. I (1979): 39-50; Thomas Leddy, "Rigid Designation in Defining Art," Journal Aestics Art Criticism 45, no. 3 (Spring 1987): ; Jerrold Levinson, "Refining Art Hisrically," Journal Aestics Art Criticism 47, no. I (Winter 1989): 21-33; David Novitz, "Disputes about An," Journal Aestics Art Criticism 54, no. 2 (Spring 1996): See also W. B. Gallie, "Art as an Essentially Contested Concept," Philosophical Quarterly 6, no. 23 (April 1956): , who argues that art is a concept that should always, necessarily be contested. 6. See, f example, Lynn Mackenzie, Non-Western Art: A Brief Guide, second ed. (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2001). Like Mackenzie, Arnold Rubin, in Art as Technology: The Arts Africa, Oceania, Native America, Sourn Califnia, ed. Zena Pearlsne (Beverly Hills: Hillcrest, 1989), 16, also elects define "art," but sug gests that it does three : I ) establishes para meters identity; 2) teaches enculturates; 3) enables societies individuals relate ir environment secure ir survival. He also suggests that se three what art does everywhere, demonstrate this, includes some cultural practices Sourn Califnia in his introducry AOA text. 7. Done Reents-Budet, Painting Maya Universe: Royal Ceramics Classic Period (Durham: Duke University Press, 1994), Donald Preziosi, "Art Hisry: Making Visible Legible," in The Art Art Hisry: A Critical Anthology, ed. Donald Preziosi (Oxfd: Oxfd University Press, 1998), 14-15; see also Preziosi, Rethinking Art Hisry: Meditations on a Coy Science (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1989), Elisabeth L. Cameron, Art Lega (Seattle: University Washingn Press Regents University Califnia, 2001), Paul Oskar Kristeller, in Renaissance Thought wldwide. If it re, defining term "art" would be such a persistent vexing problem. The fact that re is no globally acceptable definition elephant in our disciplinary living room. The art hisrian Elisabeth L. Cameron writes about Lega people art is what is day Democratic Republic Congo (fmerly Zaire).9 The Lega sepa rate from realm material culture "heavy," meaning endod with special pors that exist y describe as masenao apart from mundane activities virtue ir use within Bwami society, institution concerned with wisdom mality through which majity Lega acculturated. Had our grown out Lega precepts, ll be self-described Hisrians Heavy Things. Of course, a hisry heavy would look quite different from a hisry art; different would be privileged. The canon would be comprised differently, our definition a masterpiece (if used term at all) would be altered, perhaps drastically Wher find this proposition enticing humous simply ridiculous, it is curious that don't fields where art recognize (that is, ion capriciousness art) didn't It is a fact that, even in Europe where was used in modern sense its aestic qualities until at least something eighteenth exist concept visual taking pri century.io iginated, independently might a hisry art in wd valued While many have contact. ed this circumstance, o few have discussed implications both dehis " ricizing art. In universalizing this essay, n, I want consider some consequences exist. In re-creating locating societies modern West but me primitive. concept art ought identifying an "art" art in societies where such a concept did does art where it was found in just image different We also risk pri our modern West, rar, in enough suggesting have that y f naming it, risk image render m lesser insufficient, that cultures that did possess somehow benefit in having concept introduced ( f) m. In this essay, n, I seek open a conversation about how art hisry all o ten has, through many its epistemological technologies, perspectives, The judgments, rationales. anthropologist Shelly Erringn, Primitive Art?", argues that what was reinfced what in fact colonialist recognized tradition was, in essence, driven in her article "What Became Auntic in West as art from outside needs desires modern Western art market.i2 What became art was what had been could still be collected displayed turn tntieth century, ptability in manner which art had become accusmed. At highly valued, as re ritual functions iconic content. masks re ten stripped durability natural materials. Cleaned, placed spot-lit, y re reconstituted as "sculptures." Erringn appropriation," recognizing that "counted as 'art' because rical moments."'3 She that class, flint is, made juxtaposes purposefully "art as art. y such as se Objects calls iginated materials on such like African podiums, as re "art re claimed as such at certain his appropriation" In a video I ten show students in my pre-hispanic Maya visual-culture a ll-known recently archaeologist excavated at site exclaims "This is art!" Copan. with referring "art intention," an eccentric In making this claim, archaeolo 26 SUMMER 2006

5 Arts: Collected Essays ( 1965; Princen: Princen University Press, 1980), 163, dates modern ions art eighteenth century, as does Larry Shiner, in The Invention Art: A Cultural Hisry (Chicago: University Chicago Press, 2001). Douglas F. Fraser, in Haselberger, 368, hover, writes "This term [art] was used in modern sense something valued independently f its aestic qualities until second half 19th century." The igins wd "art" as used day furr expled Vicr B?rgin, The End Art They: Criticism Postmodernity (Atlantic Highls, NJ: Humanities Press International, 1986), 144; Preziosi, Rethinking Art Hisry The Art Art Hisry; David Summers, Real Spaces: Wld Art Hisry Rise Western Modernism (London: Phaidon, 2003), 3 I 67. I I. Elisabeth L. Cameron, in "In Search Children: Dolls Agency in Africa," African Arts 30, no. 2 ( 1997): 19, finds following: "At ce problem [regarding wher certain small African figurai sculptures dolls art both neir] is question wher a uni versal understing art exists." The question is pursued in this article, hover. Preziosi, in Rethinking Art Hisry, 1989, also observes comments on this problem as does Cecelia F. Klein, "Objects nice, but...", Art Bulletin, 76, no. 3 (September 1994): Shelly Erringn, "What Became Auntic Primitive Art?" Cultural Anthropology 9, no. 2 (1994): Ibid., 203; as Erringn herself es, Andr? Malraux, in Museum without Walls, trans. Stuart Gilbert, Bollingen Series 24 (New Yk: Panon Books, 1949), called se kinds "art metamphosis," as did Jacques Maquet, in Introduction Aestic Anthropology, second ed. (1971; Malibu, CA: Undena Publications, 1979). 14. Frank Willet (in Haselberger, 379) observed that "If fm an object is pleasing, it can be treated as an object art in terms, but necessarily in terms society which produced it. This is comparable a artist's admiring a wk primitive art f (ethnologically) wrong reasons. It is a permissible fm aestic appreciation, though most pritable kind." 15. Homi K. Bhabha, "Of Mimicry Man: The Ambivalence Colonial Discourse," Ocber 28 ( 1984): 126, argues that mimicry is inherent in cultures subjected colonization. "Colonial mim icry," he states, "is desire f a refmed, recognizable Or," an Or who is same (re affirming beliefs practices colonizer), but quite (re affirming inferiity colonized). 16. Esr Paszry, "Andean Aestics" in The Spirit Ancient Peru: Treasures from Museo Arqueol?gico Rafael Larco Herrera, ed. Kathleen Berrin (New Yk London: Thames Hudson; Fine Arts Museums San Francisco, 1997), Meyer Shapiro, "Style," in Preziosi, The Art Art Hisry, J. Alden Mason, The Ancient Civilizations Peru (Baltime Harmondswth, UK: Penguin Books, 1957), 231. gist draws attention extradinary craftsmanship aestic merits finely carved fering he holds in his h. His intention is raise value unfamiliar object something calling recognize something its exquisite in eyes vier who quality. he justifiably fears might His choice wds is effective, f art tends elevate estimation held f that art reveals hing inherent in object something. applied; rar, it reveals how much vier values it. Thus in this instance reveals wds, identifying fegrounds carved flint as art, he tells us calling Hover, which term is archaeologist his own aestic sensibilities. In hing about Maya; rar, he tells us how he values flint in relation excavated.14 imposes when similar perhaps, In this moment self-revelation, priitizes recognize categies study, creation defended as recognizing pensable cultures a Western reading archaeologist name "art" in societies that do, also that our value system ir object though, supplant simultaneously ancient eccentric flint. In wds, recognize this only say me about ourselves than about indigenous terms values, suggesting, matters me than whatever system gave in first in so doing, place. ( us) uncanny re rise Too ten, term "art" is besd granting cultures a fav, as akin a ion that find indis concept culture. What's me, because in naming art do just translate, but rar re-create artifacts in inevitably recognition in image recenter West, its aestics, its cultural "art" can be seen as an image m somehow insufficient.ls attempt colonizing West, different art, will categies. reconstruct visual only always Thus, in ways that render "This is art!" I tell students in my pre-hispanic Andean visual-culture course as I show m a small, silver, llama-shaped figurine made used Incas (Inkas) in late fifteenth century. I may utter those wds (in fact, I'm pretty sure I don't), but being an art hisrian who is showing, discussing, making students remember Inca means figurines slide quizzes, I am telling m implicitly that this object is be valued over Inca artifacts about which I do wax eloquent. I also show m so-called Funerary Rock from Machu Picchu tell m that suspect Incas val ued this kind thing even me highly than y did figurai sculptures, f it received small ferings only alcoholic figurines. Hover, unlike Inca recognized as art until Andean aestics, has in Western Europe pointed America recently. beverages figurines, Esr out that encouraged Paszry, tion Andean visual culture, in particular fms.'6 In this observation, she echoes an Shapiro, patic textiles, but possibly this rock s like it re in her tntieth-century a mid-tntieth-century recognition insightful turn essay on even abstraction r??valua abstract Inca essay written in 1953 Meyer who concluded that " values modern art have led a me objective approach exotic arts than was possible fifty a hun dred years ago."17 While it can certainly be argued that some African Pacific Isl igin propelled artists ward certain kinds abstraction, no one would ever assert that carved Inca rocks played move. In fact, in 19^7 hisrian J. Alden Mason concluded that sne ture "was entirely missing" from Inca visual culture.18 a part sym in this sculp 27 art journal

6 Inca, llama figurine, c , crimped silver sheet metal, 9% x 8% in. (23.8 x 20.6 cm), American Museum Natural Hisry, phograph #B/1619 (artwk in public domain; phograph provided Library, American Museum Natural Hisry) 19. It could be argued that tntieth-century conversion Machu Picchu from remote, over grown ruins in an accessible urist destina tion?a museum al fresco?has accomplished both acts collection display. Today, many site's carved outcrops, including "Funerary Rock," roped f specially protected. 20. C?sar Paternos, Piedra abstracta: La escul tura Inca; Una visi?n contemp?nea (Lima: Fondo de cultura Econ?mica, 1989), available in English as The Sne Thread: Andean Roots Abstract Art, trans. Esr Allen (Austin: University Texas Press, 1996); Maarten Van de Guchte, "'Carving Wld': Inca Monumental Sculpture Lscape," PhD dissertation (Department Anthropology, University Illinois at Urbana Champaign, 1990). Paternos is a practicing artist Van de Guchte is an anthropologist. Facrs long militating against identifying "Funerary Rock" as art include fact that it is ptable? refe subject traditional methods collection display except through phography.i9 What's me, part significance this outcrop is fact that it echoes sacred moun tain on hizon behind it. It can be relocated? f that matter looked at from a different point view?without affecting its ability represent mimetically a specific mountain peak. Indeed, Inca-manipulated rocks have received scant attention until recently, when C?sar Paternos's book Piedra abstracta Maarten Van de Guchte's dis sertation on carved Inca outcrops in Cuzco region focused attention on clear imptance se rocks had in Inca cul ture.20 Despite such recent considerations abstract quali ties much Inca rock most carving, focus remains on few examples imagistic carving, such as pumas, frogs, steps, terraces Saywite monolith. Sometimes cited as imagistic is so-called Puma Rock at K'enko Gre.21 It is an unsculpted outcrop, framed a masonry bder. Accding one Erringn, aspects made "art appropria tion" is what she calls iconicity, which she means ability observers find resemblance something recognizable? most a ably person an animal. "Iconicity," she writes, "remains an unstated even criterion f iden repressed tification what counts as art."22 Her observation prompts question: Do find a crouching puma in natural rock at K'enko in der meet our needs expectations f art? In wds, is this a puma f art's sake? Certainly, re is no evidence that Incas valued this outcrop f its putative like ness a puma. Similarly, might ll wonder if appeal claim that Incas' capital Cuzco was built in shape a puma stems from our desire f iconicity rar than any congruence with Inca practices.23 Despite fact that R.Tom Zuidema Monica Barnes Daniel J. Slive have fered serious reserva tions this hyposis, ion that Inca Cuzco was remains puma-shaped popular.24 Perhaps inspired idea a puma-shaped settlement, cer a recent tainly prompted book Ferno Edgar Elrieta Salazar, ur at Inca sites out guides day point "flying cond" at Pisaq, "cosmic bird" Machu Picchu, a variety "images" found in structures environs Inca settlements.2? What's me, it is uncommon se days find urists participating in search f "hidden" imagery in ruins Inca built environment. That continue find images where Incas likely didn't suggests that still engage in processes similar those that resulted in removal natural fibers from African masks (discussed above). By privi leging iconic imagistic, separating certain artifacts as me wthy study than s reason our own aestic stards, expectations, disciplinary categies, have Inca visual culture stripped its natural fibers. Iconocentric looking has transfmed Inca culture in something West already knows how value. This kind looking, heir panoptic looking? 28 SUMMER 2006

7 21. Paternos, The Sne Thread, 66; Rebecca Sne-Miller, Art Andes: From Chavin Inca, rev. ed. (London: Thames Hudson, 2002), 200, fig Ferno E. Elrieta Salazar Edgar Elrieta Salazar, in Cusco Sacred Valley Incas, trans. Beverly Nelson Elder (Cusco: Tanpu, 2001), 59, find a ad in this same rock instead a puma. 22. Erringn, The claim that Cuzco was laid out in fm a puma was iginally suggested Manuel Chavez Ballon first argued in print John Howl Ro, "What Kind a Settlement Was Inca Cuzco?"?awpa Pacha 5 (1967): R. Tom Zuidema, "The Lion in City: Royal Symbols Transition in Cusco," Journal Latin American Le 9, no. I (1983): ; Monica Barnes Daniel J. Slive, "El Puma de Cuzco:?Plano de la ciudad Ynga o noci?n Europea?" Revista Andina ll.no. I (1993): The Elrietas have found following in layouts pre-hispanic settlements: a guanaco at Tiwanaku; a deity named Wiracocha, a cond, a sacred tree, two llamas, a cn cob at Ollantaytambo; a cond at Pisaq; a lizard, a crouching puma, a sting puma, a cosmic bird at Machu Picchu. 26. Michel Foucault, The Order Things, trans. Alan Sheridan ( 1966; New Yk: Rom House, 1973); Discipline Punish: The Birth Prison, trans. Alan Sheridan ( 1975; New Yk: Rom House, 1977). 27. Foucault, Discipline Punish, Ibid., David Summers has recently questioned ability many traditional art-hisrical categies adequately describe full range both non Western Western. Unftunately he retains what must surely be one most problematic categies all?art. Although Summers recognizes that wd "art" has had its problems hisrically when applied visual cultures outside West, he continues use it without definition. He does suggest that what has been called "visual arts" ought become "spatial arts" so as acknowledge that, f many cultures, much me than sight vision involved. Summers, I I. 30. Art is only term imposed from outside that creates a homogenizing categy f cultures that did use it. F example, "shamanism" is a term introduced (imposed on?) almost all cul tures that said practice it. Some scholars fear that term "shamanism" homogenizes as it nmalizes; see, f example, Cecelia F. Klein et al., "The Role Shamanism in Mesoamerican Art: A Reassessment," Current Anthropology 43, no. 3 (2002): 383^20. "Race" "writing" but two me examples terms with problem atic, unreflective global application. 31. Hayden White, "The Politics Hisrical Interpretation," in The Politics Interpretation, ed. W. J. T Mitchell (Chicago: University Chicago Press, 1983), F a study Inca sries about saykuska, see Maarten Van de Guchte, "El ciclo m?tico de la piedra cansada," Revista Andina 4, no. 2 ( 1984): which takes wld segregates, ders, ranks m? reminds us consider wk Michel Foucault, who, in both The Order Things Discipline Punish, exples development various kinds dis cipline practice in West.26 academic Many s, his observations useful those us who who, in fact, as Foucault observes, both agents its subjects. He identifies s, which he describes as "techniques following f overlapping rate, segregate, identify, assuring related dering homogenize, nmalize, exclude; human multiplicities," as doing : y ganize, categize, divide, sepa isolate; y comp, differentiate, distribute, rank, y punish und.27 sure that as ll-d practitioners a, all art hisrians can think ways have in participated experienced such acts. From long list that s, including academic s, do, Foucault nize as ll as make emphasized nmalization, which he meant por arbitrary all, useful.28 Art, with its assted homoge distinctions appear natural, logical,, above subcategies, nmalized distinctions.29 Traditional Western nmalize categy practice gies imposed people practices "sculpture" found only now stretches is but one se categies art have in non-western wld. F incpate skin carving, as arbitrary exped example, in Mai Mok'o, which combines tato with scarification. While Western cate have been altered disciplinary encounters with s, y have, simultaneously, schemata on non-western cultures.30 Here it is useful return a consideration some Inca rocks. When I tell my current book project concerns Inca rocks, nearly everyone that I mean carved Inca rocks. But, as far as know, Incas did value carved rocks differently from many uncarved ones; y in masonry frames utilized a variety visual cues tance certain rocks wher carved. warning from Inca ir eyes.31 point attempt view," "put oneself acknowledge in Keeping place assumes I'm nested both kinds with in mind signify Hay den White's but imp past agents, seeing that can see rocks On h, can take cues from Incas mselves through ir own wds recded in myths, legends, chronicles, as ll as still visible traces ir practices) Western ways. One Inca way how rocks representing Inca rocks render present ir about how underst rocks in than categizing protypes, rocks seems have that which y depended index. Rar than a protype through mimetic resemblant fms, many revered certain rocks called huanca owners. Some rocks, called ered brs. Rocks called terriries where y ir protypes through m?nymie st. hirauqui, sayhua, like Chacrayoq valleys that which relation. y rulers whom Saywite, fields which F y example, petrified (from on consid boundaries fied owners. Puruauca warris petrified who came life in der defend specific terriries befe repetrifying. Rocks called saykuska quarries from which masons removed rocks f Inca se instances, rocks place?wher field, valley, quarry, in sne sne may provide may represent aspects locations animate f king. protype, The ferings, "spirit" but carving carving building y projects.32 a specific person niches flat imagistic does carving appear on petri In each places 29 art journal

8 Inca, carved monolith, c , sne, approx. 8 x 10 x 9 ft. (244 x 305 x 274 cm), Saywite, Peru (phograph auth) have been essential function significance rocks that signify par tially entirely through menymy. That is, y with which y identified. Stretching conventional art-hisrical categies, such as so as sculpture, embrace all manner Inca rocks, such as those named above, reveals hing about Inca rocks serves furr nmalize a non-inca con cept, art. In so doing, sacred Inca rocks, made "art appropriation," implic itly compd "art intention," a move that invites judgment accding Western aestic stards which can y only, invariably, fail measure up, since y re made with such stards in mind. Foucault observes that discipli nary methods intend reveal what he called "evolutive time" charting ion progress.33 Since, hisr ically, art has been held ( those schooled in Western tradi tion) represent highest degree evolution, art naming elsewhere can help but reinfce aestic supremacy. Indeed, find that all o ten Western aestic stards have been ( still) 33. Foucault, Discipline Punish, Preziosi, Rethinking Art Hisry, As early as 1842, Franz Kugler's Hbuch der Kunstgeschichte included descriptions what was called "art" from Oceania Nth America. Not long after, indigenous artifacts from sub Saharan Africa, Americas, Pacific re irrevocably linked. 36. Preziosi, Rethinking Art Hisry, 29; Nelson Goodman, Ways Wldmaking (Indianapolis: Hackett, 1978), Both Klein, in "Objects nice, but...", Cameron, in "In Search Children," 18-33, have provided models f this kind reflectivity when, independently with regard different cul tures, y both discussed implications labels "doll" "art" when applied certain. 38. James Elkins, review Real Spaces: Wld Art Hisry Rise Western Modernism David Summers, Art Bulletin 86, no. 2 (June 2004): Felipe Sol?s Olguin, "Art at Time Aztecs," in Aztecs, ed. Eduardo Mas Moctezuma Sol?s (London: Royal Academy Arts, 2002), Beatriz de la Fuente, "Traces an Identity," in The Aztec Empire, ed. Felipe Sol?s Olguin (New Yk: Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, 2004), 41, A Dominican friar, Domingo de San Tom?s, auth a Quechua-Spanish dictionary pub wielded as instruments cultural hegemony. As Preziosi observes, "Aestic stards conventional arbitrary neutral, absolute, indepen dent institutions, classes, social In ideologies. sht, y instruments por."34 Hisrically, art, like writing, use wheel, monoistic religion, has been used gauge how high low on evolutionary ladder culture its producers perched. It is imptant remember that art hisry, bn in early modern Europe, reached maturity in nineteenth century. It was both authed authized same s who re expling colo nizing much rest wld. It can be no accident that art hisry linkage so-called arts fmer colonies came in at being same time in same place.35 We might reasonably recognize that ions about art art hisry inextricably intertwined with colonization. While much has been writ ten about development in concert anthropology with Europe's colonizing those agenda, us who art practice in once hisry regions colonized Europe have questioned very little ways our enables certain avenues investigation while discouraging s, about how questions ask choose examine ten respond colonial discourses shaped disciplinary apparatuses. as Perhaps, Preziosi suggests, it is time take an seriously observation fered Nelson Goodman in his book Ways Wbrldmaking: that "what is art?" is wrong question so ought be replaced query "when is art?"36 Art hisrians? just those in non-western fields?would n be always cognizant contexts in which re named art, me imptant, consequences that naming SUMMER 2006

9 lnca,"puma Rock," c , sne, at K'enko Gre, Cuzco, Peru (phograph auth) We would ask ourselves wher term "art" as using it in our studies has eir linguistic parity in vernacular etical utility. If it has neir, n maybe ought discard it as an intellectually unproductive if actually term counterproductive that tends render what as study insufficient. In place "art," might consider use indigenous terms, categies, even epistemologies where v can be recovered, reservations recently discussed James Elkins with In sting. his review f The Art Bulletin David Summers's art global text hisry entitled Real Spaces, Elkins use critical concepts vocabulary cul indigenous tures studied, saying that "o many unfamiliar terms text may no longer feel like art hisry"38 With regard cultures that have ( had) no use f ion art, perhaps lished in 1560, translates quillcani ( make quillca) as pintar ( paint), labrar alguna obra con coles generalmente ( col something generally), debuxar ( draw) arte de debuxar ( art drawing); quillcacamayoc (crear quillca) as pinr generalmente (painter, generally) debux ad (one who draws); quillcasca (a thing with quillca) as debuxada cosa (something drawn) esculpida cosa (something sculpted); see San Tom?s, Gramm?tica o Arte de la Lengua General de los Indios de los Reynos del Peru (Lima: Universidad Nacional May de San Marcos, 1951 ), 98, 188, 357. The Jesuit Diego Gonz?lez de Holgu?n, auth a Quechua-Spanish dictionary published in 1608, defines quellka as lab (needlewk namental wk), matiz adno (Lima: (tint), (adnment), quellkani as dibujar ( draw) pintar ( paint); see Gonz?lez de Holgu?n, Arte y diccionario Qquechua-Espa?ol crejido y aumentado p los RR. PP. Redenristas Imprenta del Estado, 1901), San Tom?s, 131, 357, translates quillca as letra o carta mensagera (letter messenger's e) libro o papel generalmente (book paper generally). Gonz?lez de Holgu?n, 293, defines quellka as carta (letter) escritura (writing). F a discussion quillca in colonial period indigenous Andean responses alphabetic script, see Joanne Rappapt Tom Cummins, "Beten Images Writing: The Ritual King's Quillca," Colonial Latin American Review 7, no. I (1998): feeling like art hisry isn't such a bad Those interested in thing. pre Hispanic societies central Mexico, f example, might usefully furr exple concept a ltecayotl, N?huatl term that Felipe Sol?s Olguin translates as "artistic sensitivity."39 Beatriz de la Fuente equates Aztec (Mexica) ideal ltecayotl with cre ation that "reach a perfect equilibrium beten dual, opposed ele ments that could be found throughout universe"; ltecayotl, she is explains, " dialogue beten head heart," " person who had a dialogue with his her own heart was known as a ltecatl, day called an 'artist.'"40 How ltecayotl was visually articulated how it affected reception monuments in postclassic Central Mexican society, where root wd lteca referred builders ancient monuments cities in long-aboned region, open questions that could usefully be discussed. We might wonder, hover, wher rendering ltecatl as "artist" (both male is so female) straight fward. What has been lost? added, confused?in translation? Is de la Fuente ancient Mexican transfming ideas, me masking about Aztecs than she is revealing? What nuances Aztec thought elided when render lte catl as artist? What might disparity beten terms say about Aztecs about us? terms in Employing indigenous way I suggest is a act simple translation. At first blush, Incas appear have had a term that approximates "visual arts." Accding early colonial-period Quechua dictionaries, Quechua being language Incas, wd quilico its cognates refer paint ing, drawing, namental wk, engraving, Yet even a sculpting.41 cursy consideration term exposes how translation proves be an awkward enterprise, f, in addition practices named above, in Spanish colonial period quillca was used refer common surfaces with on writing m, some thing unknown in pre-hispanic Andes.42 The ready recognition mundane 3 I art journal

10 as alphabetic writing quillca suggests that wd refers marking sur faces addition (including col) regardless medium technique; wher painting, drawing, engraving, embroidery, writing, all superficial was marking quillca.43 Thus, in quillca itself does refer highest der visual, but rar describes a subset visual, a particularly spe cial one at that. If re restrict our studies wks that as qualify quillca, thinking that re truer an Inca ion visual arts, would elimi nate a whole range monuments?including many revered rock embod iments discussed above. Thus, while I would argue that terms indigenous concepts imptant consider discuss, it is clear that, f most part, solution is a simple substitution native wds that conven approximate tional art-hisrical terms n allow us proceed with business as usual. Many researchers, especially those in fields where indigenous vocabularies accessible, find concept visual culture, with its rejection art his ry's conventional boundaries value me judgments, flexible accepting nonart traditions. To my mind, hover, re me issues than pround particulars our I am terminology. concerned with ways scholars day in implicated naturalization culturally hisrically bound con cept art through unreflective usage modern art hisry's ions, ideas, terms, tropes. even me is Perhaps consequential future art hisry itself as exps incpate all times places human occupation.44 Are those us at wking so-called margins, at least on some level, new resources scholarly explers locating f art 43. The indigenous chronicler Inga Diego de Castro Titu Cusi Yupanqui, a descendant Inca rulers who wrote his memoirs in 1570, describes bible breviary, shown ruler Atahualpa Spaniards under comm conquis tad Francisco Pizarro just befe y ok Atahualpa prisoner, as quillca de Dios y del rrey (quillca God king). Atahualpa, seeing anything interest in book, ssed it on ground. While alphabetic writing may have been identified as quillca, it was deemed remark able. Thus scribes aries created quillca just as did painters, carvers, embroiderers. See Titu Cusi Yupanqui, Relaci?n de la conquista del Per? (Lima: Ediciones de la Biblioteca Universitaria, 1973), See Preziosi, Rethinking Art Hisry, 10, 33, where he fers relevant discussion art his ry's "disciplinary machinery" its need exp, extend its "disciplinary hizons all places times" as if prove its universal applicability. 45. F a cogent critique what she calls Hegelian narrative hisry art, see Shelly Erringn, The Death Auntic Primitive Art Or Tales Progress (Berkeley: University Califnia Press, 1998), market, museums, art hisry? How most might effec tively intervene in processes through which non-western material culture is converted in art, craft, Western categies A? particular concern, f is example, "global" art-survey text in which chapters non visual cultures ten provide little me than exotic digressions from progressivist climb Western through hisry.45 As I see it, those us focusing on as outside Western tradition, those us all o familiar with loss auchthonous systems natural signification? fibers meaning that I referred earlier?have much contribute conversations about art hisry's frequent Eurocentrism concomitant intellectual I imperialism. fer this essay provoke promote such conversation. Carolyn Dean, press Hisry Art Visual Culture at University Califnia, Santa Cruz, researches aspects Inka visual culture both befe after Spanish conquest. She is currently wking on a book entitled A Culture Sne: Inka Perspectives on/in Rock. 32 SUMMER 2006

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