Setting the scene: the grid and roof-top PV penetration - drivers for active distribution network management. Michele de Nigris - ISGAN

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1 Setting the scene: the grid and roof-top PV penetration - drivers for active distribution network management Michele de Nigris - ISGAN

2 ISGAN IS ONE OF 12 INITIATIVES UNDER THE CLEAN ENERGY MINSTRIAL (CEM) 27-Mar-15 2

3 ISGAN IN CONTEXT A mechanism for bringing highlevel government attention and action to accelerate the development and deployment of smarter electricity grids around the world. 27-Mar-15 3

4 ISGAN PARTICIPANTS(25) Contracting Parties (25) Invited to Join the IA Brazil, Israel, Turkey, Mongolia Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH Government of Belgium Norwegian Ministry of Petroleum and Energy Swedish Energy Agency Energy Agency of Denmark Tekes (Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and Innovation) Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland Russian Energy Agency Government of Korea European Commission Government of the Netherlands, Ministry of Economic Affairs, Agriculture and Innovation Government of Canada U.S. Department of Energy Government of France Government of India New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) Swiss Federal Energy Union Fenosa Distribucion Office of Ministry of Science and Market Energy Technology Authority Department of High and Ricerca sul Sistema Energetico (RSE S.p.A.) New Technology Development and Industrialization Government of Mexico Government of Austria South African National Energy Development Government of Australia 27-Mar-15 Institute (SANEDI) 4

5 PROGRAM OF WORK SIRFN Smart Grids International Research Facilities Network Survey facilities and test beds Compare test protocols Power T&D system an integrated approach Policy and regulation Expansion Planning Market analysis Technology development demonstration System Operation Management Security Worldwide initiatives drivers, motivations and analysis Assess drivers for smart grids development Inventory of activities Case studies and success stories Tools for policy makers Benchmark smart grid maturity of existing systems Cost-benefits analysis of smart grids projects SWOT PEST analysis toolkits 5

6 Electricity system scheme - conventional TRANSMISSION POWER PLANT DISTRIBUTION SUB TRANSMISSION

7 Electricity system scheme passive DEVELOPED WITH NO DG OPERATED RADIALLY NO ONLINE CONTROL OF VOLTAGE PROFILES ALONG FEEDERS AND CURRENTS FLOWING GENERALLY DESIGNED AND OPERATED IN A FIT&FORGET APPROACH DIMENSION FOR LOAD EVOLUTION FORESEEN IN THE AREA

8 Electricity system scheme limited DG WITH LIMITED INTEGRATION OF DG POWER GENERATED BY DG REMAINS IN ALL INSTANCES LOWER THAN THE LOAD THE POWER FLOWS FROM THE TRANSMISSION TO THE LOADS LOCAL REVERSE FLOWS CAN OCCUR POTENTIAL PROBLEMS LINKED WITH VOLTAGE PROFILES AND LINE THERMAL OVERLOADS

9 Effects of DG on voltage profiles 9

10 Effects of DG on line thermal ratings In=250 A THE THERMAL BEHAVIOUR OF LINES CAN BE AFFECTED BY THE INSERTION OF DG LOCAL REVERSE POWER FLOW CAN OVERLOAD PORTION OF THE SYSTEM EXCEEDING THE LINE THERMAL RATINGS Source: Poli MI

11 Electricity system scheme high penetration WITH HIGH PENETRATION OF DG POWER GENERATED BY DG CAN EXCEED THAT ABSORBED BY THE LOAD REVERSE POWER FLOW TOWARDS THE TRANSMISSION SYSTEM CAN OCCUR THE ISSUE IS NO MORE LOCAL AND AFFECTS THE BEHAVIOUR OF THE ENTIRE SYSTEM, INCLUDING THE TRANSMISSION : NETWORK PROTECTION AND AUTOMATION IS AFFECTED

12 The very rapid evolution of PV in Italy

13 The very rapid evolution of PV in Italy Colour intensity in the map proportional to installed power concentration of PV generators 900 MW connected on HV network MW connected on MV-LV network AT MT BT Fotovoltaico Fonte:GSE

14 The very rapid evolution of PV in Italy Equivalent to 10 nuclear groups!

15 Impact of DG penetration on reverse p.f. Annual data High Voltage (7%) (23%) (15%) 169 (5%) (16%) (11%) 150 kv 0 Totale Number sezioni of AT/MT HV/MV Italia Inversione RPFT > > 1% ( >7 Inversione RPFT > > 5% 5% ( >36 transformers ore/mese) ore/mese) Luglio 2010 Luglio 2011 Luglio kv Medium Voltage Source: Enel Distribuzione

16 The effects on the system during S.S.S. Load curve as seen from the EHV nodes (380kV) on the day after Easter 2010 vs MW P.V. INSTALLED Source:Terna 16

17 Impact of DG penetration on disturbances Due to reduction of rotating machines connected to Transmission grid, there is less Shortcircuit-Power available and therefore voltage dips generated at T-level have larger impact

18 Interface Protection System low DG P L > P DG PS CLOSE OPEN Reclosure OK 1 MW 50,3 Hz IPS DDI Hz LOAD1 P L = 2 MW 49,7 Hz 1 MW P DG = 1 MW WITH LOW PENETRATION OF DG POWER GENERATED BY DG LOWER THAN THAT ABSORBED BY THE LOAD DG CANNOT SUSTAIN THE ISLANDED CONDITION CONVENTINAL LOCAL PROTECTION SCHEMES CAN BE ADOPTED TO PROTECT THE USERS

19 Interface Protection System high DG P L > P DG PS CLOSE WITH 1 HIGH MW PENETRATION OF DG Hz POWER GENERATED BY DG CAN BE SIMILAR TO THAT ABSORBED BY LOAD 50 THERE IS A RISK OF INEFFICIENT SENSITIVITY OF DDI ,3 THE Hz LOCAL PROTECTION Reclosure OK AND ISLANDING; IPS ISLANDING IS NOT PERMITTED BECAUSE DSO CANNOT CONTROL POWER QUALITY AND SAFETY ASPECTS 49,7 Hz LOAD1 1 MW THERE IS A NEED OF SMART PROTECTION SCHEMES P CL = 2 MW P L P DG CLOSE OPEN Reclosure KO 0 MW 1 MW 1 MW P DG = 1 MW 50,3 Hz IPS DDI Hz Unwanted islanding!!! LOAD2 P L = 2 MW 49,7 Hz P DG = 2 MW

20 Adaptative smart anti-islanding system PS CLOSE OPEN Reclosure OK 0 MW 1 MW 1 MW 51,5 Hz IPS 2 MW IPD LOAD1 47,5 Hz 2 MW P L P DG P L = 2 MW P DG = 2 MW When communication is active, a low sensitivity setting profile of voltage/frequency protections is enabled in IPS (f.i Hz), together with transfer trip, in order to disconnect DG only if LoM or an extreme transmission network incident occurs.

21 Requirements for DG connection Technical Issue BAU Distribution Network Active Distribution Network Voltage rise/drop Hosting Capacity Reactive Power Support Limits/bands for demand and generation connection/operation Generation tripping Capacitor banks Network reinforcement (e.g., lines/transformers) Dependency on transmission network Capacitor banks Limits/bands for demand and generation connection/operation Coordinated volt-var control Static var compensators Coordinated dispatch of DER On-line reconfiguration Coordinated dispatch of DER On-line reconfiguration Coordinated volt-var control Static var compensators Coordinated reactive power dispatch of DER Protection Adjustment of protection settings New protection elements Limits for generation connection Fault ride through specifications for generation On-line reconfiguration Dynamic protection settings Ageing Strict network designs specifications based on technical and economic analyses Asset condition monitoring

22 The characteristics of the interface converters Functionality Characteristics Operation close to normal working conditions (voltagefrequency Riding through voltage dips - LVRT Riding through overvoltages Source: AEEGSI

23 Grid codes for DG connection TECHNICAL STANDARDS FOR THE CONNECTION OF ACTIVE AND PASSIVE USERS TO THE DISTRIBUTION NETWORK CEI 0-21 FOR CONNECTION TO THE LOW VOLTAGE NETWORK CEI 0-16 FOR CONNEVTION TO THE MV AND HV NETWORK GRID CODES A.68: PV PLANTS MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR THE CONNECTION AND OPERATION TO THE HV NETWORK A.69: CONNECTION CRITERIA OF GENERATION PLANTS TO THE NATIONAL TRANSMISSION NETWORK DEFENCE SYSTEM A.70: TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS FOR DISTRIBUTED GENERATION A.72: PROCEDURE FOR THE SHEDDING OF DG DURING EMERGENCY CONDITIONS FOR THE NATIONAL TRANSMISSION SYSTEM

24 Grid codes for DG connection Interaction with the network Operation close to normal working conditions (voltage-frequency) Riding through voltage dips Riding through overvoltages Auxiliary services to the network Generating/absorbing reactive power Reducing active power Increasing active power in underfrequency conditions Not yet standardised Islanding Riding through conditions out-of phase reclosures Management of storage Participation to defense plans Enhancing power quality

25 RES integration: Pilot projects for DG integration Demonstration pilot: real operations in real grid (no lab) Regulatory attention to both effectiveness (performance) and efficiency (cost): cost benefit analysis for the whole life-time of the new components Awarded with extra-wacc (+2%) for 12 years ( inputbased ) Focus on MV networks: 75% of DG rated power Open grid: non-proprietary communication protocols only, in order to minimize interface costs for network users Replicability and dissemination of the bestpractices Active grids only: at least reverse power-flow for 1% of time from MV to HV Real time control system at MV level: the selected MV network has to be controlled (voltage limits / antiislanding) Output disclosure: because demonstration pilots are paid by all customers > results must be public (no patents) Source: AEEGSI

26 System Integration: Awarded projects Technology integration projects proposed by AEEG 8 projects awarded 7 ongoing Several regions concerned Total 16.5 M (higher ROI rate) Transformation of portions of HV/MV substations and medium voltage network already experiencing reverse energy flux; Management of DG (dispatching, protection, supervision, automation, voltage regulation, communication); Pre-requisite: high replicability

27 Solutions developed in the projects Latency tens ms NETWORK AUTOMATION AND RECONFIGURATION: FLISR Fault Location Isolation and Service Restoration Possibility to interact with prosumers (also LV) through Secondary Substation router Fast MV fault Isolation: Detection on isolation of MV fault sections without the tripping of the breaker at the line departure Anti Islanding: detection of possible islanding condition on MV Network and disconnection of relevant generators Latency sec VOLTAGE CONTROL: Participation of MV Distributed Generation to Voltage regulation on MV feeders Voltage regulation trough control from secondary substation Voluntary involvement of prosumers in the area Communication between the inverters and the regulation systems Development of specific voltage regulators Volt/VAR Integration with DSO and TSO SCADA Latency minutes TSO-DSO INTEGRATION: Measurement collection, DG production forecasting and data transmission towards TSO systems ICT THE ESSENTIAL ENABLER ADDITIONAL FUNCTIONALITIES: ELECTRIC MOBILITY INTEGRATION STORAGE INTEGRATION SERVICES FOR THE FINAL USER: INFORMATION AND FLEXIBILITY

28 Conclusions DISTRIBUTION NETWORK PV HOSTING CAPACITY DEPENDS ON LOCAL CHARACTERISTICS BUT WILL LIKELY SOON BE EXCEEDED IF NO SMART GRID MEASURE IS TAKEN THE PROBLEMS LINKED WITH DG CAN BE LOCAL WITH LIMITED DG VOLTAGE PROFILES LINE OVERLOADS INCREASING THE LEVEL OF DG THE PROBLEMS BECOME GLOBAL: REVERSE POWER FLOW RISK OF UNWANTED ISLANDING SMART GRIDS MEASURES CAN BE ADOPTED: CARACTERISTICS OF THE INTERFACE CONVERTERS (SMART INVERTERS) EVOLUTION OF THE PROTECTION SCEMES (PROTECTION SELECTIVITY) IT IS NECESSARY TO REVIEW SPECIFICATIONS FOR THE INTERFACE CONVERTERS (STANDARDS) AND GRID CODES EXPERIMENTS AND LOCAL DEPLOYMENTS PROVE THAT THE SYSTEM CAN WORK PROPERLY AND ALLOWS SIGNIFICANT HOSTING CAPACITY INCREASE (IF DG AND EV CHARGING)

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