Page 1. Name: 1) The diagram below represents one possible immune response that can occur in the human body.

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1 Name: Page 1 1) The diagram below represents one possible immune response that can occur in the human body. 5) One similarity between cell receptors and antibodies is that both A) are involved in digestion B) slow the rates of chemical reactions C) are produced by nerve cells D) are highly specific in their actions 6) Microbes that enter the body, causing disease, are known as A) enzymes B) hosts C) pathogens D) antibodies The structures that are part of the immune system are represented by A) B and C, only C) A, B, and C B) A, only D) A and C, only 2) The diagram below represents what can happen when homeostasis in an organism is threatened. 7) Which activity is not a response of human white blood cells to pathogens? A) engulfing and destroying bacteria B) producing antibodies C) removing carbon dioxide D) identifying invaders for destruction 8) Which phrase does not describe a way the human body responds to fight disease? A) production of pathogens by white blood cells B) increased production of white blood cells C) production of antibodies by white blood cells D) destruction of infectious agents by white blood cells 9) Which statement best describes an immune response? Which statement provides a possible explanation for these events? A) Antibiotics break down harmful substances by the process of digestion. B) Cloning removes abnormal cells produced during differentiation. C) Some specialized cells mark and other cells engulf microbes during immune reactions. D) Embryonic development of essential organs occurs during pregnancy. 3) Which substances may form in the human body due to invaders entering the blood? A) vaccines C) red blood cells B) antibodies D) nutrients 4) Which statement does not identify a characteristic of antibodies? A) They are nonspecific, acting against any foreign substance in the body. B) They may be produced by white blood cells. C) They are produced by the body in response to the presence of foreign substances. D) They may be produced in response to an antigen. A) It stimulates asexual reproduction and resistance in pathogens. B) It usually involves the recognition and destruction of pathogens. C) It always produces antibiotics. D) It releases red blood cells that destroy parasites. 10) A patient has just received an organ transplant. Which treatment would be most effective in preventing the rejection of the organ by the patient's body? A) Give the patient blood transfusions. B) Restrict the patient's salt intake. C) Treat the patient with antibiotics to fight off a possible viral infection. D) Treat the patient with medications that decrease the immune response. 11) In some individuals, the immune system attacks substances such as grass pollen that are usually harmless, resulting in A) an insulin imbalance B) a form of cancer C) an allergic reaction D) a mutation

2 12) Allergic reactions are most closely associated with A) immune responses to usually harmless substances B) the shape of red blood cells C) the action of circulating hormones D) a low blood sugar level Questions 18 through 20 refer to the following: Page 2 13) Scientific studies have indicated that there is a higher percentage of allergies in babies fed formula containing cow's milk than in breast-fed babies. Which statement represents a valid inference made from these studies? A) Breast feeding prevents all allergies from occurring. B) There is no relationship between drinking cow's milk and having allergies. C) Milk from cows causes allergic reactions in all infants. D) Breast milk most likely contains fewer substances that trigger allergies. 14) Nerve cells are essential to an animal because they directly provide A) an exchange of gases within the body B) communication between cells C) regulation of reproductive rates within other cells D) transport of nutrients to various organs 15) To communicate between cells, many multicellular animals use A) respiratory gases and hormones B) bones and muscles C) nerve signals and hormones D) nerve signals and respiratory gases 16) Communication between cells is affected if there is decreased ability to produce A) antibiotics and guard cells B) hormones and nerve impulses C) antibodies and chloroplasts D) digestive enzymes and gametes 18) The process represented in the diagram best illustrates A) waste disposal B) muscle contraction C) cellular communication D) extraction of energy from nutrients 19) Which statement best describes the diagram? A) Nerve cell Y contains receptor molecules for substance A. B) Nerve cell Y is signaling nerve cell X. C) Nerve cell X is attaching to nerve cell Y. D) Nerve cell X is releasing receptor molecules. 20) A drug is developed that, due to its molecular shape, blocks the action of substance A. Which shape would the drug molecule most likely resemble? A) B) C) D) 17) Two types of human cells are shown in the diagram below. Cell A causes the cells at B to contract. This activity would be most useful for A) lifting a book from a bookshelf B) coordinating the functions of organelles C) carrying out the process of protein synthesis D) digesting food in the small intestine

3 21) An important method of communication between cells in an organism is shown in the diagram below. Questions 24 and 25 refer to the following: Page 3 The diagram below shows a cell associated with coordination. 24) In the given diagram, structure X would be involved in the A) synthesis of proteins B) development of pathogens C) absorption of energy from the Sun D) storage of digestive enzymes What is the chemical referred to in the diagram? A) DNA necessary for regulating cell functions B) a food molecule taken in by an organism C) an enzyme detected by a cell membrane receptor D) a hormone important in maintaining homeostasis 22) What will most likely result if a diabetic injects an overdose of insulin? A) an accumulation of wastes in the bloodstream B) a dangerous drop in blood sugar levels C) a serious infection in the pancreas D) an increase in the production of pancreatic enzymes 23) A process that occurs in the human body is represented in the diagram below. 25) Which statement best describes a function of the entire structure shown in the diagram? A) It unites with an egg cell during fertilization. B) It releases chemicals involved in cellular communication. C) It synthesizes a hormone involved in the control of blood sugar level. D) It controls the replication of genetic material. 26) The human reproductive system is regulated by A) restriction enzymes B) hormones C) antigens D) complex carbohydrates 27) The reproductive cycle of a human is usually regulated by A) immune responses C) gametes B) natural selection D) hormones 28) Antibody molecules and receptor molecules are similar in that they both A) speed up chemical reactions in cells B) have a specific shape related to their specific function C) control transport through the cell membrane D) remove wastes from the body Which statement is most closely associated with the diagram? A) Certain molecules are replicated by means of a template. B) Energy from nutrients is utilized for waste disposal. C) Receptor molecules play an important role in communication between cells. D) Small molecules are obtained from large molecules during digestion. 29) Which activity is not a function of white blood cells in response to an invasion of the body by bacteria? A) producing antibodies to act against this type of bacteria B) engulfing these bacteria C) preparing for future invasions of this type of bacteria D) speeding transmissions of nerve impulses to detect these bacteria

4 30) The immune system of humans may respond to chemicals on the surface of an invading organism by A) synthesizing antibodies that mark these organisms to be destroyed B) secreting antibiotics that attach to these organisms C) altering a DNA sequence in these organisms D) releasing hormones that break down these chemicals Questions 35 through 37 refer to the following: Page 4 31) Which transplant method would prevent the rejection of tissue after an organ transplant? A) using organs produced by genetic engineering to get rid of all proteins in the donated organs B) using organs cloned from the cells of the patient C) using organs only from pigs or monkeys D) using an organ donated by a close relative because the proteins will always be identical to those of the recipient 32) Vaccinations help prepare the body to fight invasions of a specific pathogen by A) inhibiting white blood cell production B) inhibiting antigen production C) stimulating red blood cell production D) stimulating antibody production 33) The purpose of introducing weakened microbes into the body of an organism is to stimulate the A) replication of genes that direct the synthesis of hormones that regulate the number of microbes B) production of living microbes that will protect the organism from future attacks C) immune system to react and prepare the organism to fight future invasions by these microbes D) production of antigens that will prevent infections from occurring 34) The use of a vaccine to stimulate the immune system to act against a specific pathogen is valuable in maintaining homeostasis because A) once the body produces chemicals to combat one type of virus, it can more easily make antibiotics B) the body can digest the weakened microbes and use them as food C) the more the immune system is challenged, the better it performs D) the body will be able to fight invasions by the same type of microbe in the future 35) According to the graph, the greatest difference between the incidence of measles and the incidence of bacterial pneumonia occurred in A) 1950 C) 1960 B) 1970 D) ) Based on the data shown, which statement best explains a change in the incidence of disease in 1970? A) Children were vaccinated against measles. B) The bacteria that cause pneumonia developed a resistance to drugs. C) New technology helped to reduce the incidence of all three diseases. D) New drugs cured diabetes. 37) Based on the data shown, which statement provides the best possible reason for the decrease in number of cases of bacterial pneumonia from 1940 to 1970? A) As a result of genetic engineering, humans became immune to the bacteria. B) The bacteria did not respond to medical treatments. C) Antibiotics were made available for the treatment of bacterial infections. D) As a result of sexual reproduction, the bacteria evolved into a harmless form. 38) Which of the following substances play an important role in communication between cells in a multicellular organism by acting as chemical messengers? A) minerals C) fats B) antibiotics D) hormones

5 39) Which statement best explains why some cells in the reproductive system only respond to certain hormones? A) These cells have different DNA than the cells in other body systems. B) These cells have specific types of receptors on their membranes. C) Cells associated with the female reproductive system only respond to the hormone testosterone. D) Reproductive system cells could be harmed if they made contact with hormones from other body systems. 40) Drugs to reduce the risk of rejection are given to organ transplant patients because the donated organ contains A) foreign antibodies B) foreign antigens C) pathogenic microbes D) DNA molecules Page 5 44) A student observes some cells with a compound light microscope as shown in view A below. What did the student most likely do to obtain view B? A) used electrophoresis B) used a higher magnification C) applied distilled water to the slide D) applied a biological stain to the slide 45) A laboratory technique is illustrated in the diagram below. 41) When a new viral infection appears in a population, scientists usually try to develop a vaccine against the virus. Which substances would most likely be contained in the new vaccine? A) weakened viruses associated with the infection B) white blood cells from an infected individual C) a variety of microbes that will attack the virus D) live bacteria that ingest viruses Questions 42 and 43 refer to the following: 42) After two hours, the color of the liquid in the beaker shown did not change. This shows that A) glucose molecules combined to produce starch in the artificial cell B) starch was digested to glucose in the artificial cell C) glucose moved from the artificial cell into the beaker D) starch did not pass out of the artificial cell 43) The laboratory setup shown would most likely be used to demonstrate A) dehydration B) diffusion C) carbohydrate synthesis D) active transport The technique of lowering the coverslip at an angle is used to A) make the specimen transparent B) make organelles more visible C) reduce the formation of air bubbles D) reduce the size of the specimen 46) An experiment was carried out to determine whether drinking caffeinated soda increases pulse rate. The pulse rates of two groups of people at rest were measured. Group A was then given caffeinated soda and group B was given caffeine-free soda. One hour after drinking the soda, the pulse rates were measured. The participants in the experiment were all the same age, and they were all given the same amount of soda. The dependent variable in this experiment is the A) pulse rate of each group B) amount of soda given to each group C) age of participants in each group. D) type of soda given to each group

6 47) A student conducted an experiment to determine if listening to different types of music would affect pulse rate. She thought that pulse rate would change with different types of music. Each person participating in her experiment listened to seven different selections of music for 30 seconds each. The pulse rates were taken after each 30-second interval of music. Based on her experiment, the student concluded that a person's pulse rate changed when listening to different types of music Page 6 50) An investigation was set up to study the movement of water through a membrane. The results are shown in the diagram below. The component missing from this experiment is a A) research plan B) hypothesis C) prediction D) control group 48) A red onion cell has undergone a change, as represented in the diagram below. This change is most likely due to the cell being placed in A) salt water C) darkness B) light D) distilled water 49) An increase in heart rate will most likely result in A) an increase in cell division B) a decrease in body temperature C) an increase in pulse rate D) a decrease in metabolic rate Based on these results, which statement correctly predicts what will happen to red blood cells when they are placed in a beaker containing a water solution in which the salt concentration is much higher than the salt concentration in the red blood cells? A) The red blood cells will lose water and decrease in size. B) The red blood cells will first absorb water, then lose water and maintain their normal size. C) The red blood cells will first lose water, then absorb water, and finally double in size. D) The red blood cells will absorb water and increase in size.

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