# Today s Objectives. Probability rules apply to inheritance at more than one locus

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1 Figure 14.8 Segregation of alleles and fertilization as chance events Today s Objectives Use rules of probability to solve genetics problems Define dominance, incomplete dominance, and co-dominance Extend Mendelian principles to one locus with > 2 alleles Probability rules apply to inheritance at more than one locus Example 1- dihybrid cross One locus analysis the color locus? The recessive phenotype? the shape locus? Combined analysis both loci? What is the probability of the recessive phenotype at both loci? one locus and the recessive phenotype at the other one? Example 2: Cross between F 1 individuals that are heterozygous at two loci AaBb X AaBb What is the probability of a recessive homozygote at locus A and a heterozygote at locus B? Write out genotype: aabb Determine probability of each Use rules of probability to combine 1

2 Example 2 solution Probability of recessive homozygote at one locus P(aa) = 1/4 Probability of heterozygote at other locus P(Bb) = 1/2 Use multiplication rule to combine probabilities from both loci P(aaBb) =1/4 * 1/2 = 1/8 Example 2: five loci Given: One crosses two individuals that are heterozygous at 5 loci AaBbCcDdEe X AaBbCcDdEe What is the probability that an offspring will be a recessive homozygote at all 5 loci? aabbccddee Example 2 solution Probability of recessive homozygote at each locus = 1/4 Use multiplication rule to combine probabilities = (1/4) 5 Example 3: three loci Given: One crosses two individuals that are heterozygous at 3 loci What is the probability of a recessive homozygote at one locus and a heterozygote at the two other loci? 2

3 Example 3: solution Write out possible ways of getting it AaBbcc aabbcc AabbCc Calculate probabilities of each way AaBbcc = 1/2*1/2*1/4 aabbcc= 1/4*1/2*1/2 AabbCc= 1/2*1/4*1/2 Calculate sum of probabilities 1/16 +1/16 +1/16 Question 4, study guide 1 Which genotypes might an individual s parents be if that individual possesses the dominant phenotype at a locus? Genotypes for dominant phenotype: Aa, AA Parents: Aa X Aa Aa X AA AA X aa AA X AA Aa X aa Dominance relationships Complete dominance- phenotype of heterozygote identical to one of the homozygotes Incomplete dominance- phenotype of heterozygote between the homozygotes Codominance- Phenotype of heterozygote shows both homozygotes Dominance does not: Mean that one allele dominates or subdues the other one. Relate to the frequency of an allele (e.g. most peas are green, although the yellow allele is dominant to the green one) 3

4 Figure 14.9x Incomplete dominance in carnations Figure 14.9 Incomplete dominance in snapdragon color Co-dominance Can detect both alleles in the heterozygote. Codominance is usually found by conducting chemical tests or analyzing molecules Multiple alleles at one locus Each individual is diploid and can be a homozygote or a heterozygote A 1 A 1, A 1 A 2, A 2 A 2 A population may contain more than two alleles A 1, A 2, A 3 With three alleles, three homozygotes and three heterozygotes are possible A 1 A 1, A 1 A 2, A 1 A 3, A 2 A 2, A 2 A 3, A 3 A 3 4

5 F M S Codominance at an enzyme locus using electrophoresis MS MM FS MM MS Proteins separated by electrophoresis. 3 alleles in five individuals Individuals with two bands are heterozygotes Individuals with one band are homozygotes Human blood type example One locus determines blood type Three alleles are common in human populations Two alleles are dominant to the third The dominant alleles are codominant with each other Figure Multiple alleles for the ABO blood groups Blood type phenotypes Four phenotypes exist: A, B, AB, O A substance, B substance or no substance coats blood cells Blood type determined by whether antibodies react to substance 5

6 Blood type genotypes Phenotypes determined by three alleles- I a, I b, i I a and I b are codominant i is recessive Possible genotypes: I a I a homozygote, I a i heterozygote, I b I b homozygote, I b i heterozygote, ii homozygote, I a I b heterozygote 6

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