Exercise 1A: Write four independent clauses, and highlight each in green, as shown above.

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1 Lesson 1 -- You Don t Say or DO You? Lesson 1 Page 1 All sentences are made up of two basic parts: Independent clause Subordinate clause Let s talk about the independent clause first. An independent clause is one that can stand on its own as a complete sentence. It will have a noun performing an action. Examples: Mike rode his bike. We painted the room. I love drawing pictures. Exercise 1A: Write four independent clauses, and highlight each in green, as shown above. Sentence types: Sometimes we simply state something when we speak, or perhaps we make a command or a question, or an exclamation. Each of these types of sentences has a name, and each requires specific end punctuation. A sentence that is a statement is called a declarative sentence. These sentences end with a period. o I have always wished I could go to Hawaii. o I don t think I would like to dig a ditch. A sentence that is a command is called an imperative sentence. These sentences end with a period also. o Pass the milk, please. o Turn off the radio. A sentence that asks a question is an interrogative sentence. These sentences end in a question mark. o Are you going to go to the store to buy milk? o Will you bring me home something with which to clean the sink? A sentence that expresses strong feelings, or is a shout is called an exclamatory sentence. These sentences end in an exclamation point. o Leave me alone! o Get over here! o Help! Exercise 1B: 1. Write two declarative sentences. 2. Write two imperative sentences. 3. Write two interrogative sentences. 4. Write two exclamatory sentences.

2 Dialogue Lesson 1 Page 2 When we use these four types of sentences in dialogue, some of the rules for punctuation are slightly different. Declarative and Imperative Sentences in Dialogue: As we learned, when we write a regular declarative or imperative sentence, we end it with a period. I will mow the lawn. Finish eating your breakfast. However, if we are writing a conversation, and we show someone saying these words, the punctuation changes slightly. Before we go any further, though, let s define something that you will see used in this lesson a great deal. When we say who is speaking the words, this is called attributing the dialogue to the speaker. Some of these attribution words include: said, answered, argued, whispered, yelled, and more than 200 others! Now that you know that term, we are ready to learn more about writing and punctuating dialogue! Attribution following the dialogue words If your character speaks using a declarative or imperative sentence: you will replace the period with a comma if you attribute the dialogue to your character after the dialog. the words that attribute the statement to the speaker after the dialogue begin with a lower case letter (unless it is a proper noun). Mary, bring me the cup of water please, whispered Sam. I m going to go to my room now, announced Mary, smiling at her mother. Notice the comma after the last word of the sentence within the quotation marks. Notice that the word that attributes the dialogue( whispered, in the first one, announced, in the second one) is in LOWER case. Notice the the period comes at the very end of the sentence. No Attribution Sometimes we just write the character s words, but don t attribute it directly to the speaker. When we do this, the punctuation changes. If your dialogue ends the sentence and the rest of the sentence simply explains who was speaking (either directly or indirectly), a period is put at the end of the dialogue before the closing quotation mark. Tom is going to come over and fix the fence today. Sylvia rolled her eyes as she thought about how this would work out. I guess I m done with dinner now. She stood up and brushed the crumbs from her lap onto the floor. In both of these examples, the dialogue words (the words the person says) are a complete sentence, but we don t use an attribution word to actually show the speaker saying them. We then begin a new sentence to describe the speaker. Notice there are TWO complete sentences there. o o The first is the dialogue, and it ends with a period inside the quotation marks. The second is a complete sentence about the speaker, and begins with a capital letter, and ends with a period.

3 Lesson 1 Page 3 Attribution beginning the sentence If your attribution BEGINS the sentence, it is followed by a comma, then the dialogue. The period comes at the end of the dialogue sentence, inside the quotation marks. Terri answered, I need to go home and eat dinner. Michelle threw the ball and then muttered, That certainly was a bad throw. Notice the comma comes after the attribution word (answered, in the first sentence, and muttered, in the second sentence). Notice that the speaker s words begin with an upper case letter. Notice that the period comes at the end of the speaker s words, but BEFORE the end quotation mark. Exercise 1C: 1. Write four declarative or imperative dialogue sentences followed by the attribution and speaker. Make sure that your attribution word comes before the speaker, so that I can see that you are writing it correctly. For example, answered Mary NOT Mary answered. Do NOT use the word said or says at all use other words. 2. Write four declarative or imperative dialogue sentences with no attribution, and followed by a second sentence. 3. Write four declarative or imperative dialogue sentences with the attribution beginning the sentence. Interrogative Sentences in Dialogue As we learned, when we write a regular interrogative sentence, we end it with a question mark. Will you mow the lawn? Are you finished eating your breakfast? In dialgoue, if your character speaks using an interrogative sentence (a question): the question mark goes at the end of the sentence, before the ending quotation mark. If the dialogue is attributed directly to the speaker, the words following the dialogue begin in lower case (except if a proper noun). Do you think we will have time to stop at the library and return my books? asked Susan as she climbed in the car. How many people will be coming to the party? questioned Mary. Notice that the question mark is inside the quotation mark. Notice that the attribution word asked in the first one, and questioned in the second one begins with a lower case letter. No Attribution Sometimes we just write the character s question, but don t attribute it directly to the speaker. When we do this, the question mark stays the same, but we now have two complete sentences. Will Tom be fixing the fence today? Sylvia pointed out the window towards the broken fence. Are you finished with dinner? She stood up and brushed the crumbs from her lap onto the floor. In both of these examples, the dialogue question (the words the person says) are a complete sentence, but we don t use an attribution word to actually show the speaker saying them.

4 Lesson 1 Page 4 We then begin a new sentence to describe the speaker. Notice there are TWO complete sentences there. o The first is the dialogue question, and it ends with a question mark inside the quotation marks. o The second is a complete sentence about the speaker, and begins with a capital letter, and ends with a period. Attribution beginning the sentence If your attribution BEGINS the sentence, it is followed by a comma, then the dialogue. The question mark then comes at the end of the dialogue sentence, inside the quotation marks. Terri asked, Is it time for dinner? Michelle threw the ball and then called, Do you think that was a bad throw? Notice the comma comes after the attribution word (asked, in the first sentence, and called, in the second sentence). Notice that the speaker s words begin with an upper case letter. Notice that the question mark comes at the end of the speaker s words, but BEFORE the end quotation mark. Exclamatory Sentences in Dialogue As we learned, when we write a regular exclamatory sentence, we end it with an exclamation mark. Mow the lawn right now! Quit playing with your breakfast! In dialgoue, if your character speaks using an exclamatory sentence: the exclamation mark goes at the end of the sentence, before the ending quotation mark. If the dialogue is attributed directly to the speaker, the words following the dialogue begin in lower case (except if a proper noun). Stop at the library right now! shouted Susan as she climbed in the car. I told you not to invite so many people! cried Mary. Notice that the exclamation mark is inside the quotation mark. Notice that the attribution word shouted in the first one, and cried in the second one begins with a lower case letter. No Attribution Sometimes we just write the character s exclamation, but don t attribute it directly to the speaker. When we do this, the exclamation mark stays the same, but we now have two complete sentences. Tom needs to fix that fence today! Sylvia pointed out the window towards the broken fence. You need to finish your dinner this instant! She stood up and brushed the crumbs from her lap onto the floor. In both of these examples, the dialogue exclamation (the words the person says) are a complete sentence, but we don t use an attribution word to actually show the speaker saying them. We then begin a new sentence to describe the speaker. Notice there are TWO complete sentences there. o The first is the dialogue question, and it ends with a exclamation mark inside the quotation marks. o The second is a complete sentence about the speaker, and begins with a capital letter, and ends with a period.

5 Lesson 1 Page 5 Attribution beginning the sentence If your attribution BEGINS the sentence, it is followed by a comma, then the dialogue. The exclamation mark then comes at the end of the dialogue sentence, inside the quotation marks. Terri yelled, Is it time for dinner! Michelle threw the ball and then shouted, That was my worst throw yet! Notice the comma comes after the attribution word (yelled, in the first sentence, and shouted, in the second sentence). Notice that the speaker s words begin with an upper case letter. Notice that the exclamation mark comes at the end of the speaker s words, but BEFORE the end quotation mark. Exercise 1D: 1. Write two interrogatory dialogue sentences followed by the attribution and speaker. Make sure that your attribution word comes before the speaker, so that I can see that you are writing it correctly. 2. Write two interrogagory dialogue sentences with no attribution, and followed by a second sentence. 3. Write two interrogatory dialogue sentences with the attribution beginning the sentence. 4. Write two exclamatory dialogue sentences followed by the attribution and speaker. Make sure that your attribution word comes before the speaker, so that I can see that you are writing it correctly. 5. Write two exclamatory dialogue sentences with no attribution, and followed by a second sentence. 6. Write two exclamatory dialogue sentences with the attribution beginning the sentence.

6 Lesson 1 Page 6 Interrupting the flow of dialogue Sometimes we interrupt the flow of dialogue to say who is speaking. There are two different methods of interrupting the dialogue. First Method: If we interrupt one complete sentence with the speaker, and then continue that same sentence (start by writing a COMPOUND SENTENCE): Uninterrupted: The movers are bringing the furniture to our house, and then they will set up the beds, explained Mark. Interrupted: The movers are bringing the furniture to our house, explained Mark, and then they will set up the beds. Notice the comma after house (inside the quotation marks) just like in the uninterrupted sentence. Notice we interrupt that sentence with the attribution, followed by another comma, Notice we continue the sentence in quotation marks again, beginning with lower case, because it is still part of the orginal dialogue sentence. Notice the period ends the dialogue, inside the quotation marks. Second Method: If we finish one sentence, then put in the speaker, and then have the speaker continue with another sentence: Uninterrupted: Do you think you should go with him? After all, he may get lost, worried Marty. Interrupted: Do you think you should go with him? worried Marty. After all, he may get lost. Notice the question mark after lost (inside the quotation marks) just like in the uninterrupted sentence. Notice we interrupt that sentence with the attribution (worried) in lower case. Notice we end that sentence after Marty with a period. This is because it is the end of the first dialogue sentence. Notice we continue the sentence in quotation marks again, beginning a new sentence with upper case, because it is a new dialogue sentence just like in the original.. Notice the period ends the dialogue, inside the quotation marks. Uninterrupted: I m hoping they are already finished. I need to get my books, whispered Sue. Interrupted: I m hoping they are already finished, whispered Sue. I need to get my books. Notice the comma after finished (inside the quotation marks) which substitutes for the period at the end of a declarative dialogue sentence just as you learned earlier. Notice we interrupt that sentence with the attribution whispered Sue -- followed by a period, because that is the end of the first sentence, as in the uninterrupted version. Notice we continue the sentence in quotation marks again, beginning with upper case, because it is a new dialogue sentence. Notice the period ends the dialogue, inside the quotation marks. Exercise 1E: 1. Write two interrupted dialogue sentences using the first method. Make sure that your attribution word comes before the speaker, so that I can see that you are writing it correctly. 2. Write two interrupted dialogue sentences using the second method. Make sure that your attribution word comes before the speaker, so that I can see that you are writing it correctly.

7 Lesson 1 Page 7 Paragraphing Dialogue Whenever a new character begins to speak, you will start a new paragraph. This means that even if the dialogue is very short, you will still start a new paragraph. To start a new paragraph, you MUST indent, using your Tab key on your keyboard. Mary entered the room and began searching for her baseball bat. She found her glove and her ball, but the bat seemed to have disappeared. Catching sight of her brother just lounging on the couch, she asked, Mike, have you seen my bat? Are you blaming me for you losing it? Mike fired back. He leaped from the couch and headed towards his room. I m not blaming you! Please help me find it! Mary was desperate. Well, what will you give me if I do help you? he whined, as a sly smile began to creep across his face. Mary stormed to the kitchen to try to collect her wits. Mike never seemed to want to just be nice to her! Tears had just begun to roll down her cheeks when she heard a sound behind her. Um. Well, I guess I could help you look, Mike mumbled as he stared at the floor. Do you want my help? Yes. Wiping the tears from her cheeks, Mary sniffled and grinned. Mike grabbed her hand and insisted, Then let s start searching! Notice how each new speaker starts a new paragraph, whether the dialogue is long or short. This is very important to remember. Special Circumstances Sometimes you may have your characters expressing their thoughts in their mind. Instead of putting these in quotation marks, one successful technique is to italicize the thoughts you will not use quotation marks, however the rest of the punctuation will be the same as in your dialogue. Caren watched the neighbors load up their car. I wonder where they are going? she thought to herself. Usually they tell us if they are going on a trip. Before she even realized it, she spoke loudly, Sue! Are you guys going away for the weekend? Other important things about dialogue: Do not use the word said, says or say. There are many other words you can use instead. Use details that show what the person is doing while he is talking. This is very important in helping your reader actually SEE your characters. Marge brushed away her tears and whispered, I didn t know I would feel so awful. Let me just do my homework! shouted Bill, as he slammed his books on the table. Do you think you could fix that light up there? Lily pointed to the chandelier that hung above the dining table. Michelle yawned as she entered the kitchen and opened the refrigerator. How do you expect me to find anything to eat when the fridge is so full? she muttered. Impatiently pushing aside cartons of leftovers, she finally pulled the milk from the back of a shelf.

8 Exercise 1F: Lesson 1 Page 8 Write a complete dialogue, using all of the types of dialogue you have learned in this lesson. o Make sure you review. o Make sure you punctuate correctly. o Make sure you paragraph correctly. o You must include all of the following: attribution FOLLOWING the dialogue, attribution BEFORE the dialogue No direct attribution. Interrupting one complete dialogue sentence. (Method 1) Interrupting two complete dialogue sentences. (Method 2) Lots of declarative dialogue sentences making sure to put the attribution word BEFORE the speaker s name. some interrogatory some exclamatory. at least one thought, followed by the attribution with proper attribution and punctuation

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