1 The Prosodic Structure in French: Properties and Constraints. In this lesson we will attempt to formalize the properties of the prosodic structure and define its relationship with the syntactic structure of the sentence applied to French data. Relations of dependency To characterize the properties of the prosodic and syntactic structures we will need a set of 4 dependency relations: A -> B A depends of B on the right, A selects B on its right, B precedes A; Ex.: Une charmante soirée (une soirée can appear without charmante) A <- B B depends on A on the left, A is selected by B on its right, A precedes B; Ex.: Pierre déjeune (Pierre can appear without déjeune) A B A and B are independent from each other; A can occur without the presence of B, B can occur without the presence of A; Ex.: Hier, Marie (Hier and Marie can appear independently) A <-> B A and B are symmetrically dependant, A cannot occur without the presence of B and B cannot occur without the presence of A. In la table the article la depends on the noun table. Ex.: il partait (il and partait can not appear independently) In the syntactic structure, A and B stand for minimal units such as lexemes, or syntactic groups as SN or SV; in the prosodic structure, A and B represent minimal prosodic units or stress groups. A prosodic word, minimal unit of prosody organized hierarchically by the prosodic structure, contains one and only one lexical stress. It is also called a stress group. A clear understanding of stress assignment rule in French is thus pivotal in the discussion on prosodic structure.
2 Intonation model: any linguistic role for intonation? An intonation model is an instantiation of a hypothetical-deductive process. To illustrate this, let s start with the simple and well-known correlation existing between intonation and the sentence modality. The sentence establishes a specific relationship between the speakers and the other participants of the speech act. This relationship, called the modality, can be a priori classified according to various grids and classes, from the simplest involving declaration and interrogation, to more complex ones involving subtle degrees of social relationship, of speech act context, etc. In most in not all languages, various markers, syntactic, morphologic, as well as the tone of voice indicate sentence modality. In the simplest case, sentence modality can be either declarative or interrogative. So the classes of relationship between the speaker and the audience are reduced to either delivering information or requesting information. The traditionally imperative modality is therefore appears as a variant of declaration (the lack of proper imperative form in the verb system in French gives other arguments to consider imperative as a variant of declaration). Consider the following example tu viens pronounced in some neutral context: Declarative tu viens. Interrogative: tu viens? The absence of other markers (syntactic, morphological, contextual) forces intonation to function as the only marker of the declarative or interrogative modality. We can then expect to discover some significant differences between the two melodic contours correlated with these modalities, differences manifested by prosodic data. To find out which are the features involved, we have to turn to experimental data. If we are not willing or capable to distinguish and qualify these differences by ear, we can then ask for the help of modern technology, i.e. to the acoustical analysis of the sentence, which should reveal quickly where the differences are. The following figure shows the result of acoustical analysis of a speech example, displayed with time on the horizontal and frequency on the vertical axis. Figure 1: Fundamental frequency contour (in black) for declarative and interrogative
3 At this point, we introduce an important constraint in our way to look at the data. We will introduce a filter that would extract from acoustical fundamental frequency, intensity and duration only segments corresponding to (effectively) stressed syllables. Those parameters have been shown for a long time to be encoding stress in most languages, and stressed syllables are be the key feature of a unit introduced later, the prosodic word. In fact, stress is central as always present even when the sentence is reduced to a minimal form with a sequence of syllables containing one stress, or just one syllable, necessarily stressed. Our simple example has two syllables, and the last one (as French phonology predicts) is stressed. Opposing the acoustic manifestations of the declarative and interrogative modalities, the most prominent acoustic feature appears to be fundamental frequency, falling in the declarative case and rising for interrogative. If Rising is chosen as marked feature of the modality contour, we have then the following simple system: Declarative Interrogative - Rising + Rising As all other phonological markers, the modality contour can be neutralized in its function if another marker of modality is present in the sentence. This is the case if the so-called imperative morphological form is used for the verb, as in viens and when the inversion subject-verb or the est-ce que locution is used to indicate the interrogative modality of the sentence viens-tu? est-ce que tu viens? Its function being suspended as redundant, the melodic contour does not have to manifest the feature + Rising, as shown on the following acoustical curve Figure 2: Fundamental frequency curve for neutralized interrogative modality contour Modality and propos-thème The sentence (i.e. here the phrase, or text, associated with the prosody, or tune) is not produced in a vacuum, but rather in a specific context (all the information contained in sentences produced earlier) and a specific situation (all the information known by actors in the speech act). Among other languages, French has a mechanism involving sentence
4 intonation to mark that a part of the sentence contains information already known by the speech participants. This process divides the sentence into two parts, the thème, containing information already presented either in the context or in the situation of the speech act, and the propos, with the propos always preceding the thème. An example of this division is Maximilien est venu as a declarative sentence answering a question such as qui est venu?, or as an example of the opposite interrogative modality, a question as Maximilien est venu? following a statement like quelqu un est venu. In both cases, a specific stress, manifested by a specific contour, appears on the last syllable of the propos Maximilien to mark the division of the sentence into propos and thème. If the conditions of such a division into propos and thème are not met, the stress located on the last syllable of Maximilien is realized differently (or neutralized, as we will see later). Figure 3: Fundamental frequency curves without and with propos-thème division of the sentence, declarative case.
5 Figure 4: Fundamental frequency curves without and with propos-thème division of the sentence, interrogative case. Stress group and destressing in French The minimal unit of prosody in French is the stress group (also called rhythmic group or prosodic word). Usually, in most discussions on stress, stress group is defined as a sense group (with no formal definition), of a pragmatically user defined rhythmic entity. Let s consider a more formal approach to define the stress group. To achieve this, we will need the concept of stressability, a property of a syllable or a larger unit to optionally receive stress. We will then have stressable syllable, stressable words. Closed list (grammatical) words are non stressable and that open class (content) words are stressable. Pronouns, conjunctions, prepositions, verb auxiliaries will not be stressable. Nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs will be stressable. Stress group formation principle Now these stressable words form with adjacent non stressable words a rhythmic (or stress) according to the dependency relations with the stressable word involved. Non stressable words are either in selection or in solidarity with the content word in the group. Units in solidarity and in selection with the open class word belong to the same stress group. The following examples, with their internal dependency relations displayed, illustrate this rule (stressed syllables are underlined in red). Solidarity, less than 7 syllables one stress on the last pronounced syllable.
6 Solidarity between je and donne, 2 clitic pronouns le and lui select the verb Same as preceding example, with the negation particles ne and pas in solidarity, selecting the verb, and a total of 6 syllables. The last pronounced syllable receives the stress. The next set of examples show clitic pronouns, selecting a verb at compound past tense with auxiliary ai and past participle with 1, 2 and syllables pris, donné, présenté, with the negation particles ne and pas in solidarity. Due to the transitivity of solidarity relation, the pronoun je, ai and the past participle form one group will all its elements in solidarity The stress patterns of these 3 examples illustrate the effect of 2 other rules to explain the distribution of stress in these sequences. 1. The 7 syllables rule, which prevent the occurrence of more than 7 consecutive syllables without one being stressed (the actual number of consecutive unstressed syllables depends on the speech rate). 2. The stress clash condition, preventing the occurrence of two consecutive stressed syllables, unless some articulatory or pause distance is inserted between them. This condition applies only if corresponding syntactic units are dominated by the same node in the syntactic structure. In je ne le lui ai pas pris, all the elements form one stress group according to the group formation principle. The number of syllables is 7, and complies with the 7 syllable rule.
7 The next stress group, je ne le lui ai pas donné, with the same internal structure, has 8 syllables. Another syllables has thus to be stressed in the sequence. The extra stress can be placed as an emphatic stress (narrow focus) on any of the pronouns le or lui in selection with the verb. This stress is emphatic since it does not comply with another stress assignment principle: 3. Lexical stress is assigned in priority to elements located at the highest levels in the prosodic structure. The highest element in these examples is the second part of the negation pas. Stress on pas does not appear emphatic in je ne le lui ai pas donné or in je ne le lui ai pas présenté, it simply results from the 7 syllable principle. In je ne le lui ai pas pris however, with 7 syllbles, stress on pas provokes a stress clash with the stress on pris, and will then appear as emphatic. As we will see later, stress will indirectly, through the mechanism of the principles stated above, induce disambiguation between distinct syntactic structures. Consider the sentence Julien adore le café chaud, where the adjective chaud can modify the verb phrase adore le café (interpretation a), or simply be part of the noun phrase café chaud (interpretation b). Here another rule applies: the syntactic clash rule (Martin, 1987). Ina), café and chaud do not belong to the same prosodic group formed with 2 distinct stress groups. Indeed, each stress group café and chaud (a noun and an adjective) is dominated by distinct nodes in the syntactic structure, whereas in b), the same node dominates them. In a) the stress clash condition does not apply, and café is stressed on its last syllable. In b), the condition applies and stress clash forces the last syllable stress to move on the first syllable of café. No stress clash, since the 2 units with successive stressed syllables café and chaud are dominated by distinct nodes in the syntactic structure.
8 Stress clash, since the 2 units with successive stressed syllables café and chaud are dominated by the same node in the syntactic structure. The clash provokes a shift to the left of the first stress, which is placed on the first syllable of café. The emphatic stress is usually located on the first syllable of the element emphasized. If the number of syllables is sufficient, it can coexist with the lexical stress of the same element. In extraordinairement sympathique, emphasis on the first syllable of extraordinairement and lexical stress on the last syllable of sympathique leaves a sequence of 7 unstressed syllables. To avoid this long sequence of unstressed syllables, a lexical stress will be placed on the last syllable of extraordinairement to result in the following stress pattern: extraordinairement sympathique An adjective with less syllables like joyeux would not generate this condition, and no lexical stress would be obligatory on extraordinairement. The resulting stress pattern is then: extraordinairement joyeux The stress group is defined as a minimal unit of prosody containing one and only one lexical stress. Prosodic structure Let s now turn to amore general and possibly more interesting function of sentence intonation, namely to indicate some kind of hierarchy in the sentence. We will call this hierarchy prosodic structure, keeping our original designation (dated back in Martin, 1975), but not to be confused with the same term used in dominant (North American) phonological descriptions of intonation. In those latter approaches, prosodic structure interacts with the intonational phrase and other entities, to give account to a mixture of phonetic and phonological facts (such as rhythm, boundary effects, and so on). By contrast, the prosodic structure discussed here is the result of an hypothesis, which assumes the existence of minimal prosodic units called prosodic words, organized
9 hierarchically in a prosodic structure. The number of levels on this structure is not a priori limited. Once rules to define prosodic words (stress groups) have been established, we examine the assumed hierarchical grouping of these words. If such a prosodic structure does exist, we can consider various relationships with other structures organizing the sentence, such as the syntactic structure. A priori, we can envision two extremes governing this relationship: 1. the prosodic structure (PS) and the syntactic structure (SS) are totally independent 2. the prosodic structure (PS) is congruent with the syntactic structure (SS) A third possibility where both structures would be identical is of course excluded, as prosodic and syntactic units do not correspond necessarily to each other. As we assumed the existence of a prosodic structure, there must be, according to this assumption, prosodic markers that do indicate this structure. Of course, if we want to discover how these markers function, we have to ensure that the examples studied will indeed realize those intended structures. The second assumption above, making both prosodic and syntactic structures congruent would be handy for this purpose, but unfortunately, it is easy to find counter-examples where prosody is not congruent to syntax. Are then both structures totally independent? In order to see a bit more light in this, we could examine some special cases of sentences, in which the syntactic structure is either ill defined (i.e. ambiguous) or even absent. Three classes of example come to mind: 1. telephone numbers 2. table of multiplication 3. syntactically ambiguous sentences Examples belonging to these classes are of course pronounced with a specific structure, which can reflect either the graphic organization of data (e.g. telephone numbers), the arithmetical organization of operation (e.g. table of multiplication). The third category may be more problematic to observe, as to be truly ambiguous, these sentences must appear in a vacuum, without neither context nor situation. Nevertheless, careful experimentation may force speakers to use prosodic structure to ensure the disambiguation of these sentences. To these three classes, we could add, being even more cautious, the class of read sentences. 4 read sentences To have a reasonable trust into the assumed prosodic structure of read sentences, the assumption here relies of the style of reading, possibly acquired at school at an early age, and whose goal is precisely to have the reader match the prosody with the syntactic organization of the sentence.
10 Using these four classes of specific relationship between prosody and syntax, we can then proceed by expansion, starting with the simplest PS with one prosodic word, to the more complex, considering all possible combinatorial configurations. The simplest prosodic structure has only one prosodic word, and there is of course only one way to organize this unique word into a structure. The melodic contour located on the stressed syllable has no role in indicating anything in the structure, and is used to mark the modality, as discussed above. Let s call this contour Cd if the sentence is declarative, and Ci if interrogative. As we already know, Cd (Ci) is in final position, on the last stressed syllable of the propos. When the prosodic structure contains two prosodic words, two configurations are possible (from now we will consider only declarative modality to simplify the discussion). The first with no thème (the propos covers the whole sentence), the second with a division into propos and thème, as seen earlier. In the latter case, the declarative modality contour ends the propos, whereas the thème has a final redundant declarative contour, noted C(d). Phonetically, C(d) is realized frequently by a flat melodic contour. Now if no division propos-thème occurs, the first prosodic word has a stressed syllable with a contour, which we can characterize by negative properties: it has to be different from Cd and Ci. Let s call this contour C1. Turning to experimentation, we can observe indeed that the melodic variation is flat, slightly falling, or occasionally rising, depending on the speaker. Figure 5: Fundamental frequency curve of a declarative 2 prosodic word structure Again these variations are predicted by the deductive approach. As only one structure can organize two prosodic words, the function of C1 if neutralized in this respect and the contour can phonetically by anything, as long as it is different from Cd and Ci.
11 Things become more interesting with prosodic structures with three prosodic words. Let s call these words A, B and C. Combinatorial analysis tells us that these 3 words can be organized in 4 distinct hierarchies: Here again we would need another constraint, not discussed in details here, stating that all prosodic structure must be planar. We then exclude configurations like [A [B] C] where A and C form a group AC and then form the complete prosodic sentence [A B C] (case of incises in French). If the prosodic structure exists, we should be able to discover the mechanism of its indication, looking at the melodic contours on the prosodic words stressed syllables, as long as we are reasonably certain that the analyzed sentences are pronounced with those intended structures. In order to do that, we can use telephone numbers, table of multiplication, syntactically ambiguous sentences, or just read sentences. After this prosodic grammar will have been discovered, we can then turn to other style of speech such as spontaneous, and determine then better the relationship between syntactic and prosodic structures. Otherwise, looking directly to spontaneous speech to analyze the prosodic grammar will bring us almost certainly to failure. To ensure proper stressing of stressable syllables, we will consider examples with relatively long prosodic words. Below each prosodic word, the prosodic grouping is indicated with square brackets. The contour C1 discovered above is now located on the last prosodic word of the first group [AB], and another contour, called C2, appears on the first prosodic word. Phonetically, C1 is now manifested by a rising contour, with no falling or flat variants. C2 on the other hand is manifested by a flat or falling contour. Again, this contour is neutralized, as it has only to be differentiated from all other contours that can appear in its place, i.e. Cd, Ci and C1. It is therefore noted C(2).
12 Figure 6: Fundamental frequency curve of prosodic structure [[AB] C] C1 is on the first prosodic word, and the contour on B is called C3. Phonetically, C1 is rising, and C3, being neutralized, is flat or slightly falling. Figure 7: Fundamental frequency curve of prosodic structure [A [BC]] C1 appears of the two first prosodic words, and is neutralized in indicating the grouping of the 3 prosodic words, since they are at the same level in the hierarchy.
13 Figure 8: Fundamental frequency curve of prosodic structure [A B C] The same process can be extended to more than 3 prosodic words. Structures organizing 4 prosodic words (again excluding any propos-thème division) would lead to 11 planar configurations (Martin, 1982). For example, the [AB][CD] structure would generate a sequence of contours C(2) C1 C(3) Cd, with the first and the third contours neutralized. When those contours are not neutralized, they reveal the grammar of prosody used in French. This grammar operates with 2 rules: 1. A contrast of slope rule to the right (in any node, the slope of a contour is inverse of the slope of the contour of the immediately dominant node) 2. A contrast of amplitude of melodic variation (any sequence of consecutive same slope contour dominated by distinct nodes contrast with their amplitude of melodic variation). The resulting sequence of contours is then C(2), C1, C(3) and Cd. An example of fundamental frequency variation corresponding to this structure is given in fig. 16. The text is l hippopotame d Antonio a pu contrarier Nabuchodonosor.
14 Figure 9: Fundamental frequency curve of prosodic structure [A B] [C D] Using the features Rising, Ample (referring to the amplitude of melodic variation), and Long (referring to contour duration), the phonological description of these contours appears in the following table: Association between syntax and prosody The grammar of intonation has been discovered by assuming congruence between syntax and intonation. Prosodic words are defined from the effectively stressed syllables, and the hierarchical organization of the prosodic words is supposed to match the syntactic hierarchy of the corresponding units. The question now is to determine if congruence is the only possible association mode possible between the two structures.
15 To find out, we could observe a large number of prosodic structures in spontaneous speech, and possibly establish statistics of all observed prosodic structures. This will be discussed in the next lesson. Syntactic clash condition: if A, B, C and D are consecutive prosodic words, the prosodic grouping A [B C] D is not allowed if syntax form groups such as (A B) (C D). The prosodic structure cannot group prosodic words whose corresponding syntactic units are dominated by distinct nodes. An example of syntactic clash in a structure with four prosodic words would be Once the conditions of impossible association between the prosodic and the syntactic structure have been established, it remains to see if some structures are more used than others, and why. The condition of eurythmicity gives some light into this, according to two principles that complement each other: 1. among all possible prosodic structures that can be associated with a given syntactic structure, the most eurhythmic will be used more often; 2. if a non eurhythmic prosodic structure is used, there will be a rhythmic compensation of prosodic groups of large difference in their number of syllables (Wiolland, 1985). To illustrate this two faces conditions, consider the following sequence. The congruent solution causes prosodic groups of the first level in the structure to contain respectively [Le père de Max] [est parti] [Le grand père de Max] [est parti] [L arrière grand-père de Max] [est parti] [L arrière-arrière grand-père de Max] [est parti] Rhythmically, very unbalanced sentences such as the last one will be pronounced with a faster speech rate on the first group L arrière-arrière grand-père de Max, and a slowest speech rate on the last group est parti, in order to compensate for the large difference in the number of syllables of both prosodic groups (8 vs. 3) If the speaker retains the eurhythmic solution, the resulting prosodic structure could be
16 [Le père de Max] [est parti] [Le grand père] [de Max est parti] [L arrière grand-père] [de Max est parti] [L arrière-arrière grand-père] [de Max est parti] The next lesson will discuss the extension of this model to spontaneous speech, by examining the relation between islands of prosody and units of macro syntax. References Martin, Ph (1975) A propos de l'accentuation des pronoms personnels en français, Le français moderne (4), 1975, pp Martin, Ph. (1975) Analyse phonologique de la phrase français, Lingusitics, 146, Martin, Ph. (1982) Phonetic Realizations of Prosodic Contours in French, Speech Communication, 1, Martin, Ph. (1987) Prosodic and Rhythmic Structures in French, Linguistics, Wioland, F. (1985) Les structures rythmiques du français, Slatkine-Chamion, Paris.
Section 9 Foreign Languages I. OVERALL OBJECTIVE To develop students basic communication abilities such as listening, speaking, reading and writing, deepening their understanding of language and culture
Standard 3: Writing Process 3.1: Prewrite 58-69% 10.LA.3.1.2 Generate a main idea or thesis appropriate to a type of writing. (753.02.b) Items may include a specified purpose, audience, and writing outline.
Level: All Target age: Adults Summary: This is the first of a series of articles on teaching pronunciation. The article starts by explaining why it is important to teach pronunciation. It then moves on
Writing Common Core KEY WORDS An educator's guide to words frequently used in the Common Core State Standards, organized by grade level in order to show the progression of writing Common Core vocabulary
Points of Interference in Learning English as a Second Language Tone Spanish: In both English and Spanish there are four tone levels, but Spanish speaker use only the three lower pitch tones, except when
Syntax: Phrases Sentences can be divided into phrases. A phrase is a group of words forming a unit and united around a head, the most important part of the phrase. The head can be a noun NP, a verb VP,
Notes and discussion Things to remember when transcribing speech David Crystal University of Reading Until the day comes when this journal is available in an audio or video format, we shall have to rely
Using Language Stage Research** and CCEE ELA Language Domain, Standard, to Develop Conventions of Standard English Language Stage CCSS* Supporting Speaking and Writing for Students with Complex Communication
Index Index 343 Index A A, an (usage), 8, 123 A, an, the (articles), 8, 123 diagraming, 205 Abbreviations, correct use of, 18 19, 273 Abstract nouns, defined, 4, 63 Accept, except, 12, 227 Action verbs,
Overview of topics What is Syntax? Word Classes What to remember and understand: Ling 201 Syntax 1 Jirka Hana April 10, 2006 Syntax, difference between syntax and semantics, open/closed class words, all
Grammar and Style of the Sentence Course Overview Grammar and Style of the Sentence is an online course designed to teach basic principles of grammar and style to improve your writing. New topics are introduced
Basic Sentence Parts Mr. Brasher Subjects and Predicates Complete Subjects and Predicates Sentence- group of words with two main parts: complete subject and complete predicate. Together, express a complete
IGCSE English Language Technical Skills: Grammar Copyright 2012 Eddis Tutorial Services, LLC Grammar is boring! I don t know why I have to learn grammar, it s so boring and I already know how to write.
Cohesive devices Teacher resource: textual features Textual features relevant to the second objective of Dimension 2 are described below. These are features that teachers may like to draw on to further
BURSTED WOOD PRIMARY SCHOOL Year 6 English Medium Term Plans Reading Word Objectives apply their growing knowledge of root words prefixes and suffixes (morphology and etymology), as listed under the spelling
Prosody and Intonation 9.59 / 24.905 April 14, 2005 Ted Gibson Prosody and Intonation Definition of prosody Intonation: pitch and boundaries Timing within intonation phrases Stress Intonational phrasing
Grade 4 Language Standards : Conventions of Standard English Essential Questions: 1. Why is it important to have command of Standard English conventions? 2. How do I determine the meaning of an unfamiliar
Glossary of key terms and guide to methods of language analysis AS and A-level English Language (7701 and 7702) Introduction This document offers guidance on content that students might typically explore
VA English Standards of Learning Related to Spelling Kindergarten K.4 The student will identify, say, segment, and blend various units of speech sounds. a) Begin to discriminate between spoken sentences,
Intonation difficulties in non-native languages. Irma Rusadze Akaki Tsereteli State University, Assistant Professor, Kutaisi, Georgia Sopio Kipiani Akaki Tsereteli State University, Assistant Professor,
WinPitch LTL II, a Multimodal Pronunciation Software Philippe MARTIN UFRL Université Paris 7 92, Ave. de France 75013 Paris, France firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract We introduce a new version
LESSON THIRTEEN STRUCTURAL AMBIGUITY Structural ambiguity is also referred to as syntactic ambiguity or grammatical ambiguity. Structural or syntactic ambiguity, occurs when a phrase, clause or sentence
Appositions versus Double Subject Sentences what Information the Speech Analysis brings to a Grammar Debate Horia-Nicolai Teodorescu 1,2 and Diana Trandabăţ 1,3 1 Institute for Computes Science, Romanian
CHARTES D'ANGLAIS SOMMAIRE CHARTE NIVEAU A1 Pages 2-4 CHARTE NIVEAU A2 Pages 5-7 CHARTE NIVEAU B1 Pages 8-10 CHARTE NIVEAU B2 Pages 11-14 CHARTE NIVEAU C1 Pages 15-17 MAJ, le 11 juin 2014 A1 Skills-based
Chapter 5 English Words and Sentences Ching Kang Liu Language Center National Taipei University 1 Citation form The strong form and the weak form 1. The form in which a word is pronounced when it is considered
LISTENING Standard : Students demonstrate competence in listening as a tool for learning and comprehension. Proficiency Level I: Students at this level are beginning to understand short utterances. They
Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL) Certificate Programs Our TEFL offerings include one 27-unit professional certificate program and four shorter 12-unit certificates: TEFL Professional Certificate
Morphology Morphology is the study of word formation, of the structure of words. Some observations about words and their structure: 1. some words can be divided into parts which still have meaning 2. many
H National Quali cations EXEMPLAR PAPER ONLY EP42/H/02 Mark Spanish Directed Writing FOR OFFICIAL USE Date Not applicable Duration 1 hour and 40 minutes *EP42H02* Fill in these boxes and read what is printed
SYNTAX Syntax the study of the system of rules and categories that underlies sentence formation. 1) Syntactic categories lexical: - words that have meaning (semantic content) - words that can be inflected
Cambridge English: Proficiency (CPE) Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Is there a wordlist for Cambridge English: Proficiency exams? No. Examinations that are at CEFR Level B2 (independent user), or above
GRADE 1 READING Guiding Principle: Students read a wide range of fiction, nonfiction, classic, and contemporary works, to build an understanding of texts, of themselves, and of the cultures of the United
Class contents and exam requirements English Language (first language, first year) Code 30123, Learning Path 1 Head Teacher: Prof. Helen Cecilia TOOKE Objectives pag. 2 Program pag. 2 Set and recommended
THE ENGLISH SENTENCE (Materials based on: Huddleston, R. & Pullum, G.K. (Eds.)., 2002. The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language. London: CUP and Greenbaum, S., & Quirk, R. 1990. A Student's Grammar
PROCESSES CONVENTIONS MATRIX OF STANDARDS AND COMPETENCIES FOR ENGLISH IN GRADES 7 10 Determine how stress, Listen for important Determine intonation, phrasing, points signaled by appropriateness of pacing,
English is a European language of which the grammatical structure is considerably simplified. It has lost much of its former complicated structures consisting of declensions and conjugations, which are
READING LITERARY (RL) Key Ideas and Details ELAGSEKRL1: With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about key details in a text. ELAGSEKRL2: With prompting and support, retell familiar stories,
This image cannot currently be displayed. Course Catalog Language Arts 700 2016 Glynlyon, Inc. Table of Contents COURSE OVERVIEW... 1 UNIT 1: NOUNS, PRONOUNS, AFFIXES, AND USING WORDS CORRECTLY... 3 UNIT
Grade and Unit Timeframe Grammar Mechanics K Unit 1 6 weeks Oral grammar naming words K Unit 2 6 weeks Oral grammar Capitalization of a Name action words K Unit 3 6 weeks Oral grammar sentences Sentence
Notes on English Intonation, p. 1 Notes on English Intonation. Ken de Jong, Indiana University 2/23/06 Introduction. Following are some very general notes to introduce you to an analysis of the intonation
Trinity Certificate in TESOL Trinity TESOL Study Resource no 7: Teaching Grammar in Context When we teach grammar, we not only help our learners to express themselves, but we also fulfil their expectations
Spoken language -structured descriptions, explanations and narratives for different purposes, including for expressing feelings ng, hypothesising, imagining and exploring ideas to comments the interest
Sentence Focus Activity Sentence Blocks Contents Instructions 2.1 Activity Template (Blank) 2.7 Sentence Blocks Q & A 2.8 Sentence Blocks Six Great Tips for Students 2.9 Designed specifically for the Talk
CELF -5 Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Fifth Edition Score Report Elisabeth H. Wiig, Eleanor Semel, Wayne A. Secord Name: Timothy Sample Gender: Male Birth Date: 03/23/2003 Test Date: 11/21/2013
1. Auxiliary verbs Auxiliary verbs serve grammatical functions, for this reason they are said to belong to the functional category of words. The main auxiliary verbs in English are DO, BE and HAVE. Others,
Language Usage V Language Usage V introduces students to a variety of topics including: identifying and using nouns, verbs, contractions, conjunctions, pronouns, adjectives, and adverbs in sentences understanding
Page 1 of 57 Grade 3 Reading Literary Text Principles of Reading (P) Standard 1: Demonstrate understanding of the organization and basic features of print. Standard 2: Demonstrate understanding of spoken
Lesson Overview of Lesson Plan Numbers 1&2 Introduction to Cambridge KET Handing Over of GMAT.cz KET General Preparation Package Introduce Methodology for Vocabulary Log Introduce Methodology for Grammar
Teacher's Guide to Pronunciation in English - High Beginning+ Pronunciation in English - Intermediate+ User Management System Included for all schools at no additional cost Feedback from students After
Intensive English Program ieng 002: Listening and Speaking Course Description The Intensive English Program is designed for students with limited experience of using English who need intensive instruction
GRAMMAR AND MECHANICS Understanding Relative Clauses A relative (or adjective) clause modifies a noun or pronoun and is introduced by a relative pronoun (who, whom, whose, which, or that) or occasionally
READING 1.) Reads at grade level. 1 st Student has achieved reading success at Level 14-H or above. Student has achieved reading success at Level 10-F or 12-G. Student has achieved reading success at Level
Grade 3 Reading and Literature Objectives STATE GOAL 1: Reading with understanding and fluency. 1A. Apply word analysis and vocabulary skills to comprehend selections. 1.A.2a Read and comprehend unfamiliar
Advanced CB 21 A One level Assess descriptions and narrations of factual and technical materials. Discriminate for accurate information while taking notes of a complex discourse. Assess the essential message
3. Logical Reasoning in Mathematics Many state standards emphasize the importance of reasoning. We agree disciplined mathematical reasoning is crucial to understanding and to properly using mathematics.
Action verb: A verb that describes an action. The action can be a physical action or a mind action. Adjective: An adjective modifi es (describes) a noun or pronoun. It tells what kind, how many, or which
Writing Assessment Focuses The I Can statements link to the Assessment and Progression sheets and support children in their involvement in the targets setting process. They will need to be mediated and
Math 3000 Section 003 Intro to Abstract Math Homework 2 Department of Mathematical and Statistical Sciences University of Colorado Denver, Spring 2012 Solutions (February 13, 2012) Please note that these
Student Achievement in Asian Languages Education Part 2: Descriptions of Student Achievement This report is in four volumes: Part 1: Project Report Part 2: Descriptions of Student Achievement Part 3: Appendices
FRENCH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE TRAINING Beginner 1 This course is intended for people who have never studied French or people who have taken French in the past but have either forgotten most of it or have
COURSE SYLLABUS ESU 561 ASPECTS OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE Fall 2014 EDU 561 (85515) Instructor: Bart Weyand Classroom: Online TEL: (207) 985-7140 E-Mail: email@example.com COURSE DESCRIPTION: This is a practical
1Section One: My Physical Traits DAY ONE In this lesson, I will view the animation Se décrire where Jean-François describes himself and others. 1. Open Section One, Day One of the Workbook and do question
SPAN 100/101 ELEMENTARY SPANISH COURSE OBJECTIVES This Spanish course pays equal attention to developing all four language skills (listening, speaking, reading, and writing), with a special emphasis on
Year 9 French SCHEME OF WORK Westfield School 1. Be able to describe your general holiday habits (present tense). Introduction to the course and target language refresher. Be able to say where you go and
About Collins series has been designed to be easy to use, whether by learners studying at home on their own or in a classroom with a teacher: Instructions are easy to follow Exercises are carefully arranged
Paraphrasing controlled English texts Kaarel Kaljurand Institute of Computational Linguistics, University of Zurich firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract. We discuss paraphrasing controlled English texts, by defining
Correlation: English language Learning and Instruction System and the TOEFL Test Of English as a Foreign Language Structure (Grammar) A major aspect of the ability to succeed on the TOEFL examination is
Svetlana Sokolova President and CEO of PROMT, PhD. How the Computer Translates Machine translation is a special field of computer application where almost everyone believes that he/she is a specialist.
page(s) Contents v-viii Figures & tables ix Sources cited x-xxvi Abbreviations & Introduction 1 The Egyptian language 33-36 2 The writing System: its principles 36-40 3 One-consonant signs as phonograms,
Coffeyville Community College PREP-009 COURSE SYLLABUS FOR WRITTEN COMMUNICATIONS Ryan Butcher Instructor COURSE NUMBER: PREP-009 COURSE TITLE: Written Communications CREDIT HOURS: 3 INSTRUCTOR: OFFICE
4 Pitch and range in language and music 4.1 Average and range of pitch in spoken language and song 4.1.1 Average and range of pitch in language Fant (1956) determined the average values for fundamental
written by Talk in French Learn French as a habit French Beginner Grammar in 30 days A FOREWORD (OF SOME SORT) French is the second most widely taught foreign language in the world. Weirdly, however, and
Electrophysiological studies of prosody Mireille Besson Equipe Langage, Musique et Motricité Institut de Neurosciences Cognitives de la Méditerranée CNRS-Marseille BrainTalk 2-4 june, 2008 Lund, Sweden
TERMS Parts of Speech Noun: a word that names a person, place, thing, quality, or idea (examples: Maggie, Alabama, clarinet, satisfaction, socialism). Pronoun: a word used in place of a noun (examples:
COLING 82, J. Horeck~ (ed.j North-Holland Publishing Compa~y Academia, 1982 COMPUTATIONAL DATA ANALYSIS FOR SYNTAX Ludmila UhliFova - Zva Nebeska - Jan Kralik Czech Language Institute Czechoslovak Academy
Grade 4 Reading and Literature Objectives STATE GOAL 1: Reading with understanding and fluency. 1A. Apply word analysis and vocabulary skills to comprehend selections. 1.A.2a Read and comprehend unfamiliar
FUNCTIONAL SKILLS ENGLISH - WRITING LEVEL 2 MARK SCHEME Instructions to marker There are 30 marks available for each of the three tasks, which should be marked separately, resulting in a total of 90 marks.
CURRICULUM GUIDE French 2 and 2 Honors LAYF05 / LAYFO7 Course Description The course treats all language learning skills: listening, speaking, reading and writing. Students learn to manipulate structural
Historical Linguistics Diachronic Analysis What is Historical Linguistics? Historical linguistics is the study of how languages change over time and of their relationships with other languages. All languages
MP 1 Sing more difficult tunes as the past years work continues on going Extend the techniques of singing to a higher art form Continue to increase permanent repertoire, recordings, 1.2 Responding to Expand
The Book of Grammar Lesson Six Mr. McBride AP Language and Composition Table of Contents Lesson One: Prepositions and Prepositional Phrases Lesson Two: The Function of Nouns in a Sentence Lesson Three:
MyReadinessTest for English & Mathematics Writing Content Library Topics & Objectives Module 1) Basic Grammar Topic: 1.1: Parts of Speech, Phrases, Clauses 1. Identify how different parts of speech function
Comparative Analysis on the Armenian and Korean Languages Syuzanna Mejlumyan Yerevan State Linguistic University Abstract It has been five years since the Korean language has been taught at Yerevan State
Houghton Mifflin Harcourt StoryTown Grade 1 correlated to the Common Core State Standards Initiative English Language Arts (2010) Grade 1 Reading: Literature Key Ideas and details RL.1.1 Ask and answer
Scope and Sequence/Essential Questions Scope and Sequence 8th Grade Language First Six Weeks Week SPI Essential Question Checks for Understanding Week 1 0801.1.5 How can you identify and correctly place