# Geometric Modelling Summer 2016

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1 Geometric Modelling Summer 2016 Prof. Dr. Hans Hagen Prof. Dr. Hans Hagen Geometric Modelling Summer

2 Ane Spaces, Elliptic Prof. Dr. Hans Hagen Geometric Modelling Summer

3 Ane Spaces Euclidean Geometry can be formulated by the invariant theories. Question: What is invariant under Euclidean transformations (rotation, translation)? Answer: length of vectors, angles between vectors, volumes spanned by vectors Question: What is invariant under projective transformations? Answer: dimension of subspaces (linea are mapped to lines etc.), cross ratio In this chapter, we will discuss ane spaces and transformations as well as elliptic and hyperbolic geometry. Prof. Dr. Hans Hagen Geometric Modelling Summer

4 Ane Spaces Denition: Ane Space A non-empty set A of elements ("points") is called an Ane Space, if there exist a vector space V and a map s.t. every pair (p, q) of points with p, q A are mapped to exactly one vector v V s.t. a) For every v V and p A there is exactly one point q A with (p, q) v. b) If (p, q) v and (q, r) w, then (p, r) v + w. V is called the vector space belonging to A. A base of A is given by A : {0, v 1, v 2,..., v n }, where 0 A and { v 1, v 2,..., v n } form a base of V. Prof. Dr. Hans Hagen Geometric Modelling Summer

5 Ane Spaces Denition: Ane Transformation A map F : a B where A and B are ane spaces is called an ane transformation, if it preserves the colinearity of points and the ratios of vectors along a line. A coordinate representation of such a transformation is given by "a linear transformation + a ": y = A x + a where det(a) 0 Prof. Dr. Hans Hagen Geometric Modelling Summer

6 Ane Spaces properties of ane transformations: preserve collinearity and coplanarity of points (i.e.: lines and planes are preserved) preserve ratios of vectors along lines preserve parallelity Prof. Dr. Hans Hagen Geometric Modelling Summer

7 Ane Spaces Denition: Ane Group Let A n denote an n-dim. ane space. Then, A n := {F F : A n A n, F nondegeneerate (i.e. invertible) and ane} is a group under composition. A n is called the ane group. Theorem The set of all n-row quadratic matrices whose determinant does not vanish constitutes a group under matrix multiplication. If R is the scalar eld, this group is denoted GL(n, R). The real ane group is isomorphic to GL(n, R). Prof. Dr. Hans Hagen Geometric Modelling Summer

8 Erlangen Program Felix Klein's Erlangen Program Felix Klein proposed to employ groups for a unied and clear treatment of geometry. In this view, the geometry belonging to a group of transformations is the theory of invariants of this group. Therefore, the task of ane geometry is to investigate properties that are invariant under ane transformations. From group theory, "hierarchies of geometry" arise. Prof. Dr. Hans Hagen Geometric Modelling Summer

9 Erlangen Program The Euclidean motions are special cases of ane transformations that are not only line-, ratio- and paralell-preserving but also preserve metric quantities (angles, lengths, volumes,...). The Euclidean group is a subgroup of the ane group. Coordinate Representation of the Euclidean Motions y = B x + a where B is an orthogonal matrix (i.e.) B T = B 1 det(b) > 0 orientation preserving, direct motions, rigid motions (examples: rotations, translations) det(b) < 0 not preserving the orientation, indirect motions (example: axis reections, point reections in more than 2d) Prof. Dr. Hans Hagen Geometric Modelling Summer

10 Erlangen Program Integration of the Classical Geometries in the Sense of the Erlangen Program: Consider the subgroup of the projective group (i.e. the corresponding geometry) which xes a hyper plane. We so to say "tag" this hyperplane as absolute gure at innity and restrict the eect of the subgroup of the transformation group to the points that are not incident with this hyperplane. This precedure yields ane transformations by restricting the projective transformations to the points that are not at innity. The ane group then reveals itself as a subgroup of the projective group. Prof. Dr. Hans Hagen Geometric Modelling Summer

11 Erlangen Program "The Procedure in Coordinates": P 3 (x 0 = 0 is mapped to y = 0) y 0 a x 0 y 1 y 2 = a 10 a 11 a 12 a 13 a 20 a 21 a 22 a 23 x 1 x 2 y 3 a 30 a 31 a 32 a 33 x 3 y 1 a 10 x 0 a 11 x 1 a 12 x 2 a 13 x 3 y 2 = a 20 x 0 a 21 x 1 a 22 x 2 a 23 x 3 y 3 a 30 x 0 a 31 x 1 a 32 x 2 a 33 x 3 restrict to the points not at innity (divide by x 0 ) y 1 a 11 a 12 a 13 ( ) y 2 = a 21 a 22 a 23 x1 x 2 x T a a 20 x y 3 a 31 a 32 a 0 x 0 x 0 33 a 30 ane transformation Prof. Dr. Hans Hagen Geometric Modelling Summer

12 Erlangen Program Not only the ane (and therefore the Euclidean) geometries can be "integrated" into projective geometry. This proposition does also hold for the hyperbolic and elliptic geometries. Unfortunately we cannot discuss the axiomatic structure of geometry thoroughly in this course. The common axiomatic foundation of the Euclidean, the elliptic, and the hyperbolic geometries is the so-called absolute geometry. To this fundamental axiomatic system, one of the interchangeable parallel axioms is added: elliptical parallel axiom: There is no parallel line. Euclidean parallel axiom: There is exactly one parallel line. hyperbolic parallel axiom: There are at least two parallel lines. Prof. Dr. Hans Hagen Geometric Modelling Summer

13 Elliptic Model of the Hyperbolic Plane (Beltrami-Klein model): Model of the Elliptic Plane: Prof. Dr. Hans Hagen Geometric Modelling Summer

14 Elliptic Important Note: Elliptic and Hyperbolic spaces are metric spaces, i.e. lengths, angles, volumes,... are computable in the sense of elliptical or hyperbolical metrics! Prof. Dr. Hans Hagen Geometric Modelling Summer

15 Elliptic In later chapters, we will discuss the theory of geodesics. This will enable us to measure the lengths of lines on hyperplanes of arbitrary curvature. As elliptic space have a constant positive and hyperbolic spaces have a constant negative curvature, this will also enable us to study lengths in these geometries. Thus, we will not provide proper equations here. We will discuss the measurement of angles in hyperbolic spaces, though. Measuring angles in the Beltrami-Klein model is rather dicult, so we rst introduce another model of hyperbolic geometry, the Poincaré disk model. After that, we introduce the hyperbolic functions and discuss triangles in the hyperbolic plane. Prof. Dr. Hans Hagen Geometric Modelling Summer

16 Elliptic Poincaré disk model The Beltrami-Klein model is only conformal in the ospring making it hard to measure angles as their values depend on the position. In the Poincaré disk model, angles are measured like in Euclidean space. The angles between two lines in the Poincaré disk model are the angles between the tangents at the intersection of the two lines. Figure: Two lines (red) and (blue), and the angle between them in the Poincaré disk model. Prof. Dr. Hans Hagen Geometric Modelling Summer

17 Elliptic Hyperbolic Functions The hyperbolic sine and hyperbolic cosine describe the right half of the unit hyperbola x 2 y 2 = 1 just like sine and cosine describe the unit circle. Moreover, the hyperbolic cosine describes the form of a rope hung up at its two end points. Prof. Dr. Hans Hagen Geometric Modelling Summer

18 Elliptic The hyperbolic functions are given by the following equations: Denition: Hyperbolic Sine, Hyperbolic Cosine, Hyperbolic Tangent The hyperbolic sine and hyperbolic cosine are the odd and even components of the exponential function: Hyperbolic Sine: sinh x = 1 2 (ex e x ) = i sin(ix) Hyperbolic Cosine: sinh x = 1 2 (ex + e x ) = cos(ix) Hyperbolic Tangent: tanh x = sinh x cosh x Prof. Dr. Hans Hagen Geometric Modelling Summer

19 Elliptic Figure: Hyperbolic Sine (red), Hyperbolic Cosine (green), and Hyperbolic Tangent (blue). Prof. Dr. Hans Hagen Geometric Modelling Summer

20 Elliptic properties: 1 d dx sinh x = cosh x; d dx 2 cosh 2 x sinh 2 x = 1 cosh x = sinh x 3 Euler's Formula: cosh x + sinh x = e x 4 cosh x sinh x = e x 5 A homogeneous rope that is hung up at its two end points and sags only due to its own weight can be described ba a cosh-curve. Such a curve is called a catenary. 6 The area under the curve of cosh x is equal to its arc length: A = b a cosh(x)dx = b a 1 + ( ) d 2 dx cosh(x) dx = arc length Prof. Dr. Hans Hagen Geometric Modelling Summer

21 Elliptic Triangle in Hyperbolic Space As in Euclidean space, a triangle in hyperbolic space is uniquely determined by the intersection of three lines: Figure: Triangle in the Poincaré disk model of the hyperbolic plane. The sum of the angles in a triangle in hyperbolic spaces is always smaller than π, in elliptic spaces, it is always larger. Prof. Dr. Hans Hagen Geometric Modelling Summer

22 Elliptic In hyperbolic space, the follwing theorems similar to the sine rule and the cosine rule in trigonometry hold: Theorem Let α, β, and γ, denote the angles of a triangle in hyperbolic space and a, b, and c the lengths of the oppisite sites. Then: sin α sinh a = sin β sinh b = sin γ sinh c cosh c = cosh a cosh b sinh a sinh b sin γ Prof. Dr. Hans Hagen Geometric Modelling Summer

23 Elliptic Integration into Projective Geometry We have been able to integrate ane geometry into projective geometry by the distinction of a hyperplane as absolute gure. Analogously, we can integrate the elliptic and hyperbolic geometry by the distinction of special quadrics: Denition: Quadric Let f : V V K be a bilinear form and its corresponding quadratic form F = V K; x f ( x, x). Then, Q := {P( x) P(V ) F ( x) = 0} is called a 2nd-order hyperplane or Quadric. Prof. Dr. Hans Hagen Geometric Modelling Summer

24 Elliptic Hyperbolic Geometry: absolute gure: x x x 2 n x 2 n+1 = 0 Quadric Q of rank n + 1 and signature (n; 1). The points where x 2 + x x n < x 2 n+1 are called the quadric's inner points. The group of those projective transformations that x the quadric and map inner points to inner points constitutes a subgroup of the projective group. This subgroup is isomorphic to the group of hyperbolic motions. Prof. Dr. Hans Hagen Geometric Modelling Summer

25 Elliptic Elliptic Geometry: absolute gure: x x x 2 n + x 2 n+1 = 0 Quadric Q without real points. Elliptic geometry supports a projective incidence structure. The group of those projective transformations that x the absolute gure is a subgroup of the projective group. This subgroup is isomorphic to the group of elliptic motions. Prof. Dr. Hans Hagen Geometric Modelling Summer

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