Jupiter: A Global Perspective. Class 8: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto. Class 8: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto

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1 Class 8: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto Class 8: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto Class Updates Reading: 23.2, Midterm 2: April 18th Today s topics: Jupiter & Saturn Jupiter: Internal structure, magnetic field atmosphere, moons Saturn: Exploration, internal structure, rings The other guys: Uranus, Neptune, Pluto Jupiter: A Global Perspective Differences Earth Jupiter Size (radius) 6378 km 11x Earth Mass 6x10 24 kg 317x Earth Density 5.5 g/cm 3 1/4 of Earth Atmosphere mostly 78% NH 2 21% O 2 86% H 2 14% He 2 Surface temperature 20 C -120 C Rotation 1 day 2/5 of Earth Orbit 1 yr 11.9 yrs Plate tectonics yes no Tectonism, volcanism yes no Liquid water yes no 1

2 Exploration of Jupiter Pioneer 10 & 11 fly-bys 1974/75 US Voyager 1 & 2 fly-bys 1979 US Galileo fly-by US probe Cassini fly-by 2004 US/Europe Pioneer 10 Voyager 2 Galileo Cassini Jupiter s Internal Structure (1) 30,000 C (2) (3) core 60,000 km ~12,000 km 2

3 Molecular & Metallic Hydrogen Electron (-1) Nucleus: Proton (+1) Neutron (0) Magnetic Field Generation? Earth Jupiter rocky core liquid metallic hydrogen molecular hydrogen Jupiter s Magnetic Field artist s rendition 3

4 Jupiter s Atmosphere Voyager 1 cool warm Voyager 2 The Great Red Spot 2006: New Junior Red Spot 4

5 Jupiter s Rings Voyager 1 (pseudo color) Halo Ring (inner-most) Jupiter s Moons Jupiter & moons (backyard telescope) 1,000,000 miles Jupiter s Moons: 65 & counting.. 5

6 Saturn Saturn: A Global Perspective Differences Earth Saturn Size (radius) 6378 km 9x Earth Mass 6x10 24 kg 95x Earth Density 5.5 g/cm g/cm 3 Atmosphere 78%N mostly H 2 21%O %H 2 10%He Surface temperature 20 C -180 C Rotation 1 day 1/2 of Earth Plate tectonics yes no Tectonism, volcanism yes no Liquid water yes no Exploration of Saturn Voyager 1 & 2 fly-bys 1979 US Cassini-Huygens orbiter (Saturn) 2004 US/Europe probe (Titan) 2005 Voyager 2 Cassini Huygens Probe 6

7 Cassini Observations Saturn s Internal Structure (I) Layer 1: molecular hydrogen Layer 2: metallic hydrogen Layer 3: water, methane, ammonia Core: heavy-elements(?) (1) (3) (2) 30,000 km core Saturn s Internal Structure (II) less dense than Jupiter Saturn: 0.70 g/cm 3 Water: 1.0 Jupiter: 1.3 molecular H metallic H core 7

8 Saturn s Rings Saturn s Rings Characteristics Epimetheus Saturn s Moons Titan Rhea Dione Mimas Enceladus Iapetus Tethys 8

9 Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto Solar System Distances *Planets not to scale Distances not to scale Uranus: A Global Perspective Differences Earth Uranus Size (radius) 6378 km 4x Earth Mass 6x10 24 kg 145 Earth Density 5.5 g/cm g/cm 3 Atmosphere 78%N 2 21%O 2 84%H 14%He 2%CH (methane) 4 Surface temperature 20 C -200 C Rotation 1 day hours Orbit 365 days years Satellites

10 Exploring Uranus Herschel Uranus moons Hubble Space Telescope Voyager 2 Uranus s Interior (1) (2) core Axis of Rotation Earth Uranus 10

11 Atmosphere & Magnetic Field ultraviolet magnetic axis visible rotation axis 58 The Rings of Uranus dust bands The Moons of Uranus Total: 27 Oberon (2nd largest) Titania (largest) r 789 km Umbriel Miranda Puck Ariel 11

12 Neptune: A Global Perspective Differences Earth Neptune Size (radius) 6378 km 3.9x Earth Mass 6x10 24 kg 171 Earth Density 5.5 g/cm g/cm 3 Atmosphere 78%N 2 21%O 2 84%H 14%He 2%CH 4 (methane) Surface temperature 20 C -210 C Rotation 1 day 16 hours Orbit 365 days 165 years Satellites 1 11 Exploring Neptune Adams Le Verrier Galle Voyager 2 Neptune s Interior (1) H, He, CH 4 (2) H 2 O, CH 4, NH 3 core 12

13 Neptune s Atmosphere & Clouds Neptune clouds Scooter The Great Dark Spot Voyager 2 Voyager 2 Voyager 2 GDS changes Neptune s Rings & Moons faint rings Triton 13

14 A Parting Look Pluto: A Global Perspective Similarities Earth Pluto Moon 1 - Moon 1 - Charon Differences Size (radius) 6378 km 0.2x Earth Mass 6x10 24 kg 0.002x Earth Density 5.5 g/cm 3 0.4x Earth Atmosphere 78% N 2 21% O 2 probably N 2, thin Surface temperature 20 C -220 C Rotation 1 day 6.4 days Orbit 365 days 248 years Exploring Pluto Tombaugh, Lowell Observatory Photo 1 Photo 2 planetary symbol Charon 14

15 Pluto s Elliptical Orbit Pluto: Is it a planet? Real Planets & Dwarf Planets Ceres Pluto Eris 15

16 Pluto s Size & Interior core Pluto - Charon System 112 Pluto and Charon from Hubble Bright/dark regions: differences in methane/nitrogen frost cover 16

17 New Horizons Mission 17

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