Programming Language: Syntax. Introduction to C Language Overview, variables, Operators, Statements

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1 Programming Language: Syntax Introduction to C Language Overview, variables, Operators, Statements Based on slides McGraw-Hill Additional material 2004/2005 Lewis/Martin Modified by Diana Palsetia Syntax is the grammar of the language Analogous to rules in English Language Missing g a period after sentencee Rules using verbs, nouns etc.. Most languages provide syntax check errors (Interprets/Compilers) Syntax error messages may be helpful Often, they are not You gain experience with error messages after a while CIT Programming Language Semantics When the computer carries out your instructions (program) Running or Executing a program Semantics is the meaning of the program We learn the semantics after we run or execute the program Basically we observe the output After the executing program, the semantics of the program may or may be correct Semantic errors cause your answers to be wrong You may or may not get error messages E.g. Error Message Dividing a number by zero If your program is not doing what you want it to do, though it runs, the error is semantic CIT C Programs are Compiled hello.c hello.s hello (a.out) (text file containing C source code) (text file containing assembler source code) (binary executable file Containing machine code ) We will use the GNU gcc compiler (v4.0 and higher) CIT

2 Syntax Compiling and Executing C programs In the folder that contains the source code do for: Compiling the program gcc Wall progname.c gcc tool for compiling process -Wall to display all warning progname.c is file that contains C code Will produce a file called a.out Executing./a.out CIT Compilation Process Entire mechanism is usually called the compiler Preprocessor Acts upon C preprocessor directives Source-level transformations Compiler Output is still C Generates object (.o) file for each file Machine instructions (binaries) This file is not seen unless special compiler options are used Linker Library Object Files Combine object files (including libraries) into executable image Source Code Analysis Target Code Synthesis C Source and Header Files C Preprocessor Compiler Symbol Table CIT Linker Executable Image Comments in C Begins with /* and ends with */ Can span multiple lines Begins with // and ends with end of line Single-line comment E.g. //This is a comment Introduced in C++, later back-ported to C Compiling with ansi standards, gives error Why use comments? Help readers understand programs better CIT Basic C Elements Variables A data item upon which the programmer performs an operation A named space in memory E.g. z, counter Operators Predefined actions performed on data items E.g. *, +, /,,, && Expressions Operators combined with variables/literals to form expressions E.g. x * y Statements A defined behavior Constitutes a unit of work for high-level language Ends with a semicolon. E.g. z = x * y; Functions Named group of statements Provides modularity to program Enforces, DRY principle (Do not Repeat Yourself) CIT

3 C program structure int main(){ /* code goes here */ return 0; } Every C program must have the above format to develop application program(s) One of files must contain above structure main is a special function in C similar to Java s main method Starting point for every program All C programs start and finish execution in the main Note: int main(int argc, char **argv) main function can also take arguments like in Java CIT Identifier: variable name Variable Properties Type: how data is interpreted, and how much space it needs Syntax:<type> <identifier> Later we will discuss: Scope: is the region of the program in which the variable is alive and accessible Storage: how C compiler allocates storage and whether or not the variable loses its value when the section that contains it has completed execution CIT Identifier: Variable Names Any combination of letters, numbers, and underscore (_) Case sensitive "sum" is different than "Sum" Cannot begin with a number Usually, variables beginning with underscore are used only in special library routines Only first 31 characters are definitely used Implementations can consider more characters if they like Legal Identifier Examples i wordspersecond same identifier words_p per_ second _green areally_longname_morethan31chars areally_longname_morethan31characters Illegal 10sdigit ten'sdigit done? double reserved keyword CIT CIT

4 C has several basic data types Types int integer (at least 16 bits, commonly 32 bits) long integer (at least 32 bits) float floating point (at least 32 bits) double floating point (commonly 64 bits) char character (at least 8 bits) Exact size can vary, depending on processor int is supposed to be "natural" integer size 32 bits for most modern processors So how do I know the size? Use unary operator called sizeof. E.g. sizeof(int) returns answer in bytes Signed vs. unsigned: Default is 2 s complement signed integers Use unsigned keyword for unsigned numbers CIT Literal Additional to Data Type Values we write in a conventional form whose value is obvious Constant Variable whose values do not change during the execution of the program This is done by appending const before the type Symbol Like constants but is preprocessor directive CIT Literals Integer 123 /* decimal */ x123 /* hexadecimal */ Floating point e23 /* x */ 5E12 /* 5.0 x */ Character 'c' '\n' /* newline */ '\xa' /* ASCII 10 (0xA) */ CIT C program showing Basic Syntax #define RADIUS 15.0 symbol int main(){ double area; double circum; Declaration a variable (declaration statement) const double PI = ; constant literal area = PI * RADIUS * RADIUS; Expression circum = 2 * PI * RADIUS; return 0; } Operators Statement CIT

5 Symbol is C Preprocessor Directive Symbol start with #define Must go before the main function syntax Example: #define RADIUS 15.0 Before compiling, replace all instances of the string RADIUS in the code with the string 15.0" Also known as a macro Used for values that won't change during execution, but might change if the program is reused(must recompile) Expression Expression Any combination of literals, variables, constants, operators, and function calls Every expression has a type, derived from the types of its components (according to C typing rules) Examples: PI * RADIUS * RADIUS; x + sqrt(y) //sqrt is function with input y x % 6 == 0 CIT CIT Statement Expresses a complete unit of work Executed in sequential order Simple statement ends with semicolon (note: ; is not a comment in C) z = x * y; /* assign product to z */ y = y + 1; /* update y */ ; /* null statement */ sqrt(y); /* containing a function call*/ Compound statement formed with braces Syntactically equivalent to a simple statement { z = x * y; y = y + 1; } Operators Three things to know about each operator (1) Function What does it do? (2) Precedence In which order are operators combined? Example: "a * b + c * d" is the same as "(a * b) + (c * d)" because multiply (*) has a higher precedence than addition (+) (3) Associativity In which order are operators of the same precedence combined? Example: "a - b - c" is the same as "(a - b) - c" because add/sub associate left-to-right CIT CIT

6 Assignment Operator Changes the value of a variable x = x + 4; 1. Evaluate right-hand side. 2. Set value of left-hand side variable to result. Assignment Operator (contd..) All expressions evaluate to a value Even ones with the assignment operator e.g. y = x = 3 For assignment, the result is the value assigned Usually (but not always) the value of the right-hand side Type conversion might make assigned value different than computed value e.g. int x = 15.6/3 = 5 Assignment associates right to left y = x = 3; y gets the value 3, because (x = 3) evaluates to the value 3 y = (x = 3); CIT CIT Arithmetic Operators Symbol Operation Usage Precedence Assoc * multiply x * y 6 l-to-r / divide x / y 6 l-to-r % modulo x % y 6 l-to-r + addition x + y 7 l-to-r - subtraction x - y 7 l-to-r All associate left to right * / % have higher precedence than + - Example * 4 vs. (2 + 3) * 4 2 * 4 % 5 Arithmetic Expressions If mixed types, smaller type is "promoted" to larger Example: x if x is int, converted to double and result is double Integer division -- fraction is dropped Example: x / 3 if x is int and x=5, result is 1 (not ) Storing mixed type expression values int x = 45/7.1; C compiler will do automatic down grade if storage is small. Java compiler will complain Thus C has less type safety features compared to Java Modulo -- result is remainder Example: x % 3 if x is int and x=5, result is 2 CIT CIT

7 Relational Operators Symbol Operation Usage Precedence Assoc > greater than x > y 9 l-to-r >= greater than or equal x >= y 9 l-to-r < less than x < y 9 l-to-r <= less than or equal x <= y 9 l-to-r == equal x == y 10 l-to-r!= not equal x!= y 10 l-to-r Result is non-zero (TRUE) or zero (FALSE) No boolean data type in C All logical work is done via integer data type CIT AND, OR, NOT Two states: TRUE=1, FALSE=0 A B A AND B A B A OR B A NOT A View n-bit number as a collection of n logical values Operation applied to each bit independently (bitwise operators) Applications e.g. water marking, cryptography CIT Logical Operators Symbol Operation Usage Precedence Assoc! logical NOT!x 4 r-to-l && logical AND x && y 14 l-to-r logical OR x y 15 l-to-r Logical Operator is different from bitwise operators Treats entire variable (or value) as TRUE (non-zero), or FALSE (zero) Eg E.g. 1&&8= 1 (True && True = True) Relational and Logical Usage Typically used to construct conditions Ultimately conditional will result in TRUE or FALSE No Boolean type Outcome is zero or non-zero (i.e. int) Example (x > y) && (x < z) (c == q ) (c == Q ) Conditions allow change in the control flow Can skip certain instructions based on condition if((c == q ) (c == Q )){ //Quit game } If the condition results in TRUE, then statements in the { } will be executed { } is known as block. Basically encloses some number of statements to be executed CIT CIT

8 Bitwise Operators Symbol Operation Usage Precedence Assoc ~ bitwise NOT ~x 4 r-to-l << left shift x << y 8 l-to-r >> right shift x >> y 8 l-to-r & bitwise AND x & y 11 l-to-r ^ bitwise XOR x ^ y 12 l-to-r bitwise OR x y 13 l-to-r Bit-wise vs Logical AND 1 & 8 = 0 ( AND = ) 1 && 8 = 1 (True && True = True) AND OR Examples of Bitwise AND, OR, NOT Useful for clearing bits AND with zero = 0 AND with one = no change Useful for setting bits OR with zero = no change OR with one = AND OR NOT Unary operation -- one argument Flips every bit NOT CIT CIT Shift Operator: << (Left Shift Operator) Operate on values -- neither operand is changed Left Shift (<<) variable << shift amount Shifts bits to the left by shift amount Fills spaces equivalent to shift amount on the right side with zeroes x = y << 1 same as x = y + y or 2 * y CIT C and the Right Shift Operator (>>) Does right shift sign extend or not? Answer: Yes and No Unsigned values: zero extend unsigned int x = ~0; Then, (x >> 10) will have 10 leading zeros Signed values: Right shifting a signed quantity will fill with sign bits ( arithmetic shift ) on some machines and with 0-bits ( logical l shift ) on others. - Kernighan and Ritchie In practice, it does sign extend int x = ~0; /* signed */ Then, (x >> 10) will still be all 1s CIT

9 Special Operators: ++ and -- Changes value of variable by 1 before (or after) its value is used in an expression Symbol Operation Usage PrecedenceAssoc ++ postincrement x++ 2 r-to-l -- postdecrement x-- 2 r-to-l ++ preincrement ++x 3 r-to-l -- predecrement --x 3 r-to-l Pre: Increment/decrement variable before using its value Post: Increment/decrement variable after using its value Using ++ and -- x = 4; y = x++; Results: x = 5, y = 4 (because x is incremented after assignment) x = 4; y = ++x; Results: x = 5, y = 5 (because x is incremented before assignment) CIT CIT Special Operators: +=, *=, etc. Arithmetic and bitwise operators can be combined with assignment operator Statement Equivalent assignment x += y; x = x + y; x -= y; x = x - y; x *= y; x = x * y; x /= y; x = x / y; x %= y; x = x % y; All have same x &= y; x = x & y; precedence and x = y; x = x y; associativity as = x ^= y; x = x ^ y; and associate x <<= y; x = x << y; right-to-left. x >>= y; x = x >> y; CIT Input and Output Variety of I/O functions in C Standard Library Libraries contain code/programs already written that can be re-used So we do not have to re-invent the wheel For I/O, must include <stdio.h> i.e.#include <stdio.h> Must go above the main function syntax #include is a C processor Directive Before compiling, copy contents of stdio.h into source code.h files typically contain descriptions of functions and structs printf Print formatted Performs output to standard output device (monitor) String contains characters to print and formatting directions for variable Really useful in debugging scanf Scan Formatted String contains formatting directions for reading input CIT

10 Output printf( Counter value is %d\n", counter); print the variable counter as a decimal integer, followed by a linefeed (\n) Linefeed will make the cursor go onto next line Can print arbitrary expressions, not just variables printf("%d\n", startpoint - counter); Print multiple expressions with a single statement printf("%d %d\n", counter, startpoint - counter); Different formatting options: %d decimal integer %x hexadecimal integer %c ASCII character %f floating-point number CIT Examples This code: printf("%d is a prime number.\n", 43); printf("43 plus 59 in decimal is %d.\n", 43+59); printf("43 plus 59 in hex is %x.\n", 43+59); printf("43 plus 59 as a character is %c.\n", 43+59); produces this output: 43 is a prime number. 43 plus 59 in decimal is plus 59 in hex is plus 59 as a character is f. CIT Examples of Input scanf("%d", &startpoint); read a decimal integer and assign it to the variable startpoint (& - specifies the address of the operand.more on this when we do pointers) Same formatting characters are available for user input scanf("%c", &nextchar); reads a single character and stores it in nextchar scanf("%f", &radius); reads a floating point number and stores it in radius scanf("%d %d", &length, &width); reads two decimal integers (separated by whitespace), stores the first one in length and the second in width Scanf has some limitations.more on it later CIT

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