Management and control options for fruit fly in Australia

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1 Management and control options for fruit fly in Australia How do overseas countries control and manage fruit flies? Andrew Jessup, Research Horticulturist, NSW DPI, Ourimbah Melbourne 28 August 2012

2 Basic issues The type of management needed for fruit flies is determined by the type of desired outcome: 1.Production generally based on and acted on by growers 2.Trade generally imposed by authorities in importing regions

3 Basic issues Fruit fly management is based on a numbers game 0 flies means no trade allowed, or, if live flies are found on import inspection then shipment will be destroyed, re-directed or sent back 0 flies surviving out of three replicated trials on 10,000 flies each is OK for Japan and some other Asian markets

4 Fewer than 1 survivor in 100,000 insects treated means that the treatment is OK for access to US and other markets (Probit 9 security is satisfied) 1 larva or 1 female found in a fruit, or orchard means that outbreak control activities must commence

5 3 flies per trap per week during harvest may be OK to designate an Area of Low Pest Prevalence for some countries but others may require only 1 fly/trap/week or even 0 3, or sometimes, 5 male flies trapped in a trap or adjacent traps over 10 days means that outbreak control activities must commence

6 The larger the fruit fly population the more likely: Sufficient flies will survive winter, find each other, mate and lay eggs Flies will lay their eggs in unusual fruit Flies will spread to new climates, new geographical areas, new hosts Flies will hitch hike on interregional transport

7 Overseas measures Pesticides in field, post-harvest, registration required here and overseas, MRLs need to be set up and agreed to; cover sprays, ground treatments Systems approaches ICAs, greenhouse production, ISPMs, Mexican avocadoes to the USA, combinations of fruit fly mitigation procedures that are measurable and auditable

8 Physical barriers orchard netting, tree netting, fruit bagging; studies in Queensland on netting, higher RH, buildup of other pests; bagging fruit in SE Asia, Japan; costs Sterile insect technique alone or as a component of a package of activities; used in many countries (USA, Japan, Israel, S Africa, Australia, etc)

9 Proving fruit fly freedom based on sampling entire orchard, product at harvest; at each harvest; Spotted wing Drosophila from Canada to the USA Parasitoids large scale inundative releases in conjunction with SIT in Texas, Mexico, Guatemala; not stand alone treatment as crop is often destroyed by fly eggs and larvae which are then parasitised

10 Trap crops, refuge crops attract fruit flies to them and treat them with pesticides or baits; intensive care required or will be the source for more infestations Traditional methods Oecophylla ants, used mainly in the tropics; orchard hygiene should be practiced, sometimes it is a pre-requisite for trade; removal of surrounding shade trees, refuge crops

11 Grow fruit, vegetables or other products that are poor or non hosts traditional olive cultivar for oil in Jordan; pineapples; cucurbits in Riverina Host removal backyards, scrub lands, council property, Crown land

12 Winter window, climatic window, maturity window, harvest-by date flies are not around when these fruit are harvested Fruit harvested green OK for bananas and limes Post-harvest treatments chemical, physical

13 Banning entry into fruit fly sensitive areas or movement out of areas with fruit flies; the Philippines bans all Australian fruit fly host products; banning of fruit into the Fruit Fly Exclusion Zone except where certified Banning the planting of fruit fly host plants, apart from designated commercial fruits, inside the protected zone

14 Baiting and trapping well used methods, not so good under high fruit fly populations; mass-trapping in use in Spain in conjunction with baiting and SIT; male annihilation has cleared fruit fly from southern Japan, Nauru, Easter Island and others; mainly used for detection, monitoring and delimitation; the number of flies in trap triggers control activities, reporting, etc

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