Towards Responsible Foreign Direct Investment in Developing Country Agriculture

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1 Towards Responsible Foreign Direct Investment in Developing Country Agriculture David Hallam United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization

2 A controversial issue Investment needs Feeding the World in 2050 but what role for FDI? Host country needs and investor wants but risks where governance weak Media coverage Saudi Investors to Put $100m into Ethiopian Farm (Fortune, ) Land Leased to Secure Crops for South Korea (Financial Times, ) Manufactured Famine: A New Wave of Food Colonialism Is Snatching Food from the Mouths of The Poor (Guardian, ) RAI as a response to risks and to promote responsible investment G20 Seoul Summit, November 2010: We request UNCTAD, the World Bank, IFAD, FAO and other appropriate international organizations to develop options for promoting responsible investment in agriculture. Dakar Appeal for moratorium on land grabbing and rejection of illegitimate and inadequate RAI principles

3 Foreign investment in developing country agriculture broad features not a new phenomenon limited information increasing trend (the land grab ) investors are private sector (banks, agribusiness, investment companies, institutional investors, trading companies, mining companies), governments (directly or indirectly), sovereign funds, domestic investors differences from recent patterns of FDI land acquisitions predominate but other forms too

4 Explanations Investors food security (worsening) natural resource constraints land and water international trade policies and the reliability of international markets but why foreign investment and why land? biofuel production portfolio diversification financial gain, including in land values Hosts need for investment foreign investment needed to supplement other sources financial benefits of asset transfers small? developmental benefits technology, employment, infrastructure exploit surplus land

5 Impacts of foreign investment Positive technology transfer and upgrading employment creation, multiplier effects and poverty reduction food production and food security commercialisation and large-scale agriculture diversification and development of valueadded production Negative food security impact on smallholders social, rights issues, transparency, governance issues and sovereignty environmental issues inappropriate economic models

6 Large-scale land acquisition where local land rights are not clearly defined and governance is weak are problematic (case studies) lack of transparency in land transfers no consultation with local stakeholders no recognition of their rights displacement of local smallholders loss of grazing land for pastoralists negative impacts on livelihoods no compensation environmental damage arising from additional demands on local water resources caused by large-scale production large-scale monocultures limit biodiversity.

7 But also some positive findings significant employment creation (more than displacement?) not always environmentally damaging new technologies mixed evidence on technology transfer some evidence of increased local food availability

8 The case for international action Foreign investment could help meet investment needs and provide broader developmental benefits International concern over impacts on small farmers and food security of recent foreign large-scale land acquisitions Fears that local concerns are not emphasised in investment contracts and international investment agreements and that domestic law is inadequate Need for information on investment needs, impacts and best practices the knowledge platform International guidelines might promote responsible agricultural investments benefiting all stakeholders

9 Criteria for responsible international investment possible elements might include transparency, good governance and accountability social, environmental and economic sustainability stakeholder involvement recognition of domestic food security and rural development concerns to provide a framework to which national regulations, international investment agreements, global corporate social responsibility initiatives and individual investment contracts can refer

10 FAO/UNCTAD/IFAD/World Bank Principles for responsible agricultural investment that respects rights, livelihoods and resources 1. respect for land and resource rights 2. food security and rural development safeguarded 3. transparency, good governance and enabling environment 4. consultation and participation 5. economic viability and responsible agroenterprise investing 6. social sustainability 7. environmental sustainability

11 The RAI principles Voluntary all stakeholders have responsibility to monitor plus compliance subject to periodic review by appropriate international forum? Based on detailed research concerning the nature, extent and impacts of foreign investment and best practices in law and policy Draw on existing international commitments voluntary guidelines on land tenure, right to food, equator principles, OECD guidelines on MNE, etc Subject to comprehensive consultation with all stakeholders - governments, international organizations, farmers organizations, NGOs, private sector and civil society

12 RAI principles and the Voluntary Guidelines on Land Tenure RAI concerned with ALL investments, not just land Content of Principle 1 provided by the Voluntary Guidelines (especially section 12 on investments and concessions and section 16 on expropriation and compensation of the Zero Draft, April 2011)

13 RAI Principles Consultation 1. September 2009 UN General Assembly side event on responsible. agricultural investment, New York; 2. December 2009 Global Forum on International Investment, Paris; 3. March 2010 FAO International Symposium on Poverty Reduction and International Investment in Agriculture, Tokyo; 4. April 2010 MCC-GoJ-AU consultation event on RAI, Washington DC; April 2010 World Bank Annual Land Conference, Washington DC; 5. May 2010 Consultation on responsible investment in agriculture, FAO Conference for Africa; 6. July 2010 ADB-FAO-IFAD Investment Forum for Food Security for Asia and the Pacific, Manila; 7. October 2010Consultation on responsible investment in agriculture,fao Conference for Asia and the Pacific; 8. October th session of FAO Committee on World Food Security (CFS); 9. October 2010 APEC Ministerial Meeting on food security and foreign direct investment, Niigata; 10. December 2010 Consultation on responsible investment in agriculture, FAO Conference for the Near East; 11. January 2011Briefing session on voluntary guidelines for Land and the RAI principles for FAO's member countries; 12. March 2011FAO Workshop on Responsible Agricultural Investment for the private sector, Rome.

14 RAI and the CFS 36 th Session, October 2010: start an inclusive process of consideration of the principles within CFS Broad inclusive consultation process on content and implementation issues under CFS (track 1) taking into account other initiatives as appropriate - electronic and plenary consultations Testing applicability (track 2) outside CFS HLPE also mandated to undertake study on comparative analysis of tools to align large-scale investments with country food security strategies Endorsement of RAI principles in October 2012?

15 RAI and the G20 Earlier G8 recommendation Seoul Summit, November 2010, as part of its multi-year action plan on development the G20 encouraged all countries and companies to uphold the Principles for Responsible Agricultural Investment. We request UNCTAD, the World Bank, IFAD, FAO and other appropriate international organizations to develop options for promoting responsible investment in agriculture. Preliminary report March 2011 and final report by June Consultation, operationalization, capacity building, promotion of responsible investment models

16 Next steps for the four organizations Elaboration of the principles, extended commentary/annotations including clarification of relationship with existing international commitments Continuing research on FDI issues, especially alternative business models Continuing consultations including through the CFS with all stakeholders concerning content and application Piloting and testing the principles with governments and the private sector including retrofitting Technical assistance and capacity building for application of RAI principles

17 ANNEX The RAI Principles

18 Principle 1 Existing rights to land and associated natural resources are recognized and respected Identification of rights holders Legal recognition of all rights and uses Negotiations with land holders/users for transfer Payment for all acquired rights Independent mechanisms for resolving disputes => See FAO voluntary guidelines on land tenure 18

19 Principle 2 Investments do not jeopardize food security but rather strengthen it Continuous access to food is assured Protect livelihoods and raise incomes Dietary preferences taken into account Reduce potential instability of supply 19

20 Principle 3 Processes relating to investment are transparent, monitored and ensure accountability by all stakeholders within a proper business, legal and regulatory environment Ensure public availability of information Strengthen capacity of institutions Independent system to monitor progress towards better institutional environment 20

21 Principle 4 All those materially affected are consulted, and agreements from consultations are recorded and enforced Clarify local stakeholder representation Document consultations Specify enforcement mechanisms 21

22 Principle 5 Investors ensure that projects respect the rule of law, reflect industry best practice, are viable economically and result in durable shared value Due diligence & project analysis Comply w domestic laws, policies & w internat. treaties Adopt global best practices for transparency & CSR Generate benefits for local community & host country Govt to check feasibility analysis - ensure stakeholders benefit 22

23 Principle 6 Investments generate desirable social and distributional impacts and do not increase vulnerability Identify risks and devise strategies to address them Consider interests of vulnerable groups & women Include benefits in the investment plan 23

24 Principle 7 Environmental impacts are quantified and measures taken to encourage sustainable resource use, while minimizing the risk and magnitude of negative impacts and mitigating them Need for: Adequate regulations A sustainable production system EIA before approval Reliable environmental monitoring system 24

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