# Introduction to Linear Programming.

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1 Chapter 1 Introduction to Linear Programming. This chapter introduces notations, terminologies and formulations of linear programming. Examples will be given to show how real-life problems can be modeled as linear programs. The graphical approach will be used to solve some simple linear programming problems. 1

2 What is Linear Programming? A typical optimization problem is to find the best element from a given set. In order to compare elements, we need a criterion, which we call an objective function f(x). The given set is called the feasible set which is usually defined by {x R n g i (x) 0, i = 1,..., m} Such an optimization problem can be formulated as Maximize f(x) Subject to g i (x) 0, i = 1,..., m. In this course, we study a special optimization problem in which f and g i are all linear functions, so called linear programming. 2

3 Why do we study Linear Programming? It is simple, thus can be efficiently solved. It is the basis for the development of solution algorithms of other (more complex) types of Operations research (OR) models, including integer, nonlinear, and stochastic programming. 3

4 1.1 General Linear Programming problems. In this section, the general linear programming problem is introduced followed by some examples to help us familiarize with some basic terminology used in LP. Notation 1. For a matrix A, we denote its transpose by A T. 2. An n-dimensional vector x R n is denoted by a column vector x 1 x 2 x =. x n 3. For vectors x = (x 1, x 2,, x n ) T and y = (y 1, y 2,, y n ) T, the following denotes the matrix multiplication: x T y = n i=1 x iy i = x 1 y 1 + x 2 y x n y n. 4

5 In a general linear programming problem, a cost vector c = (c 1, c 2,, c n ) T is given. The objective is to minimize or maximize a linear cost function c T x = n c ix i over all vectors i=1 x = (x 1, x 2,, x n ) T, subject to a finite set of linear equality and inequality constraints. This can be summarized as follows: Minimize c T x (Or maximize) Subject to a T i x b i, i M +, a T i x b i, i M, a T i x = b i, i M 0, x j 0, j N +, x j 0, j N, where a i = (a i1, a i2, a i3,, a in ) T is a vector in R n and b i is a scalar. a T i x = a i1 x 1 + a i2 x a in x n 5

6 Terminology 1. Variables x i are called decision variables. There are n of them. 2. Each constraint is either an equation or an inequality of the form or. Constraints of the form a T i x(, =, )b i are sometimes known as functional constraints. 3. If j is in neither N + nor N, there are no restrictions on the sign of x j. The variable x j is said to be unrestricted in sign or a unrestricted variable. 4. A vector x = (x 1, x 2,, x n ) T satisfying all of the constraints is called a feasible solution or feasible vector. The set of all feasible solutions is called the feasible set or feasible region. 5. The function c T x is called the objective function or cost function. 6

7 6. A feasible solution x that minimizes (repectively maximizes) the objective function, i.e. c T x c T x (respectively c T x c T x ) for all feasible vectors x) is called an optimal feasible solution or simply, an optimal solution. The value of c T x is then called the optimal cost or optimal objective value. 7. For a minimization (respectively maximization) problem, the cost is said to be unbounded or the optimal cost is (repectively the optimal cost is ) if for every real number K we can find a feasible solution x whose cost is less than K (respectively whose cost is greater than K). 8. Maximizing c T x is equivalent to minimizing c T x. More precisely, max c T x = min c T x. E.g., if c T x [1, 5], then max c T x = 5 min c T x = 5. 7

8 Graphical representation In R 2, the equation a T i x = b i describes a line perpendicular to a i, whereas in R 3, the equation a T i x = b i describes a plane whose normal vector is a i. In R n, the equation a T i x = b i describes a hyperplane whose normal vector is a i. Moreover, a i corresponds to the direction of increasing value of a T i x. The inequality a T i x b i represents a half space. A set of inequalities represents the intersection of the half spaces. Line x 1 + 2x 2 = 3:

9 Half space x 1 + 2x 2 3: Intersection x 1 + 2x 2 3 and 2x 1 + x 2 3:

10 Example 1.1 (2-variables) Consider the following LP problem: minimize x 1 x 2 subject to x 1 + 2x 2 3 2x 1 + x 2 3 x 1, x 2 0. (a) Sketch the feasible region and find an optimal solution of the LP graphically. (b) If the cost function is changed to x 1 + 2x 2, what is the optimal solution?

11 Observations 1. For any given scalar z, the set of points x = x 1 x 2 such that c T x = z is described by the line with equation z = x 1 x 2. This line is perpendicular 1 to the vector c = 1. (WHY?) 2. Different values of z lead to different lines, parallel to each other. Sketch lines corresponding to z = 1, and z = Increasing z corresponds to moving the line z = x 1 x 2 along the direction of the vector c = 1 1. Thus, to minimize z, the line is moved as much as possible in the direction of the vector 1 c = (i.e. the opposite direction of the 1 1 vector c = 1 ) within the feasible region. 4. The optimal solution x = feasible set is a corner of the

12 Example 1.2 (3-variable) Consider the following LP problem: minimize x 1 x 2 x 3 subject to x i 1, i = 1, 2, 3, x 1, x 2, x 3 0. The feasible set is the unit cube, described by 0 x i 1, i = 1, 2, 3, and c = Then the vector x = is an optimal solution. 12

13 Example 1.3 (4-variable) Minimize 2x 1 x 2 + 4x 3 Subject to x 1 + x 2 + x 4 2 3x 2 x 3 = 5 x 3 + x 4 3 x 1 0 x 3 0 We cannot present it graphically. How to solve it? 13

14 Example 1.4 Consider the feasible set in R 2 of the linear programming problem. minimize c T x Subject to x 1 + x 2 1 x 1 0 x

15 (a) For the cost vector c = optimal solution x = (b) For c = 1 0 x of the form x = , there is a unique, there are multiple optimal solutions 0 x 2 set of optimal solutions is bounded. (c) For c = 0 1 x of the form x = where 0 x 2 1. The, there are multiple optimal solutions x 1 where x 1 0. The set 0 of optimal solutions is unbounded (some x is of arbitrarily large magnitude). 1 (d) For c = 1, every feasible solution is not optimal. The optimal cost is unbounded or the optimal cost is. (e) Imposing additional constraint x 1 + x 2 2, there is no feasible solution. 15

16 This example illustrates the following possibilities for a Linear Programming problem. (a) There is a unique optimal solution. (b) There are multiple optimal solutions. The set of optimal solutions is bounded or unbounded. (c) The optimal cost is and no feasible solution is optimal. (d) The feasible set is empty. The problem is infeasible. 1.2 Formulation of LP problems. The crux of formulating an LP model is: Step 1 Identify the unknown variables to be determined (decision variables) and represent them in terms of algebraic symbols. Step 2 Identify all the restrictions or constraints in the problem and express them as linear equations or inequalities of the decision variables. 16

17 Step 3 Identify the objective or criterion and represent it as a linear function of the decision variables, which is to be maximized or minimized. Example 2.1 The diet problem Green Farm uses at least 800 kg of special feed daily. The special feed is a mixture of corn and soybean meal with the following compositions: kg per kg of feedstuff Feedstuff Protein Fiber Cost (\$ per kg) Corn Soybean meal The dietary requirements of the total feed stipulate at least 30% protein and at most 5% fiber. Green Farm wishes to determine the daily minimum-cost feed mix. Formulate the problem as an LP problem. 17

18 Solution Decision variables: x 1 = kg of corn in the daily mix x 2 = kg of soybean meal in the daily mix Constraints: Daily amount requirement: x 1 + x Dietary requirements: Protein: 0.09x x 2 0.3(x 1 + x 2 ) Fiber: 0.02x x (x 1 + x 2 ) Objective: minimize 0.3x x 2 Thus, the complete model is minimize 0.3x x 2 subject to x 1 + x x x x x 2 0 x 1, x

19 Example 2.2 (The Reddy Mikks Company) The Reddy Mikks Company owns a small paint factory that produces both interior and exterior house paints for wholesale distribution. Two basic raw materials, A and B, are used to manufacture the paints. The maximum availability of A is 6 tons a day; that of B is 8 tons a day. The daily requirement of the raw materials per ton of the interior and exterior paints are summarized in the following table: Tons of raw material per ton of paint Raw Maximum Material Exterior Interior Availability(tons) A B A market survey has established that the daily demand for interior paint cannot exceed that of exterior paint by more than 1 ton. The survey also shows that the maximum demand for interior paint is limited to 2 tons daily. The wholesale price per ton is \$ 3000 for exterior paint and \$ 2000 for interior paint. 19

20 How much interior and exterior paints should the company produce daily to maximize gross income? Solution Decision variables: x 1 = number of tons of exterior paint produced daily x 2 = number of tons of interior paint produced daily Constraints: Use of material A daily: x 1 + 2x 2 6 Use of material B daily: 2x 1 + x 2 8 Daily Demand: x 2 x Maximum Demand: x 2 2. Objective: maximize 3000x x 2 20

21 Thus, the complete LP model is: maximize 3000x x 2 subject to x 1 + 2x 2 6 2x 1 + x 2 8 x 1 + x 2 1 x 2 2 x 1, x

22 Example 2.1* The diet problem Suppose that there are n different foods and m different nutrients, and that we are given the following table with the nutritional content of a unit of each food: food 1 food n nutrient 1 a 11 a 1n nutrient m a m1 a mn Let b i be the requirements of an ideal food, nutrient i. Given the cost c j per unit of Food j, j = 1, 2,, n. The problem of mixing nonnegative quantities of available foods to synthesize the ideal food at minimal cost is an LP problem. Let x j, j = 1, 2,, n, be the quantity of Food j to synthesize the ideal food. The formulation of the 22

23 LP is as follows: Minimize c 1 x 1 + c 2 x c n x n Subject to a i1 x 1 + a i2 x a in x n = b i, i = 1, 2,, m, x j 0, j = 1, 2,, n. A variant of this problem: Suppose b i specify the minimal requirements of an adequate diet. Then a i1 x 1 + a i2 x a in x n = b i is replaced by a i1 x 1 + a i2 x a in x n b i. 23

24 Example 2.2* A production problem A firm produces n different goods using m different raw materials. Let b i, i = 1, 2,, m, be the available amount of ith raw material. The jth good, j = 1, 2,, n, requires a ij units of the ith raw material and results in a revenue of c j per unit produced. The firm faces the problem of deciding how much of each good to produce in order to maximize its total revenue. Let x j, j = 1, 2,, n, be the amount of the jth good. The LP formulation becomes: Maximize c 1 x 1 + c 2 x c n x n Subject to a i1 x 1 + a i2 x a in x n b i, i = 1, 2,, m, x j 0, j = 1, 2,, n. 24

25 Example 2.3 Bank Loan Policy (cf. Taha p. 39) The ABC bank is in the process of formulating a loan policy involving a total of \$12 million. Being a full-service facility, the bank is obliged to grant loans to different clientele. The following table provides the types of loans, the interest rate charged by the bank, and the probability of bad debt from past experience: Type of loan Interest rate Probability of Bad Debt Personal Car Home Farm Commercial Bad debts are assumed unrecoverable and hence no interest revenue. Competition with other financial institutions in the area requires that the bank allocate at least 40% of the total funds to farm and commercial loans. To assist the housing industry in the region, home loans must equal at least 50% of 25

26 the personal, car and home loans. The bank also has a stated policy specifying that the overall ratio for bad debts on all loans may not exceed How should funds be allocated to these types of loans to maximize the net rate of return? Solution Let x 1, x 2, x 3, x 4, x 5 (in million dollars) be the amount of funds allocated to Personal loan, Car loan, Home loan, Farm loan and Commercial loan respectively. Net return: Personal: (0.9x 1 )(0.14) 0.1x 1 = 0.026x 1. Car: (0.93x 2 )(0.130) 0.07x 2 = x 2. Home: (0.97x 3 )(0.120) 0.03x 3 = x 3. Farm: (0.95x 4 )(0.125) 0.05x 4 = x 4. Commercial: (0.98x 5 )(0.100) 0.02x 5 = 0.078x 5. Total Fund: x 1 + x 2 + x 3 + x 4 + x

27 Competition: x 4 + x x 1 + x 2 + x 3 + x 4 + x 5 0.4x x x 3 0.6x x 5 0 Housing industry: x 3 0.5(x 1 +x 2 +x 3 ) 0.5x x 2 0.5x 3 0 Overall bad debt: 0.1x x x x x 5 x 1 + x 2 + x 3 + x 4 + x x x x x x 5 0 The LP forumulation: maximize 0.026x x x x x 5 subject to x 1 + x 2 + x 3 + x 4 + x x x x 3 0.6x x x x 2 0.5x x x x x x 5 0 x 1, x 2, x 3, x 4, x

28 Example 2.4 (Work Scheduling Problem) A post office requires different numbers of full-time employees on different days of the weeks. The number of full-time employees required on each day is given below: Number of Employees Day 1 = Monday 17 Day 2 = Tuesday 13 Day 3 = Wednesday 15 Day 4 = Thursday 19 Day 5 = Friday 14 Day 6 = Saturday 16 Day 7 = Sunday 11 Union rules state that each full-time employee must work five consecutive days and then receive two days off. The post office wants to meet its daily requirements with only full-time employees. Formulate an LP that the post office can use to minimize the number of full-time employees that must be hired. 28

29 Let x j be the number of employees starting their week on Day j. The formulation of the LP becomes: Minimize x 1 + x 2 + x 3 + x 4 + x 5 + x 6 + x 7 Subject to x 1 + x 4 + x 5 + x 6 + x 7 17 x 1 + x 2 + x 5 + x 6 + x 7 13 x 1 + x 2 + x 3 + x 6 + x 7 15 x 1 + x 2 + x 3 + x 4 + x 7 19 x 1 + x 2 + x 3 + x 4 + x 5 14 x 2 + x 3 + x 4 + x 5 + x 6 16 x 3 + x 4 + x 5 + x 6 + x 7 11 x j 0, x j integer. Note The additional constraint that x j must be an integer gives rise to a linear integer programming problem. Finding optimal solutions to general integer programming problems is typically difficult. 29

30 1.3 Compact form and Standard form of a general linear programming problem. Compact form of a general linear programming problem In a general linear programming problem, note that each linear constraint, be it an equation or inequality, can be expressed in the form a T i x b i. 1. a T i x = b i a T i x b i and a T i x b i. 2. a T i x b i a T i x b i. 3. Constraints x j 0 or x j 0 are special cases of constraints of the form a T i x b i, where a i is a unit vector and b i = 0. Thus, the feasible set in a general linear programming problem can be expressed exclusively in terms of inequality constraints of the form a T i x b i. Suppose all linear constraints are of the form a T i x b i and there are m of them in total. We may index these constraints by i = 1, 2,, m. 30

31 Let b = (b 1, b 2,, b m ) T, and A be the m n matrix whose rows are a T 1, a T 2,, a T m, i.e. A = a T 1 a T m Then the constraints a T i x b i, i = 1, 2,, m, can be expressed compactly in the form Ax b. (Ax b denotes for each i, the i component of Ax is greater than or equal to the ith component of b.) The general linear programming problem can be written compactly as: minimize c T x (or maximize) subject to Ax b A linear programming problem of this form is said to be in compact form.. 31

32 Example 3.1 Express the following LP problem in Example 1.3 in compact form. Minimize 2x 1 x 2 + 4x 3 Subject to x 1 + x 2 + x 4 2 3x 2 x 3 = 5 x 3 + x 4 3 x 1 0 x 3 0 Rewrite the above LP as Minimize 2x 1 x 2 + 4x 3 Subject to x 1 + x 2 + x 4 2 3x 2 x 3 5 3x 2 + x 3 5 x 3 x 4 3 x 1 0 x

33 which is in the compact form with c = , x = x 1 x 2 x 3 x 4, b = and A =

34 Standard Form Linear Programming Problem A linear programming problem of the form minimize c T x (or maximize) subject to Ax = b x 0 is said to be in standard form. Note Two optimization problems are said to be equivalent if an optimal solution to one problem can be constructed from an optimal solution to another. A general linear programming problem can be transformed into an equivalent problem in standard form by performing the following steps when necessary: 1. Elimination of nonpositive variable and free variables. Replace nonpositive variable x j 0 by x j = x j, where x j 0. 34

35 Replace unrestricted variable x j by x + j x j, and where new variables x + j 0 and x j Elimination of inequality constraints. n An inequality constraint a ijx j b i can be j=1 converted to an equality constraint by introducing a slack variable s i and the standard form constraints n a ijx j + s i = b i, s i 0. j=1 For example, x 1 + 2x 2 3 is converted to x 1 + 2x 2 + S 1 = 3, S 1 0. n An inequality constraint a ijx j b i can be j=1 converted to an equality constraint by introducing a surplus variable s i and the standard form constraints n a ijx j s i = b i, s i 0. j=1 35

36 For example, 3x 1 +4x 2 1 is converted to 3x 1 + 4x 2 S 1 = 1, S 1 0. Example 3.2 Express the following LP problem in Example 1.3 in standard form. Minimize 2x 1 x 2 + 4x 3 Subject to x 1 + x 2 + x 4 2 3x 2 x 3 = 5 x 3 + x 4 3 x 1 0 x 3 0 Replace x 2 = x + 2 x 2, x 3 = x 3, and x 4 = x + 4 x 4. Add a surplus variable S 1 to the -constraint, and add a slack variable S 2 to the -constraint. Minimize 2x 1 x x 2 4x 3 Subject to x 1 + x + 2 x 2 + x + 4 x 4 S 1 = 2 3x + 2 3x 2 + x 3 = 5 x 3 + x + 4 x 4 + S 2 = 3 x 1, x + 2, x 2, x 3, x + 4, x 4, S 1, S

37 which is in the standard form with c = , x = x 1 x + 2 x 2 x 3 x + 4 x 4 S1 S 2, b = and A = Remark (Why do we need different forms of LP problems?) 1. The general (compact) form Ax b is often used to develop the theory of linear programming. 2. The standard form Ax = b, x 0 is computationally convenient when it comes to algorithms such as simplex methods. 37

38 1.4 Piecewise linear convex objective functions. Piecewise linear convex function The notation max i=1,,m {a i } or max{a 1,..., a m } denotes the maximum value among a 1, a 2,, a m. A function of the form max i=1,,m (c T i x + d i ) is called a piecewise linear convex function. Example 4.1 (a) Sketch the graph of y = max(2x, 1 x, 1 + x). (b) Express the absolute value function f(x) = x as a piecewise linear convex function. 38

39 The following problem is not a formulation of an LP problem. Minimize max (x 1, x 2, x 3 ) Subject to 2x 1 + 3x 2 5 x 2 2x 3 6 x 3 7 x 1, x 2, x 3 0. However, it can be converted to an equivalent LP problem by the next proposition. Proposition The minimization problem (I) minimize max i=1,,m(c T i x + d i ) subject to Ax b. is equivalent to the linear programming problem (II) minimize z subject to z c T i x + d i, i = 1,, m. Ax b. where the decision variables are z and x. 39

40 Proof. Note: max i=1,,m {a i } = min{u u a i, i = 1, 2,, m}, the smallest upper bound of the set {a i i = 1, 2,, m}. Thus (I) minimize max i=1,,m(c T i x + d i ) subject to Ax b. is equivalent to minimize min{z z (c T i x + d i ), i = 1, 2,, m} subject to Ax b. which is in turn equivalent to (II) minimize z subject to z c T i x + d i, i = 1, 2,, m Ax b. Corollary The following maximization problems are equivalent: 40

41 (I ) maximize min i=1,,m (c T i x + d i ) subject to Ax b. maximize z (II ) subject to z c T i x + d i, i = 1,, m. Ax b. Example 4.2 Express the following as an LP problem. Minimize max (3x 1 x 2, x 2 + 2x 3 ) Subject to 2x 1 + 3x 2 5 x 2 2x 3 6 x 3 7 x 1, x 2, x

42 Example 4.3 A machine shop has one drill press and 5 milling machines, which are to be used to produce an assembly consisting of two parts, 1 and 2. The productivity of each machine for the two parts is given below: Production Time in Minutes per Piece Part Drill Mill It is desired to maintain a balanced loading on all machines such that no machine runs more than 30 minutes per day longer than any other machine (assume that the milling load is split evenly among all five milling machines). Assuming an 8-hour working day, formulate the problem as a linear programming model so as to obtain the maximum number of completed assemblies. 42

43 Solution x i = Number of part i to be produced. max min{x 1, x 2 } s.t. 3x 1 + 5x x x (3x 1 + 5x 2 ) 20x x 2 5 x 1, x 2 0, integer. 30 max z s.t. z x 1 z x 2 3x 1 + 5x x 1 + 3x x 1 + 2x 2 30 x 1 + 2x 2 30 x 1, x 2 0, integer. 43

44 Chapter 2 Development of the Simplex Method. The Simplex Method is a method for solving linear programming problems. This chapter develops basic properties of the simplex method. We begin with geometry of linear programming to show that an optimal solution of a linear program is a corner point of the feasible set of the linear program. We characterize corner points geometrically and algebraically. Finally, we present conditions for optimal solutions of a linear program, which are the foundation for development of the simplex method. 44

45 2.1 Geometry of Linear Programming. In this section, we consider the compact form of a general LP, Minimize c T x Subject to Ax b. We characterize corner points of the feasible set {x Ax b} geometrically (via extreme points and vertices) and algebraically (via basic feasible solution). The main results state that a nonempty polyhedron has at least one corner point if and only if it does not contain a line, and if this is the case, the search for optimal solutions to linear programming problems can be restricted to corner points Extreme point, vertex and basic feasible solution. A polyhedron or polyhedral set is a set that can be described in the form {x R n Ax b}, where A is an m n matrix and b is a vector in R m. 45

46 Let A = a T 1 a T 2. a T m and b = b 1 b 2. b m where the i-th row of A is a T i = (a i1, a i2,, a in ), i = 1, 2,, m. Then, the polyhedron P = {x R n Ax b} = m i=1{x R n a T i x b i }. Geometrically, a polyhedron is a finite intersection of half spaces a T i x b i. The feasible set of a linear programming problem is a polyhedron. Three Definitions of corner point. (a) A vector x P is an extreme point of P if we cannot find two vectors y, z P, and a scalar λ (0, 1), such that x = λy + (1 λ)z. 46

47 (b) A vector x P is a vertex of P if we can find v R n such that v T x < v T y for all y P {x }. (c) A vector x P is a basic feasible solution if we can find n linearly independent vectors in the set {a i a T i x = b i }. 47

48 Definitions 1. If a vector x R n satisfies a T i x = b i for some i = 1, 2,, m, the corresponding constraint a T i x b i is said to be active (or binding) at x. 2. A vector x R n is said to be of rank k with respect to P, if the set {a i a T i x = b i } contains k, but not more than k, linearly independent vectors. In other words, the span of {a i a T i x = b i } has dimension k. Thus, a vector x P is a basic feasible solution if and only if it has rank n. 3. A vector x R n (not necessary in P ) is a basic solution if there are n linearly independent vectors in the set {a i a T i x = b i }. Moreover, every equality constraint (if any) must be satisfied at a basic solution. 4. Constraints a T i x b i, i I are said to be linearly independent if the corresponding vectors a i, i I, are linearly independent. 48

49 Example 1.1 Consider the following LP problem: minimize x 1 x 2 subject to x 1 + 2x 2 3 2x 1 + x 2 3 x 1, x 2 0. (a) The vector 1 1 is a basic feasible solution. 0 (b) The vector is a feasible solution with only 1 one active constraint x 1 = 0. Thus, it has rank 1. 1/2 (c) The vector is a feasible solution with no 1 active constraint. Thus, it has rank 0. 3 (d) The vector is not a basic feasible solution. It 0 is not feasible. Note that there are two linearly 49

50 independent active constraints. Thus, it has rank 2. It is a basic solution. Note Given a finite number of linear inequality constraints, there can only be a finite number of basic solutions and hence a finite number of basic feasible solutions. Example 1.2 Consider the polyhedron P defined by x 1 + x 2 + x 4 2 3x 2 x 3 5 x 3 + x 4 3 x 2 0 x 3 0 Determine whether each of the following is a basic feasible solution. (a) x a = (x 1, x 2, x 3, x 4 ) T = (0, 2, 0, 3) T. (b) x b = (x 1, x 2, x 3, x 4 ) T = (0, 4, 7, 4) T. (c) x c = (x 1, x 2, x 3, x 4 ) T = ( 8/3, 5/3, 0, 3) T. 50

51 Solution Note x R 4. (a) constraint satisfied? active? 1 Yes, > No 2 Yes, > No 3 Yes, = Yes 4 Yes, > No 5 Yes, = Yes All constraints are satisfied at x a, it is feasible with two active constraints. Rank cannot be 4. Therefore x a is not a basic feasible solution. (b) The first constraint is not satisfied at x b. Thus it is not a basic feasible solution. (c) Check that all constraints are satisfied and 4 constraints are active at x c (Excercise). Rank at x c : 51

52 Thus rank at x c is 4. The vector x c is a basic feasible solution. Remarks The two geometric definitions, extreme point and vertex, are not easy to work with from the algorithmic point of view. It is desirable to have an algebraic definition, basic feasible solution, that relies on a representation of a polyhedron in terms of linear constraints and which reduces to an algebraic test. The three definitions namely extreme point, vertex and basic feasible solution, are equivalent as proven in the next theorem. Therefore the three terms can be used interchangeably. 52

53 Theorem 1 Let P be a nonempty polyhedron and let x P. Then the following are equivalent: (a) x is a vertex; (b) x is an extreme point; (c) x is a basic feasible solution. 53

54 Appendix *Proof of Theorem 1. (We shall prove (a) = (b) = (c) = (a).) (a) = (b): Vertex = Extreme point. (We prove this by contradiction.) Suppose x is a vertex. Then there exists v R n such that v T x < v T y for every y P {x }. Suppose on the contrary that x is not an extreme point. Then there exist two vectors y 0, z 0 P and a scalar λ (0, 1), such that x = λy 0 + (1 λ)z 0. However, we have v T x < v T y 0 and v T x < v T z 0. Thus, v T x = v T (λy 0 + (1 λ)z 0 ) = λv T y 0 + (1 λ)v T z 0 > λv T x + (1 λ)v T x = v T x 54

55 which gives rise to a contradiction. Thus, x is an extreme point. (b) = (c): Extreme point = basic feasible solution. (We shall prove the contrapositive statement: not basic feasible solution = not extreme point.) Suppose x P is not a basic feasible solution. Then the rank of x is k, k < n. (To show that x is not an extreme point, we shall construct two vectors y 0, z 0 P such that x = λy 0 + (1 λ)z 0 for some λ (0, 1). ) Let I = {i a T i x = b i }. The set {a i a T i x = b i } has k linearly independent vectors (k < n). Hence the linear system of equations a T i x = 0, i I, has infinitely many solutions. Choose a nonzero solution d, i.e. a T i d = 0, for i I. 55

56 If a T j d = 0 for every j I, then a T i d = 0, for every i = 1, 2,, m. Thus, we let y 0 = x +d and z 0 = x d. Both y 0 and z 0 are in P. (Exercise.) If a T j d 0 for some j I, then, by Lemma A, we can find λ 0 > 0 such that x + λ 0 d P and x λ 0 d P. Thus, we let y 0 = x + λ 0 d and z 0 = x λ 0 d. Note that x = 1 2 y z 0, i.e. x is not an extreme point. (c) = (a): Basic feasible solution = vertex. (We prove this directly.) Suppose x be a basic feasible solution. Let I = {i a T i x = b i }. The set {a i a T i x = b i } has n linearly independent vectors. Hence the linear system of equations a T i x = b i, i I, has a unique solution which is x. 56

57 We form a vector v = i I a i, and shall prove that v T x < v T y for y P {x }. Let y P {x }. Then a T i y b i, i = 1, 2,, m and hence v T y = i I at i y i I b i = i I at i x = v T x. If v T y = v T x = i I b i, then we must have a T i y = b i, i I because a T i y b i,for each i. Thus y is a solution to the linear system a T i x = b i, i I. From the uniqueness of the solution, we must have y = x, contradicting y P {x }. Therefore, v T y > v T x and this proves that x is a vertex. QED 57

58 Lemma A Let P be a nonempty polyhedron defined by {x a T i x b i, i = 1, 2,, m}. Let x P be of rank k, k < n. Denote I = {i a T i x = b i }. Suppose there exists a nonzero vector d such that a T i d = 0 for every i I, and a T j d 0 for some j I. Then there exists λ 0 > 0 such that x + λd P for every λ [ λ 0, λ 0 ]. Moreover, there exists λ such that x + λ d P with rank at least k + 1. Remark A non-zero vector d such that x + λd P for some λ > 0 is said to be a feasible direction. *Proof. How to find a suitable a suitable λ 0 > 0 such that the conclusion of the lemma holds? 58

59 Note that: x + λd P a T j (x + λd) b j j a T j x + λa T j d b j j. Denote a T j x + λa T j d b j by (*). If a T j d = 0, then (*) holds since a T j x + λa T j d = a T j x b j for λ R. If a T j d > 0, then (*) holds whenever a T j x b j a T j d λ, i.e. λ at j x b j a T j d. If a T j d < 0, then (*) holds whenever a T j x b j a T j d λ, i.e. λ at j x b j a T j d. Thus, for a T j x + λa T j d b j j, we must have a T j x b j a T j d λ at j x b j a T j d whenever a T j d 0. 59

60 Therefore we choose λ 0 = min{ at j x b j a T j d a T j d 0}. For λ 0 λ λ 0, a T i (x + λd) b j, j = 1, 2,, m. Hence, x + λd P. To prove the last part of the lemma. The set {j a T j d 0} is finite, thus, λ 0 = at j x b j a T, j d for some j I. Let λ = λ 0 if a T j d < 0 λ 0 if a T j d > 0. and ˆx = x + λ d. Then a T j ˆx = b j and a T i ˆx = a T i (x + λ d) = b i, for every i I. Since a T i d = 0, for all i I, and a T j d 0, a j is not a linear combination of a i, i I. 60

61 Therefore, the set {a j a T j ˆx = b j} contains at least k + 1 linearly independent vectors. Hence, ˆx has rank k + 1. QED. 61

62 2.1.2 Existence of extreme points. Geometrically, a polyhedron containing an infinite line does not contain an extreme point. As an example, the polyhedron P = { x R} R x 0 2 does not have an extreme point. In R 3, x + λd, λ R describes a line which is parallel to d and passes through x. A polyhedron P R n contains a line if there exists a vector x P and a nonzero vector d R n such that x + λd P for all λ R. Theorem 2 Suppose that the polyhedron P = {x R n Ax b} is nonempty. Then P does not contain a line if and only if P has a basic feasible solution. 62

63 Appendix *Proof of Theorem 2. (= ) Suppose P does not contain a line. (Our aim is to show there is a basic feasible solution.) Since P is nonempty, we may choose some x 0 P. Case rank of x 0 = n. Then x 0 is a basic feasible solution. Case rank of x 0 = k < n. Let I = {i a T i x 0 = b i }. The set {a i a T i x 0 = b i } contains k, but not more than k, linearly independent vectors, where k < n. The linear system of equations a T i x = 0, i I, has infinitely many solutions. Choose a nonzero solution d, i.e. a T i d = 0, for i I. Claim: a T j d 0 for some j I. Proof. Suppose a T i d = 0 j I, Then a T i d = 0 63

64 for every i = 1, 2,, m. For λ R, note that a T i (x 0 + λd) = a T i x 0 b i. Therefore, we have x 0 + λd P, i.e. P contains the line x 0 + λd, a contradiction. Thus, a T j d 0 for some j I. By Lemma A, we can find x 1 = x 0 + λ d P and the rank of x 1 is at least k + 1. By repeating the same argument to x 1 and so on, as many times as needed, we will obtain a point x with rank n, i.e. {a i a T i x = b i } contains n linearly independent vectors. Thus, there is at least one basic feasible solution. 64

65 ( =) Suppose P has a basic feasible solution x. Then there exist n linearly independent row vectors, say a T 1, a T 2,, a T n of A such that a T i x = b i, i = 1, 2,, n. Suppose, on the contrary, that P contains a line, say ˆx + λd, where d 0. Then, a T i d 0 for some i = 1, 2,, n. ( If not, a T i d = 0 for all i = 1, 2,, n and hence d = 0, since a T i, i = 1, 2,, n, are linearly independent.) Without loss of generality, we may assume a T 1 d 0. Replacing d by d if necessary, we may further assume a T 1 d > 0. However, ˆx + λd P for λ < b 1 a T 1 ˆx a T 1 d, since a T 1 (ˆx + λd) < b 1. This contradicts the assumption that P contains the line ˆx + λd. (QED) 65

66 Example 1.3 The polyhedron P defined by x 1 + x 2 + x 4 2 3x 2 x 3 5 x 3 + x 4 3 x 2 0 x 3 0 contains a basic feasible solution, namely, x = (see Example 1.2). Thus, by Theorem 2, P does not contain a line. A polyhedron P = {x R n Ax b} is said to be bounded if there exists a positive number K such that x i K for all x = (x 1, x 2,, x n ) T P. A nonempty bounded polyhedron cannot contain a line, thus it must have a basic feasible solution. 66

67 2.1.3 Optimality at some extreme point. Geometrically, if an LP problem has a corner point and an optimal solution, then an optimal solution occurs at some corner point. The next theorem justifies this geometrical insight. So, in searching for optimal solutions, it suffices to check on all corner points. Theorem 3 Consider the linear programming problem of minimizing c T x over a polyhedron P. Suppose that P has at least one extreme point and that there exists an optimal solution. Then there exists an optimal solution which is an extreme point of P. Proof. We denote the optimal cost by v. Let Q = {x P c T x = v} be the set of optimal solutions. Then Q is a nonempty polyhedron. Step 1 Q has an extreme point x. Since P has at least one extreme point, P does 67

68 not contain a line, by Theorem 2. Hence Q, being a subset of P, does not contain a line. By Theorem 2, Q has an extreme point, say x. Step 2 x is also an extreme point of P. Suppose x is not an extreme point of P. Then there exists λ (0, 1) and y, z P such that x = λy + (1 λ)z. Suppose either c T y > v or c T z > v. Then, we have c T x = c T (λy + (1 λ)z) > v, contradicting c T x = v. Therefore, both c T y = v and c T z = v; thus, y, z Q and x = λy + (1 λ)z. This contradicts x being an extreme point of Q. Thus, x is an extreme point of P and it is optimal (since c T x = v ). QED. 68

69 The simplex method is based fundamentally on the fact that the optimum solution occurs at a corner point of the solution space. It employs an iterative process that starts at a basic feasible solution, and then attempts to find an adjacent basic feasible solution that will improve the objective value. Three tasks: 1. How to construct a basic feasible solution? 2. In which direction can we move to an adjacent basic feasible solution? 3. In which direction can we improve the objective value? 69

70 2.2 Constructing Basic Feasible Solutions. In the rest of this chapter, we consider the standard form of a LP, Minimize c T x Subject to Ax = b x 0. or Maximize c T x Subject to Ax = b x 0. Assume A is an m n matrix and rank (A) = m. Thus, row vectors a T i, i = 1, 2,, m, of A are linearly independent and m n. The ith column of A is denoted by A i. Let P = {x R n Ax = b, x 0}. Note that if P φ, then P has an extreme point since it does not contain a line. Therefore, either the optimal value is unbounded or there exists an optimal solution which can be found among the finite set of extreme points. Recall from the previous section, the following definition of a basic solution. 70

71 A vector x R n (not necessary in P ) is a basic solution if there are n linearly independent vectors in the set {a i a T i x = b i }. Moreover, every equality constraint (if any) must be satisfied at a basic solution. Suppose x is a basic solution of the standard form LP. Then Ax = b, which consists m linearly independent equality (thus, active) constraints. Since a basic solution has n linearly independent active constraints, there are n m linearly independent active constraints from x 0. Therefore we have n m zero variables x i = 0, where x i is the i-component of x. So, there are indices B(1), B(2),, B(m) such that and x i = 0 for i B(1), B(2),, B(m). m i=1 A B(i) x B(i) = b. 71

72 A basic solution must have n linearly independent active constraints. The following lemma summarizes several conditions for checking linear independence of n vectors in R n. Lemma. Let a 1, a 2,..., a n be column vectors in R n. Then the following statements are equivalent. 1. The vectors a 1, a 2,..., a n R n are linearly independent. 2. det(a 1, a 2,..., a n ) The matrix [a 1, a 2,..., a n ] and its transpose are nonsingular. 4. The equation system n i=1 y i a i = 0 has the unique solution y = The equation system a T i x = 0, i = 1,..., n, has the unique solution x = 0. If there are m(> n) n-dimensional vectors, then we should check linear independence of any subset of n vectors. 72

73 Throughout this course, we use the following notations: We denote B = {B(1), B(2),..., B(m)}, which is a subset of {1, 2,..., n}. We denote by A B an m m sub-matrix of A obtained by arranging the m columns with indices in B next to each other. A sub-vector x B of X can be defined in the same way. Thus, A B = [ ] A B(1) A B(2) A B(m), x B = x B(1) x B(m). The following theorem is a useful characterization of a basic solution. It allows us to construct a basic solution in a systematic way. 73

74 Theorem Consider the constraints Ax = b and x 0 and assume that the m n matrix A has linearly independent rows. A vector x R n is a basic solution if and only if Ax = b and there exist a set of indices B = {B(1), B(2),, B(m)} such that (a) The columns A B(1), A B(2),, A B(m) are linearly independent; and (b) x i = 0 for i B(1), B(2),, B(m). Proof. ( =) Suppose x R n satisfies Ax = b and there exist indices B(1), B(2),, B(m) such that (a) and (b) are satisfied. Aim: To show that there are n linearly independent active constraints from: Ax = b (1) x i = 0 for i B(1), B(2),, B(m), (2) 74

75 Denote B = {B(1), B(2),..., B(m)} N = {1, 2,..., n} \ B. and denote by B the number of elements in B. Then B = m and N = n m. Now, (1) and (2) can be equivalently written as A B A N x B x N = b 0, (3) 0 I N where I N denotes the (n m) (n m) identity matrix. By (a), A B is nonsingular, thus the coefficient matrix of equation (3) is nonsingular. Hence there are n linearly independent active constraints from (1) and (2). We thus conclude that x is a basic solution. (= ) Suppose x is a basic solution. By the definition of a basic solution, all equality constraints must be satisfied, thus, we have Ax = b. There are n linearly independent active constraints 75

76 at x from constraints Ax = b and x 0, m active constraints from Ax = b and n m active constraints from x j = 0, (there may be more than n m x j = 0 ). Therefore, there exists an index set N = {N(1),..., N(n m)} {1,..., n} such that x j = 0 j N and the matrix A e T N(1). e T N(n m) is nonsingular. Denote B = {1,..., n} \ N. Then, x j = 0 for i B, ((b) is satisfied). We can write A = ( A B A N ), Then A B A N 0 I N e T N(1). e T N(n m) = ( 0 I N ). is nonsingular. This implies that 76

77 A B is nonsingular. Hence, columns vectors {A B(1), A B(2),, A B(m) } are linearly independent, ((a) is satisfied). QED. Terminology Suppose x is a basic solution with the basis B = {B(1), B(2),, B(m)} as given in the above theorem. 1. Variables x B(1), x B(2),, x B(m) are called basic variables. 2. Variables x i = 0 for i B, are called nonbasic variables. 3. The m m matrix A B = ( A B(1) A B(2) A B(m) ) is called a basis matrix. A vector x B can also be defined with the values of the basic variables. Note that A B is invertible and A B x B = b so that x B is the unique solution given by x B = A 1 B b. 77

78 From the last theorem, all basic solutions to a standard form polyhedron can be constructed according to the following procedure. Procedure for constructing basic solution. 1. Choose m linearly independent columns A B(1), A B(2),, A B(m). 2. Let x i = 0 for i B(1), B(2),, B(m). 3. Solve the system of m linear equations A B x B = b for the unknowns x B(1),, x B(m). Remark A basic solution x constructed according to the above procedure is a basic feasible solution if and only if x 0, i.e. x B = A 1 B b 0. 78

79 Example 2.1 For the following constraints x = x 0. (a) Find the basic solution associated with linearly independent columns A 4, A 5, A 6, A 7. Is it a basic feasible solution? (b) Show that columns A 1, A 2, A 3, A 4 are linearly independent. Find the basis matrix A B and the associated basic solution. Is it feasible? (c) Do columns A 2, A 3, A 4, A 5 form a basis matrix? If so, what is the associated basic solution? Solution (a) Note that A 4, A 5, A 6, A 7 are linearly independent. Thus, we may proceed to find the associated basic solution. We have A B = [A 4, A 5, A 6, A 7 ] = I 4 which is called a basis matrix. 79

80 Non-basic variables: x 1 = 0, x 2 = 0, x 3 = 0. Solve for basic variables x 4, x 5, x 6, x 7 : x B = where x B = x 4 x 5 x 6 x 7. We have x B = x 4 x 5 x 6 x 7 = (Feasible) Thus we obtain a basic feasible solution, namely, x = x 1 x 2 x 3 x 4 x 5 x 6 x 7 =

81 (b) Check A 1, A 2, A 3, A 4 are linearly independent: [A 1, A 2, A 3, A 4 ] = Thus, A 1, A 2, A 3, A 4 are linearly independent and A B = [A 1, A 2, A 3, A 4 ] is a basis matrix. Nonbasic variables: x 5 = 0, x 6 = 0, x 7 = 0. To find values of basic variables x 1, x 2, x 3, x 4 : x B = where x B = x 1 x 2 x 3 x 4. Solving yields: x B = x 1 x 2 x 3 x 4 =

82 Thus, the associated basic solution is x = x 1 x 2 x 3 x 4 x 5 x 6 x 7 = Since x 4 < 0, the basic solution is not feasible. (c) Check for linear independence of A 2, A 3, A 4, A 5 : [A 2, A 3, A 4, A 5 ] = Columns A 2, A 3, A 4, A 5 are not linearly independent (WHY?). Thus, they do not form a basis matrix. (No need to proceed to find solution.) Exercise Show A B = [A 3, A 5, A 6, A 7 ] is a basis matrix, and x B = (4, 12, 4, 6) T. 82

83 2.3 Moving to an adjacent basic feasible solution Adjacency and degeneracy. Geometrically, adjacent basic feasible solutions are extreme points which are adjacent. The simplex method attempts to find an adjacent basic feasible solution that will improve the objective value. Definition Two distinct basic solutions to a set of linear constraints in R n are said to be adjacent if and only if the corresponding bases share all but one basic column, i.e. there are n 1 linearly independent constraints that are active at both of them. 83

84 In the standard form (Ax = b, x 0), two basic solutions are adjacent if they have n m 1 common x j = 0, equivalently, if their basic variables differ by one component. Example 3.1 Refer to the constraints in Example 2.1. Basic solution Basic columns Basic variables (0, 0, 0, 8, 12, 4, 6) T A 4, A 5, A 6, A 7 x 4, x 5, x 6, x 7 (0, 0, 4, 0, 12, 4, 6) T A 3, A 5, A 6, A 7 x 3, x 5, x 6, x 7 The above basic solutions are adjacent. Definition A basic solution x R n is said to be degenerate if it has more than n active constraints, i.e. the number of active constraints at x is greater than the dimension of x. Geometrically, a degenerate basic solution is determined by more than n active constraints (overdetermined). 84

85 In standard form, a basic solution x is degenerate if some basic variable x B(i) = 0, i.e. more than n m components of x are zero. Example 3.2 For the following constraints x = x 0. The basic feasible solution x = (0, 0, 4, 0, 0, 0, 6) T, associated with basis A B = [ A 3 A 4 A 5 A 7 ] is degenerate because there are 9 active constraints at x which the dimension of x is 7. 85

86 Let x be a basic feasible solution with the set {B(1),, B(m)} of basic indices, so that A B = [ A B(1) A B(2) A B(m) ] x B = x B(1) x B(m) = A 1 B b 0. When we move from x to an adjacent basic solution (may or may not be feasible) x, a nonbasic variable x j of x becomes a basic variable of x. There is an exchange of a basic variable and nonbasic variable. In the next lemma, we shall determine the feasible direction moving away from x so that the variable x j becomes a basic variable. Lemma A Fix an index j B = {B(1),, B(m)}. Let d = (d 1, d 2,, d n ) T with d j = 1 and d i = 0, for 86

87 every index i B and i j. Then x = x + θd with θ > 0 is a feasible solution if and only if d B = A 1 B A j and A 1 B b θa 1 B A j 0. Proof In order to maintain feasibility of solution, we must have A(x ) = b and x 0. i.e. A(x + θd) = b and x + θd 0. However, Ax = b and θ > 0 so that A(x +θd) = b implies Ad = 0. Thus, 0 = n i=1 A id i = m i=1 A B(i) d B(i) +A j = A B d B +A j. Therefore, A B d B = A j and hence d B = A 1 B A j. Note that for i B, x i + θd i = 0 (i j) or = θ (i = j). Thus, x + θd 0 is equivalent to x B + θd B 0, i.e. A 1 B b θa 1 B A j 0. [QED.] 87

88 In summary, we have obtained the vector d = (d 1, d 2,, d n ) T where d j = 1, d i = 0 for every non basic index i j, and d B = A 1 B A j. Notes 1. If i {B(1), B(2),, B(m)} and i j, then the i-component of x is x i = 0 since x i = 0, and d i = 0. The j-component of x is x j = θ since d j = The point x is obtained from x by moving in the direction d. It is obtained from x by selecting a nonbasic variable x j (i.e. j {B(1),, B(m)}) and increasing it to a positive value θ, while keeping the remaining nonbasic variables x i at zero, i.e. x = x + θd, where d = (d 1, d 2,, d n ) T with d j = 1 and d i = 0, for every nonbasic index i, i j. 88

89 Lemma B (a) If A 1 B A j 0, then the polyhedron is unbounded in the x j -direction. (b) If A 1 B A j k > 0 for some k, then θ A 1 B b k A 1 B A. j k Proof. (a) Since x B 0 and A 1 B A j 0, we have from Lemma A, x B = x B θa 1 B A j 0 whenever θ > 0. Thus x j = θ is unbounded. (b) If A 1 B A j A 1 B b k θ A 1 k > 0 for some component k, then B A j θ k 0 yields A 1 B b k A 1 B A. j k [QED.] 89

90 Remark Suppose A 1 Let B A j θ = min{ Then for some l, k > 0 for some k-th component. A 1 B b k A 1 B A j θ = k A 1 A 1 B b l A 1 B A. j l B A j k > 0}. The feasible solution x = x +θ d is a basic feasible solution which is adjacent to x, with associated basic variables {x B(1),, x B(l 1), x B(l+1),, x B(m), x j }. Remark If x is nondegenerate, then we always have θ > 0. If x is degenerate, then θ may be zero. 90

91 Example 3.3 Consider the LP problem minimize c 1 x 1 + c 2 x 2 + c 3 x 3 + c 4 x 4 subject to x 1 + x 2 + x 3 + x 4 = 2 2x 1 + 3x 3 + 4x 4 = 2 x 1, x 2, x 3, x 4 0 Since columns A 1 and A 2 of A are linearly independent, we choose x 1 and x 2 as basic variables. Then A B = [ ] 1 1 A 1 A 2 =. 2 0 Set x 3 = x 4 = 0, we obtain x 1 = 1 and x 2 = 1. 1 The basic feasible solution x 1 = is nondegener- 0 0 ate. (Thus d is a feasible direction.) We construct a feasible direction corresponding to an increase in the nonbasic variable x 3 by setting d 3 = 1 and d 4 = 0. It remains to find d 1 and d 2, 91

92 i.e. d B = d 1 d 2 d B = Thus, d =. Now, = d 1 d 2 3/2 1/2 1 0 From A 1 B A 3 = Thus we have θ = min{ = A 1 0 1/2 1 1/2. 3/2 1/2 A 1 B b k A 1 B A j B A = 3/2 1/2, only A 1 k A 1 = min{ 1 3/2 } = 2 3. B A j. B A j k > 0} 1 > 0. At the adjacent basic feasible solution x where x 3 enters as a basic variable, we will have x 3 = 2/3 and x 1 = 0, i.e. x 1 becomes a non basic variable. This 92

93 adjacent basic feasible solution is x = /3 3/2 1/2 1 0 = 0 4/3 2/

94 2.4 Optimality Conditions. In this section, we obtain optimality conditions to check whether a basic feasible solution is optimal. This is useful in the development of Simplex Method. The optimality conditions also provide a clue for searching a direction to improve the objective value in a neighbourhood of a basic feasible solution. For the objective function c T x, moving from x to x = x + θd, the change on the objective function is c T x c T x = θc T d. With d B = A 1 B A j, we obtain the rate of change in the objective value with respect to x j is c T d, since d j = 1. Lemma C Suppose d, with d B = A 1 B A j, is the feasible direction obtained as above. Then c T d = c j c T BA 1 B A j, 94

95 where c B = (c B(1), c B(2),, c B(m) ) T. Proof. Since d j = 1, we have c T d = n i=1 c id i = m i=1 c B(i) d B(i) + c j = c T Bd B + c j = c j c T BA 1 B A j. [QED.] Definition (reduced cost) Let x be a basic solution, with associated basis matrix A B. Let c B be vector of the costs of the basic variables. For each j, j = 1, 2,, n, the reduced cost c j of the variable x j is defined according to the formula: c j = c j c T BA 1 B A j. Remark Using the reduced costs, we can determine whether moving to an adjacent basic feasible solution improves the objective values. If the c j < 0 (respec- 95

96 tively c j > 0), then moving from x to x = x θa 1 B A j would decrease (respectively increases) the objective value by θ c j. Lemma D For each basic variable x B(i), i = 1, 2,, m, the reduced cost c B(i) = 0. Proof Note that A 1 B I m. [ A B(1) A B(2) A B(m) ] = Thus A 1 B A B(i) = e i, the ith column of I m. Hence, c T B A 1 B A B(i) = c B(i), the ith component of c B. Thus, c B(i) = c B(i) c T BA 1 B A B(i) = 0. [QED.] 96

97 Example 4.1 Consider the LP problem (refer to Example 3.3), minimize x 1 x 2 + 3x 3 4x 4 subject to x 1 + x 2 + x 3 + x 4 = 2 2x 1 + 3x 3 + 4x 4 = 2 x 1, x 2, x 3, x 4 0 (a) For the basic feasible solution x = (1, 1, 0, 0) T, the rate of cost change along the feasible direction 3/2 1/2 (with x 3 enters as a basic variable) d = is 1 0 c 3 = 1( 3/2) + ( 1)(1/2) + 3(1) + ( 4)(0) = 1. Note that c T d = c 3. The rate of change along this direction is 1. (b) For each variable x j, the reduced cost c j = c j c T B A 1 B A j are computed as follows: For x 1 : c 1 = c 1 c T B A 1 B A 1 = 0. 97

98 For x 2 : c 2 = c 2 c T B A 1 B A 2 = 0. For x 3 : c 3 = c 3 c T B A 1 B A 3 = 1. For x 4 : c 4 = c 4 c T B A 1 B A 4 = 7. 98

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