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1 Implementing life cycle in the body of project life cycle by using knowledge management system (KLC in PLC) Hanieh Sadat Beiryaei Faculty of management University of Tehran Tehran, Iran Abstract As project managers fail to properly apply knowledge management in projects, firms lose a great deal of knowledge, experiences and lessons learned during projects. This occurs due to the complex nature of the today s projects, high costs and time limitation. To overcome this defect, recently, researchers tried to link knowledge management (KM) practices with those of project management (PM). One way to establish this linkage is to integrate KM and PM processes. Based on theoretical grounds on knowledge management and project management literature, this study introduces a method to implement knowledge management practices, along with project management ones. Using knowledge life cycle phases, we re-define standard project management phases, so that the two processes can be simultaneously and efficiently done. Key Words: management (KM); Life Cycle (KLC); Project knowledge management; project Life Cycle (PLC); knowledge management system (KMS). I. INTRODUCTION The risk of knowledge loss at project s ending is a serious problem in today s organizations. If companies master the project learning cycle, they could decrease considerable costs, which results from redundant works and the repetition of mistakes. Research has shown that the essential dilemma within the firm is how to manage knowledge in a way that creates a competitive advantage [1]. Since Nonaka s study on tacit and explicit knowledge, a knowledge-based perspective of the project management emerged in the literature. This perspective builds upon and extends the resource-based theory of the firm initially promoted by Penrose (1959) and expanded by others [2].Building on previous literature, in this study we try to propose a method in which knowledge management practices can be performed along with the standard phases of project management. Implementing knowledge life cycle in the body of project is a practical technique to manage project knowledge. Following this method, project managers can simply create, refine, store, share, and utilize project knowledge during the actual project lifetime. In addition, our framework allows them to employ the benefits of such knowledge in current and future projects and prevent vanishing valuable project knowledge in future. Given the importance of project /10/$ IEEE Seyed Eshagh Ashraf Vaghefi Desautels Faculty of Management McGill University Montréal, Canada knowledge, our study contributes to applicable methods, in which project knowledge can be appropriately done during projects, using less resources. To do this, we review the literature on project and knowledge management. We depart from extant literature, by implementing knowledge lifecycle (KLC) in project life cycle (PLC). Following each step, we discuss important outcomes of each step and provide recommendations for choosing appropriate management systems. II. LITERATURE Drawing an attention on the work of Nonaka et al [3] disclosed two types of knowledge: Explicit knowledge and tacit knowledge. Explicit knowledge can be expressed in formal and systematic language. Tacit knowledge includes skills, experiences, insight, intuition and judgment [3]. management refers to identifying and leveraging the collective knowledge in an organization to help the organization compete [4]. There have been several KM life cycle models that illustrate the key aspects of KM, ranging from Davenport and Prusak's [5] 3-stage model ( generate, codify/ coordinate, transfer ) to Ward and Aurum's [6] 7- stage ( create, acquire, identify, adapt, organize, distribute, apply ). Moreover, similar models have been presented by other researchers such as Tiwana [7], McElroy [8], Alavi and Leidner [9], Kucza et al.[10], Meehan and Richardson [11], Rus and Lindvall [12], Nissen [13], Edwards [14], Qureshi et al. [15], Chang Lee et al. [16] and Williams [17]. More recently, King et al [18] proposed 8-stage model- Creation, Acquisition, Refinement, storage, Transfer, sharing, Utilization, organization performance- which covers all aspects of knowledge management.due to the thoroughness and relevance of this framework, we use it as the basis of this study. Fig. 1 shows the framework and its different steps. Figure 1: Management cycle [18] On the other hand, the project life cycle (PLC) is a collection of logical stages that outline the life of a project 643

2 from its beginning to end in order to define, build, and deliver the product of a project [19]. Each phase should provide one or more deliverables. To make project more manageable and to reduce risks, it is common to break up projects into phases. This allows organization to evaluate the project s performance and to take immediate action to correct any errors or problems. Similar to all living creatures, all projects have life cycles where they are born, raise, climax, decline, and then finish. Even though there could be small differences according to different context and industries, in general, there are five phases for Generic Project Life Cycle (see Fig.2). During each step, various forms of knowledge are acquired and used. According to Ebert and De Man [20] knowledge in projects can be divided to three categories: Project knowledge (knowledge about resources, functional and attributes requirements, work products, budget, timing, milestones, deliverables, increments, quality targets and performance parameters), Product knowledge (knowledge about product features, and how they relate to other products, standards, protocols), and Process knowledge (knowledge about business processes, workflows, responsibilities, supporting technologies and interfaces between processes) [20]. To complement these three categories, we add another class of knowledge called Technology. Technology is the knowledge about type of technology and techniques used in different phases of project. Figure 2: Project Life Cycles (PLC) [19] III. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY There are three key questions in this study: How knowledge life cycle can be implemented in the body of project life cycle? What type of knowledge (project knowledge, Product knowledge, Product knowledge and technology knowledge) are created in each phases? And how IT technology can progress the process of implementing KLC in PLC? To examine this issue and find answers to our questions, a thorough literature review was conducted using different keywords well-known databases. First, we went through knowledge management literature and found different knowledge life cycles (KLC) and identified the most appropriate one for this study along with detailed description for each of its steps. Then we mapped KLC phases to project life cycle (PLC) steps by focusing on the main characteristics of KLC phases and considering the way PLC direct the project. Also, for each phase the practical knowledge management systems are recommended. Finally, we recognized the main knowledge outputs in each phase, which are presented in detail in table 1. Fig. 3 illustrates the relationship between KLC and PLC phases. Figure 3: KLC and PLC relationship IV. IMPLEMENTING KNOWLEDGE LIFE CYCLE (KLC) IN THE BODY OF PROJECT LIFE CYCLE (PLC) In this section we discuss knowledge life cycles and explain when each phase should be carried out, according to project life cycle. A. Creation phase: In creation step and through social and collaborative processes along individual s cognitive behaviors, knowledge is created, shared, amplified, enlarged, and justified in organizational settings [21]. Creation is the first strep among four general stages in our framework. In theses phases managers define, plan and partly begin executing project plan. Due to the heavy loads of created information and knowledge, this step is the most important one in implementing knowledge lifecycle. A practical model of knowledge creation was presented by Nonaka and Konno [22]. The model displays a continual interplay between the tacit and explicit dimensions of knowledge and a growing spiral flow as knowledge moves through individual, group, and organizational levels. The combination of the two categories will enable us to conceptualize four conversion patterns: socialization, externalization, internalization, and combination. creation can be enhanced through the use of various forms of information systems [9]. Electronic mail and group support systems have been shown to increase the number of weak ties in organizations. This, in turn, can accelerate the growth of knowledge creation [21]. Intranets enable exposure to greater amounts of on-line organizational information, both horizontally and vertically. In addition, Computer-mediated communication may increase the quality of knowledge creation by enabling a forum for constructing and sharing beliefs, confirming consensual interpretation and allowing expression of new ideas. 644

3 B. Acquisition, Refinement and storage phases These three phases of KLC are accomplished during the third step of PLC which is execution of project. At first, the needed information and required knowledge must be analyzed. Second, the type, format, value and preference of every class will be defined. At the same time, the knowledge communication lines should be formed in the organization and the sender and also receiver of every knowledge area should be carefully delineated. This stage can be done in parallel with the previous stage. During Acquisition, knowledge does not have to be newly created [5]. Here, previously obtained knowledge is getting rich according to knowledge requirements defined in project communication planning. There are several resources for updating obtained knowledge (organization`s database, other organization s databases, consulting agents, international standards and best practice). In updating this knowledge, factors like importance of knowledge for project team, knowledge costumer, time and budget of updating must be considered. After acquisition, refinement begins and rich packages of knowledge are being codified. The aim of codification is to put organizational knowledge into a form that can be shared, stored, combined, and manipulated. A crucial point in knowledge refinement is that lessons learned and experiences must be collected and written by project team after each milestone, in a timely fashion and under supervision of project knowledge manager. By postponing this process to the end of the project the cost of documentation increased and the integrity of obtained knowledge declined too much. The storage and retrieval of organizational knowledge, also referred as organizational memory, constitute an important aspect of effective organizational knowledge management. Organizational storage space includes knowledge residing in various component forms, including written documentation, structured information stored in electronic databases, codified human knowledge stored in expert systems, documented organizational procedures and processes and tacit knowledge acquired by individuals or networks of individuals [23]. Advanced computer storage technology and sophisticated retrieval techniques, such as query languages, multimedia databases, and database management systems are effective tools in enhancing organizational memory. These tools increase the speed at which organizational storage can be accessed. Groupware can also enable organizations to create intra-organizational storage in the form of both structured and unstructured information and to share it across time and space. C. Transfer and sharing phases: In this step, we need to create a link between the sender and receiver of knowledge. By doing this, we can assure that right individuals get the required knowledge at the right time. However, there is a difference between sharing and transferring which results in different duties in project knowledge management. In transferring, sender and receiver have been already defined. In this way, project knowledge manager can determine the right format, best transferring method and the type of media used. In contrast, during knowledge sharing, the knowledge receiver is not recognized (internal or external). Therefore, according to the provided information and lists of potential knowledge users, project knowledge manager set appropriate access point for different users. In defining access point, factors like security issues (confidentiality, availability and integrity), authority, responsibility, knowledge needs, and access time (like concurrently or after project s finish) must be considered. It should be noted that, there are many cultural factors that inhibit knowledge transfer. The most common frictions are lack of trust, different cultures, lack of time and meeting places, status and rewards go to knowledge owners, lack of absorptive capacity in recipients, and intolerance for mistakes or need for help [5]. As knowledge sharing process becomes institutionalized over time, the culture for knowledge sharing will become a natural occurrence in the organization. IT can support all four forms of knowledge transfer, but has mostly been applied to informal, impersonal means (through such venues as Lotus Notes discussion databases) and formal, impersonal means (such as knowledge maps or corporate directories). It can increase knowledge transfer by extending the individual s reach beyond the formal communication lines. Computer networks and electronic bulletin boards and discussion groups create a forum that facilitates contact between the person seeking knowledge and those who may have access to the knowledge. Providing taxonomies or organizational knowledge maps enables individuals to rapidly locate either the knowledge, or the individual who has the needed knowledge, faster than what it would be possible without such IT-based support [9]. D. Utilization and organization performance phases: These two steps are carried out during close project and evaluate project steps. The project evaluation will bring us a heavy load of information including budget, timing, deliverables plus knowledge about resources, functional and attributes requirements, work products, milestones, increments, quality targets and performance parameters. This information is a part of the project knowledge that will be used during closing and evaluation phase of PLC. Performance evaluation can be done using many tools such as Presentation Tools, Performance Gathering and Compilation, Status Review Meetings, Time Reporting Systems, and Cost Reporting Systems. In this phase in addition to completion of project knowledge, the compound and utilization of the transferred knowledge, individual and collective learning, and innovation of project team and knowledge application will be evaluated. We want to know the positive or negative effect of knowledge management on project productivity, the way we can improve the effects of knowledge and what changes should be done on last three steps of implementing KLC in project. We can attain this information by 645

4 comparing current performance evaluation with old ones or making direct contact with project team and manager. Using this information, we are able to modify the knowledge life cycle and also brought changes to project management plan. This approach will result in dynamic modification of knowledge life cycle implementation in body of project management. Technology can also support knowledge usage by embedding knowledge into organizational routines. Procedures that are culture-bound can be embedded into IT so that the systems themselves become examples of organizational norms. Technology enforced knowledge application raises a concern that knowledge will continue to be applied, even after when its real usefulness has declined. While the institutionalization of best practices by embedding them into IT might facilitate efficient handling of routine, linear, and predictable situations during stable or incrementally changing environments, when change is radical and discontinuous, there is a persistent need for continual renewal of the basic premises underlying the practices archived in the knowledge repositories. Table 1, shows knowledge outputs that can be achieved in different phases of PLC in four categories (project knowledge, process knowledge, product knowledge, and technology knowledge). It is noteworthy to mention that, the output of each step can be use as the input for the following steps. V. CONCLUSION There are several contributions for this study. First, it provides a guide to show how to manage knowledge management practices during project management courses. Also, it identifies the required knowledge and desired deliverables for each step of project life cycle. Mapping KLC into PLC phases is done by applying helpful KMS (article proposed method) brings the practical guide to create, refine, storage and share knowledge during the project time. This method is central to improving the concept of KM in the way knowledge assets are managed can lead to better corporate performance, reduced cost of solving recurring problems, shrink the time to market, enhance products quality and increase maturity level. Failure to integrate KLC in project could decline the quality of knowledge, dismiss the tacit knowledge, and increase the time necessary for decision making. Future research should aim at validating and refining this framework. Other research avenues could include clarify the role of project knowledge manager and project team in implementing KLC in project, customizing the mentioned method (KLC in PLC) for special project like IT project, Mapping KM and KLC to PMBOK phases, Considering the implementation of KLC in virtual organization and virtual project. REFERENCE [1] M. Liu and N. Liu, Sources of knowledge acquisition and patterns of knowledge-sharing behaviors--an empirical study of Taiwanese high-tech firms, International Journal of Management, vol. 28, Oct. 2008, pp [2] J.B. Barney, Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage, Advances in Strategic Management, vol. 17, 2000, pp [3] I. Nonaka, R. Toyama, and N. Konno, SECI, Ba and leadership: a unified model of dynamic knowledge creation, Long range planning, vol. 33, 2000, pp [4] G. Von Krogh, Care in knowledge creation, California Management Review, vol. 40, 1998, pp [5] T.H. Davenport and L. Prusak, Working knowledge: How organizations manage what they know, Harvard Business School Pr, [6] J. Ward and A. Aurum, management in software engineering-describing the process, Software Engineering Conference, Proceedings Australian, 2004, pp [7] A. Tiwana, The knowledge management toolkit: practical techniques for building a knowledge management system, Prentice Hall PTR Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA, [8] M.W. McElroy, The new knowledge management: Complexity, learning, and sustainable innovation, Butterworth-Heinemann, [9] M. Alavi and D.E. Leidner, Review: management and knowledge management systems: Conceptual foundations and research issues, MIS quarterly, vol. 25, 2001, pp [10] T. Kucza, M. Nättinen, and P. Parviainen, Improving knowledge management in software reuses process, Third international conference on product focused software process improvement. Kaiserslautern, Germany, Lecture Notes in Computer Science vol. 2188, Springer, Berlin, 2001, pp [11] B. Meehan and I. Richardson, Identification of software process knowledge management, Software Process: Improvement and Practice, vol. 7, 2003, pp [12] I. Rus and M. Lindvall, management in software engineering, IEEE software, 2002, pp [13] M.E. Nissen, An extended model of knowledge-flow dynamics, Communications of the Association for Systems, vol. 8, 2002, pp [14] J.S. Edwards, Managing software engineers and their knowledge, In: Managing Software Engineering. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2003, pp [15] S. Qureshi, V. Hlupic, and R.O. Briggs, On the convergence of knowledge management and groupware, Groupware: Design, Implementation and Use, Springer Berlin / Heidelberg, 2004, pp [16] K. Chang Lee, S. Lee, and I.W. Kang, KMPI: measuring knowledge management performance, & Management, vol. 42, Mar. 2005, pp [17] R. Williams, The epistemology of knowledge and the knowledge process cycle beyond the'objectivist' vs'interpretivist', Journal of Management, vol. 12, 2008, pp [18] W.R. King, management and organizational learning, in Management and Organizational Learning, Springer US, 2009, pp [19] J.T. Marchewka, technology project management: providing measurable organizational value, John Wiley & Sons Inc, [20] C. Ebert and J.D. Man, Effectively utilizing project, product and process knowledge, and Software Technology, vol. 50, 2008, pp [21] I. Nonaka, A dynamic theory of organizational knowledge creation, Organization science, vol. 5, 1994, pp [22] I. Nonaka and N. Konno, The Concept of «Ba»: Building a Foundation for Creation, California Management Review, vol. 40, 1998, pp [23] S.S. Tan, H.H. Teo, B.C. Tan, and K.K. Wei, Developing a preliminary framework for knowledge management in 646

5 organizations, Proceedings of the Fourth Americas Conference on Systems, 1998, pp Table 1: knowledge components that can be achieved in PLC phases Project knowledge Project Product Process Technology define project goal about Quality goal, Requirement about business processes, workflows, Business Value Data about requirement and PLC plan project execute project plan close project evaluate project about resources, functional and attributes requirements, work products, budget, timing, milestones, deliverables, increments, quality targets and performance parameters about Resource about responsibilities about resource about resources, functional and attributes requirements, work products, budget, timing, milestones, deliverables, increments, quality targets and performance parameters, about product features, about how a product relates to other products, standards, about development, about changes. about type of technology, about techniques used in development, Data and about technology support for new changes. about Budget, timing, Deliverables, about resources, functional and attributes requirements, work products, budget, timing, milestones, deliverables, increments, quality targets and performance parameters life Cycle step Creation Acquisition,Refinement,storage,Transfer, sharing Utilization, Organization performance 647

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