Effects of HA Amplification on the Neural Representation of Auditory and Visual Memory

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1 Effects of HA Amplification on the Neural Representation of Auditory and Visual Memory Kristina C. Backer, Ph.D. 19 September rd World Congress of Audiology

2 Acknowledgments Kelly Tremblay, Ph.D., CCC-A Kate McClannahan, Au.D., Ph.D. candidate Brain & Behavior Lab Members UW Communication Studies Participant Pool UW Auditory Neuroscience Training Grant * No financial or non-financial COI s.

3 The Malleable Brain

4 Declines in Inhibitory Processing Reduced Grey Matter Volume in Frontal & Temporal Lobes Degraded Auditory Input to Cortex Increased Listening Effort Central Effects of Biological Aging Central Effects of Peripheral Pathology (i.e., SNHL) Slowed Processing Speed Reduced Working Memory Capacity Central Effects of Auditory Stimulation (via HAs)??? Reduced Grey Matter Volume in Auditory Cortex (for a review, see Tremblay & Backer, 2016, Ear and Hearing)

5 Attention Cognitive activities initiated by and/or focused on external information from the environment and initiated by and/or focused on internal mental representations. - Chun & Johnson, 2011, Neuron Preparatory Attention Attention to Memory 5

6 Research Question How does untreated and treated sensorineural hearing loss in older adults affect the neurophysiology underlying cognitive processing? 2 Forms of Cognitive Processing: Preparatory Attention Attention to Memory Auditory and Visual Domains: Modality-Specific or Supra-modal? EEG 6

7 Research Design Hearing Aids for 2 years! Normal Hearing (NH) Untreated Hearing Loss (u-snhl) Treated Hearing Loss (t-snhl) All included subjects passed the MoCA. Specifically focusing on Cognitive Processing: 1) Preparatory Attention to External Stimuli 2) Attention to Memory

8 Older Adult Participants NH Group (n = 12, 64 ± 3 years) u-snhl Group (n = 12, 68 ± 4 years) t-snhl Group (n = 8, 68 ± 4 years) 8

9 Result 1: Cognitive Tests NO group differences on: Culture-Fair Intelligence Test (CFIT) (Cattell et al., 1973) tests non-verbal fluid intelligence. Reading Span (Daneman & Carpenter, 1980) tests visual verbal working memory (sentences). Word Auditory Recognition and Recall Measure (WARRM) (Smith, Pichora-Fuller & Alexander, 2016) tests auditory verbal working memory (words). Tested using Pocket Talker or personal hearing aids, or PTA-based stimulus level.

10 EEG Task Preparatory Attention Attention to Memory 10

11 Overview of Task Examine Neural Activity during Preparatory Attention Examine Neural Activity during Attention to Memory Auditory Pre-Cue Auditory Retro-Cue Visual Pre-Cue Visual Retro-Cue Uninformative Cue Trial Uninformative Cue Trial 11

12 Result 2: Task Performance - Accuracy Participants Benefited from Pre- and Retro-Cues, BUT No Significant Group Differences.

13 Neural Oscillations Alpha (~8-13 Hz) Easy to detect alpha power modulations using EEG. Modulations in alpha power reflect selective attention and working memory load. Modulations in alpha power have been observed in similar types of attention/memory tasks. May serve as an objective index of listening effort.

14 Alpha Power Suppression Effect Greater alpha power suppression in response to the Auditory and Visual Cues likely reflects a supra-modal attentional orienting process.

15 Result 3: Preparatory Attention The two hearing loss groups (u-snhl and t-snhl) exhibited stronger alpha power modulations than the NH group db

16 Result 3: Preparatory Attention: Sensory Weighting Model Preliminary Results Visual vs. Uninf. Pre-Cue Visual Auditory vs. Uninf. Pre-Cue Auditory * One outlier in the u-snhl group excluded.

17 Result 4: Attention to Memory No significant group differences. All groups showed similar cue-induced modulations of alpha activity when selectively attending within memory db

18 Result 4: Attention to Memory: Sensory Weighting Model Preliminary Results Visual vs. Uninf. Retro-Cue Visual Auditory vs. Uninf. Retro-Cue Auditory * One outlier in the NH group excluded.

19 Conclusions Hearing loss/hearing aid usage does not affect performance on CFIT, Reading Span, WARRM, or the EEG task. Hearing loss/ hearing aid usage does not affect neural activity underlying Attention to Memory. A history of u-snhl and t-snhl appears to alter the neural mechanisms underlying Preparatory Attention. Thus, both u-snhl and t-snhl may change the way in which the brain prepares to engage with the external world. 19

20 [Seattle Skyline] Thank you for listening.

21

22 Result 2: Task Performance RT Participants Benefited from Pre- and Retro-Cues, BUT No Significant Group Differences.

23 The Motivation US Census Projections 30-50% Prevalence of Hearing Loss in Adults 65 and Older 39.2 Million Older Adult Americans With Hearing Loss by Year out of 3 Older Adult Hearing Aid Candidates Remain UNTREATED (NIH-NIDCD) 23

24 Trial Event Timing

25 25 Permutation-Based Approach Times and Channels that show significant differences in alpha power between groups/conditions

26 Scalp Topography Average Alpha Power across a given time range, within each channel. Plot these averaged alpha power values, showing all channels average alpha power: +3 0 db Average Alpha Power: ms -3 26

27 Preparatory Attention db -1.5

28 Attention to Memory +2 0 db -2

29 Sensory Weighting Model Alpha Weighting Index = Visual Cue Alpha Power Uninf. Cue Alpha Power Auditory Cue Alpha Power Uninf. Cue Alpha Power If AWI > 1, then Greater Modulation of Alpha Power following Visual Cues than Auditory Cues. If AWI = 1, then Equal Modulation of Alpha Power following Visual Cues and Auditory Cues. If AWI < 1, then Greater Modulation of Alpha Power following Auditory Cues than Visual Cues.

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