Spoken Language in Children With Cochlear Implants

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1 University Press Scholarship Online You are looking at 1-10 of 28 items for: keywords : cochlear implants Spoken Language in Children With Cochlear Implants Ann E. Geers in Advances in the Spoken Language Development of Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children Published in print: 2005 Published Online: April 2010 ISBN: eisbn: acprof:oso/ This chapter shows that children using cochlear implants attain significantly higher speech and spoken language skills than do children with equal hearing loss who do not use cochlear implants. It presents a detailed critique of complications and confounds in currently available research but concludes that some factors influencing outcomes (e.g. duration of profound hearing loss, updated technologies in the structure and management of the implant device, focus on auditory and speech skills in the educational environment) have been identified. Working Memory Capacity, Verbal Rehearsal Speed, and Scanning in Deaf Children With Cochlear Implants Rose A. Burkholder and David B. Pisoni in Advances in the Spoken Language Development of Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children Published in print: 2005 Published Online: April 2010 ISBN: eisbn: acprof:oso/ This chapter reviews recent studies which assessed the working memory processes and abilities of deaf children with cochlear implants. Although most of the clinical research examining deaf children using cochlear implants has focused on traditional audiological outcome measures of speech and language skills to assess benefit, important new knowledge about speech and language development has come from recent studies on memory processing abilities in this population. These studies have shown that subvocal verbal rehearsal and serial scanning operate much Page 1 of 6

2 more slowly in deaf children with cochlear implants and contribute to their shorter memory spans. It appears that slower processing speeds may play an even greater role in the deaf children's memory performance than do the initial encoding problems related to their current hearing impairment and cochlear implant use. In addition, these studies suggest that the amount and/or nature of the auditory exposure which children receive after implantation can influence their performance on immediate memory tasks which require the encoding, verbal rehearsal, and serial scanning of phonological information in working memory. An Introduction to the Cochlear Implant Lyn E. Schraer-Joiner in Music for Children with Hearing Loss: A Resource for Parents and Teachers Published in print: 2014 Published Online: May 2015 ISBN: eisbn: acprof:osobl/ This chapter focuses on the cochlear implant, a biomedical electronic device containing electrodes positioned within the cochlea to stimulate remaining hair cells. It examines the evolution of the cochlear implant device, pediatric cochlear implantation, its current research trends, as well as the issues associated with said device. Also included are music research studies that involve children wearing the device, and its implications for the music classroom. The latter part of the chapter recounts the story of one cochlear implant user as an added insight to the medical procedures presented. The Influence of Technology Irene W. Leigh in A Lens on Deaf Identities Published in print: 2009 Published Online: May 2010 ISBN: eisbn: acprof:oso/ This chapter explores how technology relates to identity relative to its impact on the ways in which deaf and hard-of-hearing people view themselves. Today's technology has generated multiple forms of text communication and improved access to sound, thereby expanding the scope of exposure to diverse groups of people, whether d/deaf, hard of hearing, or hearing, that influence deaf identity choices. There have been Page 2 of 6

3 questions about cochlear implant users vis-à-vis deaf identity and their acceptance by those who see deaf in different ways. As for genetics, the identification of specific genes that cause hearing differences and the emerging availability of genetic testing for specific deaf genes are encouraging questions regarding genetic manipulation and the desirability of having deaf babies. This has to do with levels of comfort regarding the deaf self and the acceptability of choosing to be deaf or not. Ethical implications are considered. Critical periods for human cortical development: An ERP study in children with cochlear implant Curtis W. Ponton in Reprogramming the Cerebral Cortex: Plasticity following central and peripheral lesions Published in print: 2006 Published Online: September 2009 ISBN: eisbn: acprof:oso/ This chapter describes the effects that a period of auditory deprivation due to profound deafness, followed by restoration of sensation via a cochlear implant, has on the development of the human auditory central nervous system. Neurophysiological evidence of human central auditory system plasticity in profoundly deaf adults and children who use cochlear prostheses will be based on scalp-recorded electrophysiological activity evoked by activation of the cochlear implant. This activity measured from cochlear implant users is contrasted with that of normal-hearing adults and children to illustrate the similarities and differences in auditory cortical activity. These results are set in the context of what is known about the generators of the AEPs (auditory evoked potentials) as well as recent studies describing the maturational sequence of the neuroanatomical structures, particularly in cortex. Recruitment of the auditory cortex in congenitally deaf cats Andrej Kral, Rainer Hartmann, and Rainer Klinke in Reprogramming the Cerebral Cortex: Plasticity following central and peripheral lesions Published in print: 2006 Published Online: September 2009 ISBN: eisbn: acprof:oso/ Page 3 of 6

4 This chapter investigates experience-based changes in the auditory system using the congenitally deaf white cat model. Through the use of cochlear implants, which permit acoustic experience, the auditory cortex of the congenitally deaf cat cortex is shown to be capable to modifying itself to resemble that of hearing cats. Audiological Management for Adolescents with Hearing Loss Jill Duncan, Ellen A. Rhoades, and Elizabeth M. Fitzpatrick in Auditory (Re)Habilitation for Adolescents with Hearing Loss: Theory and Practice Published in print: 2014 Published Online: April 2014 ISBN: eisbn: acprof:oso/ This chapter presents essential components of audiological management in adolescence. The chapter begins with a brief introduction to the range and characteristics of hearing disorders including type, degree and laterality. It provides information on candidacy issues for hearing aids and cochlear implants as well as the fitting, evaluation and ongoing management of these hearing technologies. Clinical and functional measures of hearing are described. The importance of using classroom amplification technology is discussed. Recent advances and options for hearing technology are considered throughout the chapter and the inclusion of adolescents with hearing loss as decision-makers in their care is highlighted. The chapter discusses factors that may affect adolescents ability to access the best possible acoustic information and implications for practice. The Influence of Communication Mode on Language Development in Children with Cochlear Implants Elizabeth A. Walker and J. Bruce Tomblin in Bilingualism and Bilingual Deaf Education Published in print: 2014 Published Online: August 2014 ISBN: eisbn: acprof:oso/ Cochlear implants (CIs) are a common habilitation option for children with profound hearing loss. CI technology has resulted in significant changes in approaches to communication and education for children who are deaf. This chapter will focus on the influence of communication mode and educational settings for children with CIs. Successful speech Page 4 of 6

5 and language outcomes for children with cochlear implants are highly dependent on a number of factors besides communication mode, including amount of residual hearing, age at implantation, amount of daily cochlear implant use, and parents goals for communication and overall development. Future research should address the issue of using sign language during the initial stages of language learning, and its effects on later language, reading, and psychosocial development. Being a Deaf Student: Changes in Characteristics and Needs Sue Archbold in Educating Deaf Learners: Creating a Global Evidence Base Published in print: 2015 Published Online: November 2015 ISBN: eisbn: acprof:oso/ The recent changes in communication and hearing technologies have had a significant impact on the demographics of students with significant hearing loss, and consequently on their needs. Children diagnosed and implanted early in life are acquiring and using spoken languages in greater numbers than ever before, are showing improved educational attainments and attending mainstream schools in greater numbers than before. Young people using the latest technology report being both deaf and hearing, never previously possible. These students are functioning neither as those with a significant hearing loss did in the past, nor as hearing students do. Although they may have access to greater levels of spoken language through hearing than ever before. They still require support as learners in the classroom. The needs of deaf students today are more varied than ever before and often more subtle, and their educational environment may not be staffed or equipped appropriately to ensure they reach their full potential. Michael M. Merzenich Larry R. Squire in The History of Neuroscience in Autobiography: Volume 7 Published in print: 2011 Published Online: January 2012 ISBN: eisbn: acprof:oso/ Michael Merzenich has conducted studies defining the functional organization of the auditory and somatosensory nervous systems. Initial models of a commercially successful cochlear implant (now Page 5 of 6

6 distributed by Boston Scientific) were developed in his laboratory. Seminal research on cortical plasticity conducted in his laboratory contributed to our current understanding of the phenomenology of brain plasticity across the human lifetime. Merzenich extended this research into the commercial world by co-founding three brain plasticity-based therapeutic software companies (Scientific Learning, Posit Science, Brain Plasticity). Those companies have developed and validated neurosciencebased, computer-delivered rehabilitation training programs that have now been applied (by 2010) to more than 3 million impaired children and adults. Their research and treatment targets include developmental impairments that limit the cognitive, reading and mathematical abilities of school-aged children; perceptual and cognitive impairments in normal aging; preventing and treating schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, and other psychiatric diseases; rehabilitation strategies applied to treat traumatic brain injury and stroke; and the treatment of cognitive impairments arising from brain infections, toxin exposures, hypoxic episodes, and other environmental causes. Page 6 of 6

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