GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING II

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1 GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING II MODULE I CHAPTER 2 Site investigation and soil exploration SYLLABUS - Module I 2. Site investigation and soil exploration: objectives - planning - reconnaissance - depth and lateral extent of explorations -methods of subsurface exploration - test pits - Auger borings - rotary drilling Types of soil samples-split spoon samplers- Standard penetration testhand cut samples- boring log - soil profilegeophysical methods (in brief). 2

2 OBJECTIVES OF SOIL INVESTIGATION Determination of The nature of the deposits of soil The depth and thickness of the various soil strata and their extent in the horizontal direction The location of ground water and fluctuations in GWT Engineering properties of the soil and rock strata by conducting laboratory tests In-situ properties of soil by performing field tests Obtaining soil and rock samples from the various strata 3 Geotechnical Investigation Reconnaissance Preliminary Investigations Detailed Investigations 4

3 RECONNAISSANCE Inspection of the site and study of the topographical features Study of maps and other relevant records. Collect details about proposed constructions Collect already existing data and then examine for soils and geological conditions Collect details required for economic designs Helps in deciding future programme of site investigations, scope of work, methods of exploration to be adopted, types of samples to be taken and the laboratory testing and in-situ testing. 5 Study of Maps Study of maps from Survey of India or Geological survey of India to get information regarding faults, folds, cracks, fissures, etc. 6

4 Folds Faults

5 Aerial photography Satellite images

6 PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATIONS To determine the depth, thickness, extent and composition of each stratum t at the site. The depth of bed rock and the ground water table is also determined. Generally in the form of test pits and few borings Tests are conducted with cone penetrometers and sounding rods to obtain information about the strength and compressibility of soils. Geophysical methods are used for locating the boundaries of different strata. 11 Detailed Investigations Direct Method Trial Pits Trenches Auger Boring Shell and Auger Boring Wash Boring Percussion Drilling Rotary Drilling Semi-direct methods (Borings) Geophysical methods Seismic Method Electrical Resistivity Method Indirect methods Soundings or penetration tests Standard Penetration Test (SPT) Static Cone Penetration Test (SCPT) Dynamic i Cone Penetration ti Test (DCPT) 12

7 DIRECT METHOD TEST PITS Usually made for supplementing other methods or for minor structures Visual inspection of soil Personal feeling of soils Collection o of soil samples pes 13 SEMI DIRECT METHODS

8 AUGER BORING For soils with sides of the hole can remain unsupported in dry state. Hand operated 3 to 5 m depths Power driven up to 50 m depth HAND OPERATED AUGERS 15 MACHINE OPERATED AUGERS

9 SHELL AND AUGER BORING Shell used for soil with sides of the hole cannot remain unsupported. Boring is always started t first with augering and the shell is used for advancing the bore hole. Shell raised above the bottom of the hole and allow it to fall freely. The impact of the drop cuts the soil and pushes the soil in to the tube. After filled, shell is withdrawn and emptied. 17 For soils which auger boring is not suitable For soils not mixed with gravel and boulders For collecting samples, replace drill bit with samplers Change of rate of progress and change of colour of wash water indicate change in soil strata t WASH BORING 18

10 Heavy drill bit suspended PERCUSSION DRILLING from a drill rod or a cable and is driven by repeated blows Water is added to facilitate the breaking of stiff sol or rock Not suitable for loose sand and is slow in plastic clays 19 PERCUSSION DRILLING TOOLS 20

11 ROTARY DRILLING Fast in rocks Drill bit fixed to the lower end of a drill rod is rotated by power Bentonite slurry is forced under pressure through the drill rod and it comes up along the cutting soil Rock cores can be obtained by using suitable diamond drill bits and core barrels 21 ROTARY DRILLING

12 DEPTH OF EXPLORATION Governed by the depth of the influence zone which depends on the type of structure, intensity of loading, shape and disposition of the loaded area, the soil profile and the physical characteristics of the soil. The depth upto which the stress increment due to superimposed loads can produce significant settlement and shear stress is known as the Significant Depth. PRESSURE BULB 23 GUIDELINES FOR DEPTH OF EXPLORATION Sl. No. TYPE OF FOUNDATION DEPTH OF EXPLORATION (i) Isolated Spread Footing or Raft 1.5 B (ii) Adjacent Footings with clear spacing < 2B 1.5 L

13 Sl. No. ADJACENT ROWS OF FOOTINGS TYPE OF FOUNDATION DEPTH OF EXPLORATION (iii) Adjacent Rows of Footings with clear spacing < 2B 4.5 B Adjacent Rows of Footings with clear spacing > 2B, but < 4B Adjacent Rows of Footings with clear spacing P 4B 3 B 1.5 B PILE AND WELL FOUNDATIONS Sl. No. TYPE OF FOUNDATION DEPTH OF EXPLORATION (iv) Pile and Well Foundation 1.5 x Width of Structure from the bearing level (Toe of pile or bottom of well)

14 ROAD CUTS Sl. No. TYPE OF FOUNDATION DEPTH OF EXPLORATION (v) Road Cuts Bottom width of the cut (B) FILLS Sl. No. TYPE OF DEPTH OF EXPLORATION FOUNDATION (vi) Fills 2 m below GL or height of fill (H) whichever is greater

15 SOWERS AND SOWERS (1970) FORMULA Empirical Relationship for Multistoreyed Buildings D = C ( S) 0. 7 where D = Depth of exploration C = Constant = 3 for Light steel buildings & Narrow concrete bldgs = 6 for Heavy Steel bldgs & Wide Concrete bldgs. S= No.ofstoreys 29 Spacing of Borings The number and spacing of bore holes or trial pits will depend upon the extent of the site and nature of structures coming on it. For a compact building site covering an area of about 0.4 hectre, one bore hole or trial pit in each corner and one in the centre. For smaller buildings, one bore hole or trial pit in the centre. 30

16 Sl. No. Nature of project Spacing 1. Highways 300 to 600 m 2. Earth dams 30 to 60 m 3. Borrow o pits 30 to 120 m 4. Multi-storey buildings 15 to 30 m 5. Single storey factories 30 to 90 m. SAMPLES DISTURBED SAMPLES REPRESENTATIVE SAMPLES GRAIN SIZE ANALYSIS ATTERBER LIMITS SPECIFIC GRAVITY CHEMICAL ANALYSIS NON-REPRESENTATIVE SAMPLES Mixture of materials from various strata or some mineral constituents lost UNDISTURBED SAMPLES SHEAR STRENGTH PARAMETERS CONSOLIDATION PARAMETERS IN-SITU DENSITY AND WATER CONTENT COEFFICIENT OF PERMEABILITY BLOCK OR CHUNK SAMPLES 32

17 SAMPLERS Based on Mode of operation Open Drive Samplers Thick wall type Split Spoon Sampler (SPT Sampler) Thin wall type Shelby Tube Sampler (UDS Sampler) Stationary Piston Sampler Rotary Sampler 33 SPLIT SPOON SAMPLER 34

18 THIN WALLED SAMPLER SEALING METHODS

19 PISTON SAMPLER OSTERBERG PISTON SAMPLER

20 ROTARY SAMPLER 39 BLOCK OR CHUNK SAMPLES

21 Inside Clearance (C I ) SAMPLER PARAMETERS Should be between 1 to 3 % Allows for elastic expansion of the soil as it enters the tube, reduces frictional drag on the sample from the wall of the tube. Outside Clearance (C o ) The outside clearance should not be much greater than the inside clearance. This facilitates the withdrawal of the sampler from the ground. 41 SAMPLER PARAMETERS Area Ratio (A r ) Should be kept as low as possible. 20% for stiff formations and 10% for soft sensitive clays. 42

22 University Questions Comment on the area ratios of the following samples: Outer Dia (mm) Inner Dia (mm) (i) Split spoon sampler (ii) Drive tube (iii) Shelby tube Solution : Outer Dia (mm) Inner Dia (mm) Area Ratio (i) Split spoon sampler % (ii) Drive tube % (iii) Shelby tube % 43 Core Recovery = Rock Coring Parameters Length of the core recovered Total Core Run Length 44

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