DNA 101. An Introduction to DNA for Genealogy November 19, 2016

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1 DNA 101 An Introduction to DNA for Genealogy November 19, 2016

2 11/19/2016 Tennessee Genealogical Society 2 Genetic Genealogy The use of DNA testing in combination with traditional genealogical and historical records to infer relationships between individuals.

3 11/19/2016 Tennessee Genealogical Society 3 Overview Why DNA for Genealogy? Definitions Types of Tests Vendors Examples Final Comments

4 11/19/2016 Tennessee Genealogical Society 4 Why? To learn more about one's ancestry To prove that one's family tree reflects one's actual ancestry To prove or disprove the relationship between two people To prove or disprove a theory of where people came from To break down a brick wall in one's genealogy research To find relatives for those that were adopted, gave up a child for adoption or otherwise do not know their ancestry To learn from which ancestor(s) certain traits were inherited

5 11/19/2016 Tennessee Genealogical Society 5 Definitions DNA - A chemical consisting of a sequence of hundreds of millions of nucleotides found in the nuclei of cells containing the genetic information about an individual. It is shaped like a double-stranded helix, which consists of two paired DNA molecules and resembles a ladder that has been twisted. The "rungs" of the ladder are made of base pairs, or nucleotides with complementary hydrogen bonding patterns. Gene - A segment of DNA which contains the genetic code to make a certain protein or part of a protein

6 11/19/2016 Tennessee Genealogical Society 6 Definitions Chromosome - A molecular "package" for carrying DNA in cells, organized as two double-helical DNA molecules that encode many genes.

7 11/19/2016 Tennessee Genealogical Society 7 The Building Block

8 11/19/2016 Tennessee Genealogical Society 8

9 11/19/2016 Tennessee Genealogical Society 9 Definitions Haplotype - The term for the set of numbers that consists of your Y-chromosome or mitochondrial DNA results. Haplotypes are also known as genetic signatures Marker - A specific place on a chromosome with two or more forms, called alleles, the inheritance of which can be followed from one generation to the next. In Y- chromosome DNA testing, this refers to non-coding Y- chromosome DNA. Numbers designate the individual DNA segments. Example: 393=13. This means at marker #393, your allele value is 13

10 11/19/2016 Tennessee Genealogical Society 10 Types of tests Y-chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) The male sex chromosome. Only males have a Y-chromosome, which they receive from their father, who received it from his father, and so on. This transmission of the Y-chromosome down the male line is why it is useful for surname testing to determine if two males share a common ancestor. Male to male to male Excellent for confirming or not a shared common male ancestor Theoretically can go back several hundred thousand years Cannot identify specific ancestors

11 11/19/2016 Tennessee Genealogical Society 11 Y-DNA

12 11/19/2016 Tennessee Genealogical Society 12 Types of tests Mitochondrial DNA (mtdna) Energy-releasing organelles located in the cytoplasm of cells, which contain their own DNA. Mitochondrial DNA is passed from mother to child, but only females continue to pass on their maternal mitochondria to their children. Female to female to Limited use in genealogy Cannot identify specific ancestors

13 11/19/2016 Tennessee Genealogical Society 13 mt-dna

14 11/19/2016 Tennessee Genealogical Society 14 Types of tests Autosomal DNA (atdna or audna) The DNA of non-sex-determining chromosomes that mix or recombine. Also known as admixture DNA. 50% from each parent but siblings get different 50% Good for about 4-7 generations Great for cousin identification when matched to family trees

15 11/19/2016 Tennessee Genealogical Society 15 Half and half

16 11/19/2016 Tennessee Genealogical Society 16 Decreasing effectiveness

17 11/19/2016 Tennessee Genealogical Society 17 Too Far?

18 11/19/2016 Tennessee Genealogical Society 18 Test Results Raw Data A series of numbers and letters Of little values to the average genealogist Use for transferring to another vendor Haplogroups and Ethnicity Estimates Y-DNA and mtdna give information about where your most distant ancestors originated Autosomal DNA is where your more close-in ancestors came from Autosomal results vary by vendor due to different analysis techniques

19 11/19/2016 Tennessee Genealogical Society 19 Sample Autosomal Raw Data

20 11/19/2016 Tennessee Genealogical Society 20 Choose a vendor FamilyTreeDNA 23 and Me Ancestry MyHeritage NEW

21 11/19/2016 Tennessee Genealogical Society 21 Family Tree DNA Oldest genetic testing company Only company to offer all three tests Can transfer for free, 23andMe, NatGeo or AncestryDNA if you have not signed up for Family Finder Cheek swab vs. saliva Can do tree matching if you upload GEDcom Over 9,100 surname, lineage and geographical projects Extensive support with webinars, guides, FAQ, etc.

22 11/19/2016 Tennessee Genealogical Society 22 FamilyTreeDNA Sale Family Finder $79, now $59 Y-DNA 37 markers $169, now $139 Other savings are available -

23 11/19/2016 Tennessee Genealogical Society 23 23andMe Autosomal plus Y-DNA and mtdna Haplogroups Most accurate ethnicity predictions Primary focus is health information $99 Ancestry only; $199 Health & Ancestry

24 11/19/2016 Tennessee Genealogical Society 24 AncestryDNA Autosomal only Currently best tree matching $99 look for coupons and seasonal sale pricing

25 11/19/2016 Tennessee Genealogical Society 25 MyHeritageDNA Autosomal only Newest entry to market Can upload existing DNA results (free for limited time) MyHeritage has 85 million users in 42 countries $99 introductory $79

26 11/19/2016 Tennessee Genealogical Society 26 Vendor Specific Information 23andMe Ancestry FamilyTreeDNA

27 11/19/2016 Tennessee Genealogical Society 27 23andMe Ethnicity

28 11/19/2016 Tennessee Genealogical Society 28 23andMe Relatives

29 11/19/2016 Tennessee Genealogical Society 29 AncestryDNA Ethnicity

30 11/19/2016 Tennessee Genealogical Society 30 Ancestry DNA Matching Results

31 11/19/2016 Tennessee Genealogical Society 31 Ancestry DNA Matching Results

32 11/19/2016 Tennessee Genealogical Society 32 Ancestry Circles

33 11/19/2016 Tennessee Genealogical Society 33 Ancestry Circles

34 11/19/2016 Tennessee Genealogical Society 34 Ancestry Circles

35 11/19/2016 Tennessee Genealogical Society 35 Ancestry New Ancestry Discoveries

36 11/19/2016 Tennessee Genealogical Society 36 FTDNA - Autosomal Ethnicity

37 11/19/2016 Tennessee Genealogical Society 37 FTDNA Family Finder Matches

38 11/19/2016 Tennessee Genealogical Society 38 FTDNA FF Ancient Origins

39 11/19/2016 Tennessee Genealogical Society 39 FTDNA Y Matches

40 11/19/2016 Tennessee Genealogical Society 40 FTDNA Y Matches Map

41 11/19/2016 Tennessee Genealogical Society 41 FTDNA Y-DNA Haplogroups Migration

42 11/19/2016 Tennessee Genealogical Society 42 FTDNA Surname Project

43 11/19/2016 Tennessee Genealogical Society 43 DNA for genealogy is not the same testing as for genetic diseases. is not forensic criminal profiling Is not paternity testing Is not cloning However, DNA testing for genealogy may give you unexpected results.

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