# Lecture 2. Surface Structure

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1 Lecture 2 Surface Structure Quantitative Description of Surface Structure clean metal surfaces adsorbated covered and reconstructed surfaces electronic and geometrical structure References: 1) Zangwill, p ) Woodruff & Delchar, Chapter 2 3) Kolasinski, Chapter 1 4) Luth, ) Attard & Barnes, Lecture 2 1 Basics: Clean Surfaces and Adsorption 1. The atom density in a solid surface is ~ cm -2 (10 19 m -2 ) 2. Hertz-Knudsen equation Z W p ( 2 mk T) If the probability that a molecule stays on the surface after it strikes it =1 (sticking coefficient = 1), at p = 10-6 Torr it takes ~ 1 s to one molecule thick layer (1 ML) at p = Torr it takes ~ 10 4 s = 2.75 hrs for 1 ML B 1/ 2 When molecule adsorb via chemical interaction, they stick to well-defined sites Need to understand the structure of clean and adsobate-covered surfaces as a foundation for understanding surface chemical problems Lecture 2 2 Lecture 2: Surface Structure 1

2 2.1 Bulk Truncation Structure Ideal flat surface: truncating the bulk structure of a perfect crystal b z z Miller Indices, revisited - For plane with intersections at b x, b y b z write reciprocals: bx by bz - If all quotients are rational integers or 0, this is Miller index e.g., b x, b y, b z = 1, 1, 0.5 (112) b x, b y, b z = 1,, (100) - In general cd Miller index ( i, j, k) bx e.g., cd b y cd, b z where cd - common denom. of b,b,b x cd 12; ( i, j, k) (643) Lecture 2 3 x y z x b x 2 4 z 3 b y y y Crystallographic planes Single plane (h k l) Notation: planes of a family {h k l} (100); (010); (001); {100} are all equivalent Only for cubic systems: the direction indices of a direction perpendicular to a crystal plane have the same Miller indices as a plane Interplanar spacing d hkl : d hkl h 2 a k 2 l 2 Lecture 2 4 Lecture 2: Surface Structure 2

3 Metallic crystal structures (will talk about metal oxides later) >90% of elemental metals crystallize upon solidification into 3 densely packed crystal structures: Body-centered cubic (bcc) Face-centered cubic (fcc) Hexagonal closepacked (hcp) ex.: Fe, W, Cr ex.: Cu, Ag, Au ex.: Zr, Ti, Zn Very different surfaces!!! Lecture 2 5 fcc crystallographic planes Cu (100) Lecture 2 6 Lecture 2: Surface Structure 3

4 fcc crystallographic planes Cu (110) Anisotropy of properties in two directions Lecture 2 7 fcc crystallographic planes Cu (111) 3 fold symmetry Lecture 2 8 Lecture 2: Surface Structure 4

5 Atomic Packing in Different Planes bcc (100) (110) (111) close-packed fcc (100) (110) (111) Very rough: fcc (210) and bcc(111) Lecture 2 9 Bulk Truncated Structures Lecture 2 10 Lecture 2: Surface Structure 5

6 Cubic System (i j k) defines plane [i j k] is a vector to plane, defining direction Cross product of two vectors in a plane defines direction perpendicular to plane [i j k] = [l m n] [ o p q] [i j k] [l m n] Angle between two planes (directions): [ ijk ] [ lmn] cos i j k l m n e.g., for [111], [211] cos o Lecture 2 11 Planes in hexagonal close-packed (hcp) 4 coordinate axes (a 1, a 2, a 3, and c) of the hcp structure (instead of 3) Miller-Bravais indices - (h k i l) based on 4 axes coordinate system a 1, a 2, and a 3 are 120 o apart: h k i c axis is 90 o : l 3 indices (rarely used): h + k = - I (h k i l) (h k l) Lecture 2 12 Lecture 2: Surface Structure 6

7 Basal and Prizm Planes Basal planes; a 1 = ; a 2 = ; a 3 = ; c = 1 ( ) Prizm planes: ABCD a 1 = +1; a 2 = ; a 3 = -1; c = ( ) Lecture 2 13 Comparison of Crystal Structures FCC and HCP metal crystal structures void a void b A B Bb (111) planes of fcc have the same arrangement as (0001) plane of hcp crystal 3D structures are not identical: stacking has to be considered Lecture 2 14 Lecture 2: Surface Structure 7

8 FCC and HCP crystal structures void a void b A B C A B fcc B plane placed in a voids of plane A Next plane placed in a voids of plane B, making a new C plane Stacking: ABCABC hcp B plane placed in a voids of plane A Next plane placed in a voids of plane B, making a new A plane Stacking: ABAB Lecture 2 15 Diamond, Si and Ge surfaces (100) (110) (111) Lecture 2 16 Lecture 2: Surface Structure 8

9 Beyond Metals: polar termination Zincblend structure Note that polar terminations are not equivalent for (100) and (111) ZnS (100) Zn S -s +s -s +s -s +s -s +s capacitor model ZnS (111) Lecture 2 17 Stereographic Projections crystal Project normals onto planar surface Normals to planes Lecture 2 18 from K.Kolasinski Lecture 2: Surface Structure 9

10 2.2 Relaxations and Reconstructions Often surface termination is not bulk-like There are atom shifts or to surface These surface region extends several atom layer deep Rationale for metals: Smoluchowski smoothing of surface electron charge; dipole formation Lecture 2 19 Reconstructions Rationale for semiconductors: heal dangling bonds often lateral motion Lecture 2 20 Lecture 2: Surface Structure 10

11 2.3 Classification of 2D periodic Structures Unit cell: a convenient repeating unit of a crystal lattice; the axial lengths and axial angles are the lattice constants of the unit cell Wigner Seitz cell Larger than needed Unit cell is not unique! Wigner Seitz Cell : place the symmetry centre in the centre of the cell; draw the perpendicular bisector planes of the translation vectors from the chosen centre to the nearest equivalent lattice site Lecture D Periodic Structures Propagate lattice: n, m integers T na1 ma 2 Primitive unit cell: generally, smallest area, shortest lattice vectors, small number of atoms ( if possible a 1 = a 2, a=60 o, 90 o, 120 o, 1 atom/per cell) Symmetry: - translational symmetry to surface - rotational symmetry 1(trivial), 2, 3, 4, 6 - mirror planes - glide planes All 2D structures w/1atom/unit cell have at least one two-fold axis Lecture 2 22 Lecture 2: Surface Structure 11

12 2.4 2D Substrate and Surface Structures Considering all possibilities and redundancies for 2D periodic structures (e.g., 3-fold symmetry for g=60 o, 120 o, we get only 5 symmetrically different Bravais nets with 1 atom per unit cell When more than 1 atom/unit cell more complicated: - 5 Bravais lattices D point symmetry group (cf. Woodruff) - 17 types of surface structures Substrate and Overlayer Structures Suppose overlayer (or reconstructed surface layer) lattice different from substrate T T A B na1 ma2 nb mb 1 2 Lecture Wood s notation Simplest, most descriptive notation method (note: fails if a a or b i /a i irrational) p(2 2) b 1 b 1 a b 2 a 1 a 1 a a 2 a 2 Procedure: - Determine relative magnitude of a 1, b 1, and a 2, b 2 - Identify angle of rotation (here f = 0) Notation: b 2 c(2 2) or p( 2 2) R45 o b b 1 2 Rf a a 1 2 Lecture 2 24 Lecture 2: Surface Structure 12

13 2.6 Matrix Notation Use matrix to transform substrate basis vectors, a 1, a 2, into overlayer basis vectors, b 1, b 2 Lecture Comparison of Wood s and Matrix Notation Classification of lattices: Lecture 2 26 Lecture 2: Surface Structure 13

14 Examples of Coincidence Lattice Note that symmetry does not identify adsorption sites, only how many there are Domain structures: (1 X 2) = (2 X 1) Lecture 2 27 Domains and domain walls heavy wall light wall Lecture 2 28 Lecture 2: Surface Structure 14

15 Consider that in the pictures you are looking down at a surface. The larger circles represent the substrate atom positions and dark dots represent the overlayer atom positions. Overlayer unit cells are shown. For each structure: (1) Draw the substrate unit cell and vectors, and the primitive overlayer unit cell and unit cell vectors. (2) Calculate the ideal coverage (in monolayers) of the overlayer. (3) If the primitive overlayer surface unit cell can be named with Wood s notation, do so. If it cannot, try to identify a nonprimitive cell which can be so named. (4) Give the matrix notation for the primitive overlayer unit cell. (5) Classify the surface overlayer as simple, coincident or incoherent. (a) 29 (b) Lecture 2 30 Lecture 2: Surface Structure 15

16 Try (c) and (d) at home (c) Lecture 2 31 (d) Lecture 2 32 Lecture 2: Surface Structure 16

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