1 WHO S ON BOARD? 2014 Ethnic Diversity in Sports Leadership Summary Report by Sporting Equals
2 Introduction Sporting Equals Sporting Equals are an independent charity set up to promote ethnic diversity across the sport and physical activity sector. Its mission is to make a sustainable difference to the inclusion of all under represented communities in sport and physical activity so as to improve the long term opportunities and health outcomes of those communities as well as to grow elite level talent. Leaderboard Sporting Equals launched seleaderboard in 2010 to promote the case for diversity and encourage the sports sector to take action in light of new opportunities, changing demographics, utilising talent from under-represented groups. The Leaderboard challenge Whilst research suggests that black and minority ethnic (BME) overall participation in sport is increasing (albeit significant variations exist between sports) 1 similar gains are not being seen in boardrooms, executive management and senior leadership roles. Our earlier reports Who s On Board Evaluating diversity in sports leadership 2,3,4 found widespread under representation of BME communities in decision-making roles. Our 2014 audit suggests that the overall BME profile has changed very little over the past few years. It is clear that much more needs to be done to achieve a more equitable and representative position across the sector as a whole. 1 Active People Survey 5 ( ), Sport England 2 Who s On Board Evaluating diversity in sports leadership, Sporting Equals (2011) 3 Who s On Board Evaluating diversity in sports leadership, Sporting Equals (2012) 4 Who s On Board Evaluating diversity in sports leadership, Sporting Equals (2013)
3 Leaderboard Results Headlines This is the fourth year that Sporting Equals has undertaken its annual audit looking at the profile of National Governing Bodies (NGBs) in sports leadership. This year data collection was carried out directly by Sport England, who received 45 responses. BME representation on boards has declined People from Black and Minority Ethnic Groups in National Governing Bodies of Sport Percentage Change Chair % -2 Board % -1 Chief % -1 Executive 10 Development Director % - Performance % -4 Director 11 Executive Decision Makers % Survey 39 Responses Survey 42 Responses Survey 56 Responses Survey 45 Responses Survey - 2 not specified and 3 vacant posts Survey - 5 stated not applicable and 1 not specified Survey - 5 stated not applicable and 6 not specified 12 Executive Decision Makers are staff members who are not on the boards but are involved in organisational decision making, they can be volunteers or paid.
5 The table attached in Appendix 1 provides a sport by sport analysis. Overall out of 45 governing bodies 30 have no BME representation at any of these levels which raises considerable concerns. The largest five governing bodies as listed in Appendix 1 have only 5 BME people at senior level represented between them. Across 45 NGB s there are 449 board member positions with only 14 BME members Of 45 NGB s, only 1 (2.2%) Chair is from a BME background (Judo) Only 2 out of 45 (4.4%) National Governing Body CEO s are from BME background (British Gymnastics, British Triathlon) Of 45 NGB s, there are 5 female chairs none of whom have a BME background There are only 2 BME female CEOs out of 45 (4.4%) Declining Leadership Profiles One area where leadership profiles have declined is BME Chairs. Last year 2 NGBs reported BME Chairs, this year only one NGB (Judo) has reported a BME Chair. The second decline is in BME CEO s which has also declined. This year only British Gymnastics and British Triathlon have reported a BME CEO. A diverse board - as opposed to one lacking key equality strands like race, gender and disability - is more likely to examine the wider issues confronting the organisation, and provide more innovative and diverse solutions Arun Kang, CEO Sporting Equals, September 2014
6 Why are these figures an issue for sport? In the current economic climate sport needs to acknowledge it needs to operate and think like a business to help attract the best talent and leadership. Business thinking should support strategies which cast nets beyond traditional talent pools for leadership to help embrace diversity and help recruit the best people. This will help bring in a variety of skills ultimately ensuring the organisation has the skills internally to develop. There are many talented women, ethnic individuals and other diverse groups whose talents are not being used or developed sufficiently with the sport sector. Diversity policies can be a mechanism for the sport sector to gain access to talent 13 and promote greater equality of access. For sport to change in its thinking and become more diverse it needs empathy at board level and other decision making positions to enable it to support innovation and commercial benefits. A diverse board is more likely to have experienced these benefits and are more likely to examine short and long term issues confronting the company with diversity in mind. Currently BME representation at senior management level and within overall staffing profiles is considerably lower than representation in the general population and although slight progress has been made an enormous amount of work needs to be done to ensure greater inclusion and equal access to opportunities. Diversity and inclusion can no longer be an add-on for sports providers who are operating in an increasingly multicultural society inclusion needs to be put at the heart of an efficient sports delivery system. 13 Women in the IT industry, towards a business case for diversity, dti, January 2005
7 The Business Case for Diversity A recent analysis carried out by Business in the Community with data supplied by the Office for National Statistics (ONS) Annual Population Survey regarding the occupations of UK workers by ethnicity reveals that for the UK overall, BME workers hold only 8% of leadership positions and minority ethnic employees are more likely to be concentrated at the lower levels of employers workforces. 14 The report goes on to identify that only by having fair and unbiased recruitment processes can employers be confident that they are accessing the widest talent pool. The report found that white candidates were on average more successful than black and minority ethnic (BME) candidates at getting shortlisted and hired. It also identified that the regressive trend of minority ethnic individuals at senior levels is systematic of limited accountability for actions within organisations. The report identified that having set targets has made a difference to the number of women at senior management levels. Putting in similar targets for BME employees could well have the same impact for those organisations wishing to increase race diversity at the top. 15 Research conducted by global management consultant McKinsey and Company in 2012 found that for companies ranked in the top 25% for executive-board diversity, the return on equity was 53 percent higher, on average, than it was for those in the bottom 25%. At the same time, earnings before income tax at the most diverse companies were 14 percent higher, on average, than those of the least diverse companies Business in the Community Report - Action and Achievement: The 2013 Race for Opportunity and Opportunity Now Benchmark Trends; Analysis Report 15 Business in the Community Report - Action and Achievement: The 2013 Race for Opportunity and Opportunity Now Benchmark Trends; Analysis Report 16
8 Between 2008 and 2010, companies with more diverse top teams were also top financial performers. A business is only as good as the people it employs and organisations that can attract the best mix of employees, exploit their abilities, develop and motivate them will be best placed to survive in an increasingly difficult external environment. 17 The working population is also ageing as there is a reduction in the number of young people entering the workforce and one of the strongest arguments for increasing diversity within the sport sector is to deal with present or anticipated shortages of staff and volunteers. Key issues within the sector as a whole include: Coaching in the UK remains an activity dominated by white, middle class males and, with the possible exception of disability, remains disproportionate to the UK population. 69% of all coaching related roles are male (moving up to 82% for qualified coaches and head coaches) compared to 49% of the UK population. Only 3% of coaches are from minority ethnic backgrounds and over three quarters of coaches (76%) are from the ABC1 (upper/middle social class) social grouping compared to 55% of the UK population. 18 The profile of sports volunteers tends to be those of higher socio-economic status, with Asian and Black people volunteering half the rate or less compared to their white counterparts. 19 There is also a widespread dependence on existing volunteers within club structures who tend to hold key positions. However this dependence often leads to volunteer overload and problems when people leave or retire due to lack of succession planning for leadership roles. 20,21 Most club administrators don t really know where to look for volunteers outside of their own organisation. 22,23,24,25 The Business case for diversity runs beyond the means of just leadership and should follow through to all levels of the organisation from boardroom through to the volunteer and participant profiles. It is important coaches are recruited from different communities to ensure sport becomes inclusive and reaches out to all Women in the IT industry, towards a business case for diversity, dti, January The UK Coaching Framework, A Year Action Plan, The National Coaching Foundation, Sports coach UK, Coachwise, Low, N., Butt, S., Ellis Paine, A. and Davis Smith, J. (2007) Helping out: A national survey of volunteering and charitable giving. London: Cabinet Office 20 Rai S (2008) Routes and Barriers to Citizen Governance. York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation 21 The Institute of Volunteering Research and Volunteering England, (2008), A Winning Team? The impacts of Volunteers in Sport 22 Volunteering Australia and Australian Multicultural Foundation (2007). Research Bulletin: Muslim Youth and Volunteering 23 Low, N., Butt, S., Ellis Paine, A. and Davis Smith, J. (2007) Helping out: A national survey of volunteering and charitable giving. London: Cabinet Office 24 The Institute of Volunteering Research and Volunteering England, (2008), A Winning Team? The impacts of Volunteers in Sport 25 Sporting Equals Insight, BME Volunteering in Sport, 20011
9 The Sporting Profile A recent study was carried out by Dr Jim Lusted at University of Northampton to look at a Regional Governing body workforce profile. The study identified that the current Regional Governing Body workforce lacks diversity and is dominated by people with a very similar demographic profile. 26 Other key findings identified that; Over 90% of the workforce is: male, white, British, over 35, non-disabled, heterosexual and Christian/no religion. Compared to national population: Females and other religion are the most under-represented. Compared to playing population: Non-white group, disabled, year olds most under-represented. Board members are overwhelmingly older, white, British, Christian men. Paid employees are double the % of females, non-white, non-christian. Most of the current Regional Governing Body workforce particularly Board members - were recruited through internal and informal practices. These findings echo similarities to the findings in this report and give a fair reflective of the sport sector as a whole. In particular the recruitment strategies currently embedded within the sporting infrastructure need to be reviewed to create greater access and equality of opportunity. The seleaderboard campaign provides a mechanism to work collaboratively to help create a talent pool reflective of the changing society around us. We want to ensure that organisations within the sports infrastructure recognise the benefits of embracing diversity as one of the tools for achieving success. We believe our programme will provide a long term solution to help develop an inclusive system however there is a need to support a culture shift within the sport sector diversity and inclusion can no longer be an add-on for sports providers, inclusion needs to be at the heart of an efficient sports delivery system. 26 Insider Job? Workforce diversity and informal recruitment practices in grassroots sport governance organisations, Dr. Jim Lusted, Senior Lecturer, Sociology of Sport University of Northampton
10 Case Studies On Board 27 The On Board initiative funded by the Professional Footballers Association aims to get former footballers to play key roles on boards of football clubs has been warmly welcomed by the football authorities. It will provide the game with a pool of former players, who are qualified and prepared to apply for boardroom positions across football, as well as outside of the industry. Minister for Sport, Helen Grant, has also shown her support and says she has been encouraged by the initiative which supports diversity in the national game at all levels. The FA is proud to be associated with the On Board programme which provides former players with another potential route for development after their careers. Where BAME [Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic] players are successful in attaining board places in the game, it will help to widen the diversity of the decision makers in football FA Chairman, Greg Dyke The initiative will focus on governance and boards across football, sport and further afield for players and ex-players providing a real opportunity which will equip players with career opportunities and experiences after their playing careers (accessed )
11 The Sport and Recreation Alliance Better Boards, Stronger Sport 28 Better Boards, Stronger Sport is a project that is led and inspired by the sports movement. It is based on the premise that sports organisations must be empowered to take responsibility for setting the agenda and improving governance without regulation or compliance being dictated to them by outside regulators. The project is based on the foundation that real improvement has to be driven by the sports movement itself because regulation will only achieve compliance and not drive improvement. The project empowers sport organisations to act on the issue of governance by establishing a broad understanding of the key features of good governance in sport across Europe. Further details and a toolkit resource are available through; (accessed )
12 Quotas are needs for boardroom diversity 29 One of the most high profile women in global football says quotas are necessary to help increase the level of diversity in sport boardrooms. FIFA executive committee member Moya Dodd believes she only gained her position at football's world governing top table because of the introduction of a quota for female representatives. "In an ideal world there would be no need for quotas because you'd have wellfunctioning, merit-based systems providing equal opportunities, but I think quotas are useful if you think that those systems are not working or not working quickly enough to ensure outcomes." Despite efforts to increase gender diversity, men still dominate sports governance Moya Dodd, BBC Sport, May 2014 Moya Dodd, who also became the first female board member of the Asian Football Confederation and Football Federation Australia, said more effort was needed to encourage women to take up senior positions in sports governance. The former Australia footballer turned lawyer adds "I am sure I am only a member of the Asian Football executive and the FIFA executive committee because those positions were created for female members. 29 BBC Sport, By Caroline RigbyWorld Service Sports reporter, May 2014
13 Moving Forward What should NGBS/sports sector do? More emphasis needs to be given to support a culture shift within the sports sector to help put diversity higher up the agenda and enable access to new markets to help facilitate change. Strategies need to be put in place to help increase BME profiles from participant and volunteer through to boardroom and governance. As part of this remit Sporting Equals propose to convene a steering group to help increase the ethnic diversity of the Boards of NGBs. We are proposing to work with our 5 priority sports; England Athletics, England Boxing, Amateur Swimming Association, England Cricket Board and Lawn Tennis Association to convene a steering group which would meet before the end of March 2015 and explore the following options: co-options shadowing opportunities advisory roles promoting Board vacancies more widely publishing an annual audit of NGBs and analysing the data developing a database of candidates empowering potential BME candidates through training opportunities developing an annual plan of action Companies with diverse executive boards enjoy significantly higher earnings and returns on equity 1 Article - McKinsey Quarterly, April 2012 This will allow greater collaboration across the sector and provide a more action driven approach supported by Sport England.
14 What will Sporting Equal do? In order to support NGBs to help meet these objectives Sporting Equals will work collaboratively to; Publish an annual list of NGBs with the numbers of BME people on their Boards and SMT. Make the Sporting Equals database of BME candidates available to all NGBs. Working with the Sport Recreation Alliance (SRA) we will offer our candidates discounted rates to their training events and promote potential candidates using their Alliance Directors Club membership. Work with other partners who are working towards diversifying boards to maximise efficiency and effectiveness. Help support a NGB driven steering group to support actions to help increase the ethnic diversity of Boards. Ensure that NGBs are able to advertise vacancies on the Sporting Equals website and promote them using social media to our contacts. What is clear is that if sport is to continue to grow and thrive, in business and community terms, change is required at the boardroom level. Diversity must come higher up the agenda for boards, managers and policy makers. The opportunities for growth and improved performance are there for the taking Brendon Batson, Chair of Sporting Equals, Sept 2014
15 The following National Governing Bodies took part in the 2013 audit: The Football Association England Handball Association England Golf Partnership British Wrestling British Equestrian Federation Archery GB Snowsport England Rugby Football League (RFL) GB Taekwondo England Squash and Racketball British Orienteering British Mountaineering Council English lacrosse British Water Ski & Wakebaord Amateur Swimming Association (AMA) British Gymnastics BADMINTON England England Netball Goalball UK British Cycling Federation British Fencing Association Ltd England Hockey ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION Exercise Dance Movement Partnership (EDMP) British Judo Lawn Tennis Association Limited British Rowing Baseball Softball UK Bowls Development Alliance Pentathlon GB Great Britain Wheelchair Rugby British Canoe Union British Weightlifting BWB English Table Tennis Association Angling Trust england basketball England Athletics Boccia England British Shooting England and Wales Cricket Board (ECB) British Triathlon Rounders England Volleyball England UK Athletics
16 Sporting Equals would like to thank its partner Sport England for providing the data to support this research. We will continue to work in partnership to improve diversity within sports leadership. Notes: o Data for this audit was provided by Sport England. o The current audit includes 45 responses so figures across years cannot be interpreted on a like for like basis. o The term BME includes everyone other than those of White British background. o Executive Decision Makers are staff members who are not on the boards but are involved in organisational decision making, they can be volunteers or paid. o Data Collection took place during the period February to April o Data supplied by Sport England to Sporting Equals on 22 April 2014 (please note; no data supplied for Boxing or Rugby Football Union). o Data submitted by the FA specifies figures for the FA Senior Management Team and not its Extended Management Team which has been combined in previous years. The FAs Extended Management Team will not be a formal part of its management structure going forward. o Where data fields are either not applicable or not specified, this has been highlighted in the reporting. o Sporting Equals Leaderboard website page can be viewed through Report Updated October 2014 Sporting Equals Copyright
17 Leaderboard NAME OF NGB PARTICIPATION NUMBERS (at least once a week Board of Trustees *Insufficient sample size from APS participation figures. Blank no data available. At least once a week participation numbers taken from Active People Survey 7 (2012/13). No data supplied by England Boxing and Rugby Football Union at the time of audit (April 2014). The full Leaderboard report is downloadable from CEO Senior Management Team Amateur Swimming Association 2,987,700 Angling Trust 140,000 Archery GB 39,400 Badminton England 613,400 Baseball Softball UK * Boccia England * 1 BME Bowls Development Alliance 237,800 British Canoe Union 59,400 British Cycling 2,225,000 British Equestrian Federation 377,500 British Fencing Association Ltd 22,100 1 BME British Gymnastics 71,500 1 BME 1 BME 1 BME British Judo 20,400 1 BME British Mountaineering Council 89,600 British Orienteering * British Rowing 83,500 British Shooting 66,100 British Triathlon * 1 BME 1 BME 1BME British Water Ski & Wakeboard * British Weightlifting 103,000 British Wrestling * British Wheelchair Basketball Exercise, Movement, Dance Partnership England Athletics 2,293,300 1 BME England Basketball 228,500 2 BME England Golf Partnership 727,400 England Handball Association * 1 BME England Hockey 115,900 England Netball 220,900 England Squash & Racketball 214,300 1 BME 1 BME England and Wales Cricket Board 206,300 1 BME English Lacrosse * English Table Tennis Association 106,300 GB Taekwondo 31,300 Goalball UK * Great Britain Wheelchair Rugby * Lawn Tennis Association Limited 526,700 Pentathlon GB * 1 BME 1 BME Rounders England 78,600 Rugby Football League 63,400 Snowsport England 100,300 The Football Association 2,251,500 1 BME The Royal Yachting Association UK Athletics 2,293,300 1 BME 2 BME Volleyball England 42,900 1 BME TOTAL Appendix 1