Gildas AVOINE Radio Frequency Identification Systems in our Daily Lives p.1

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1 ÉCOLE POLYTECHNIQUE FÉDÉRALE DE LAUSANNE Radio Frequency Identification Systems in our Daily Lives Gildas AVOINE Mobile Information and Communication Systems, Annual Workshop July 6-7, 2004, Zurich, Switzerland Gildas AVOINE Radio Frequency Identification Systems in our Daily Lives p.1

2 Outline RFID Technology Security Issues A Practical Example of Identification Protocol Gildas AVOINE Radio Frequency Identification Systems in our Daily Lives p.2

3 RFID Technology Security Issues A Practical Example of Identification Protocol RFID Technology Gildas AVOINE Radio Frequency Identification Systems in our Daily Lives p.3

4 RFID Systems tag data processing reader tag reader tag Interaction: -1- The reader broadcasts a request in its communication zone. -2- The tags send back their answers. -3- The answers are sent to the data processing subsystem. tag Gildas AVOINE Radio Frequency Identification Systems in our Daily Lives p.4

5 The Explosion of the RFID Technology Is the RFID technology new? Gildas AVOINE Radio Frequency Identification Systems in our Daily Lives p.5

6 The Explosion of the RFID Technology Is the RFID technology new? No! i.e., contactless smartcards were already RFID devices. Gildas AVOINE Radio Frequency Identification Systems in our Daily Lives p.5

7 The Explosion of the RFID Technology Is the RFID technology new? No! i.e., contactless smartcards were already RFID devices. What is new? Gildas AVOINE Radio Frequency Identification Systems in our Daily Lives p.5

8 The Explosion of the RFID Technology Is the RFID technology new? No! i.e., contactless smartcards were already RFID devices. What is new? The Auto-ID center has been created in 1999 at the MIT in order to promote and establish standards on the small and cheap RFID technology. Gildas AVOINE Radio Frequency Identification Systems in our Daily Lives p.5

9 RFID Characteristics Gildas AVOINE Radio Frequency Identification Systems in our Daily Lives p.6

10 RFID Characteristics Very low cost Gildas AVOINE Radio Frequency Identification Systems in our Daily Lives p.6

11 RFID Characteristics Very low cost Small size Gildas AVOINE Radio Frequency Identification Systems in our Daily Lives p.6

12 RFID Characteristics Very low cost Small size (0.4mm Hitachi s 0.4mm -tag 60 microns) Gildas AVOINE Radio Frequency Identification Systems in our Daily Lives p.6

13 RFID Characteristics Very low cost Small size Gildas AVOINE Radio Frequency Identification Systems in our Daily Lives p.6

14 RFID Characteristics Very low cost Small size Storage and computation capabilities are extremely limited Gildas AVOINE Radio Frequency Identification Systems in our Daily Lives p.6

15 RFID Characteristics Very low cost Small size Storage and computation capabilities are extremely limited No processor Memory: A few hundred bits (ROM or EEPROM) Typically between 64 and 128 bits in ROM Gildas AVOINE Radio Frequency Identification Systems in our Daily Lives p.6

16 RFID Characteristics Very low cost Small size Storage and computation capabilities are extremely limited Not tamper-resistant Gildas AVOINE Radio Frequency Identification Systems in our Daily Lives p.6

17 RFID Characteristics Very low cost Small size Storage and computation capabilities are extremely limited Not tamper-resistant No battery Gildas AVOINE Radio Frequency Identification Systems in our Daily Lives p.6

18 RFID Characteristics Very low cost Small size Storage and computation capabilities are extremely limited Not tamper-resistant No battery Energy is brought to the tag by the electric or magnetic field of the reader Gildas AVOINE Radio Frequency Identification Systems in our Daily Lives p.6

19 RFID Characteristics Very low cost Small size Storage and computation capabilities are extremely limited Not tamper-resistant No battery Reader-to-Tag channel: up to 100 meters Gildas AVOINE Radio Frequency Identification Systems in our Daily Lives p.6

20 RFID Characteristics Very low cost Small size Storage and computation capabilities are extremely limited Not tamper-resistant No battery Reader-to-Tag channel: up to 100 meters Tag-to-Reader channel: up to a few meters Gildas AVOINE Radio Frequency Identification Systems in our Daily Lives p.6

21 RFID Characteristics Very low cost Small size Storage and computation capabilities are extremely limited Not tamper-resistant No battery Reader-to-Tag channel: up to 100 meters Tag-to-Reader channel: up to a few meters Channel between readers and tags is not secure Gildas AVOINE Radio Frequency Identification Systems in our Daily Lives p.6

22 RFID Systems vs Bar-Code Systems The goal of the RFID tags is to identify objects in open environments, as done by the bar-codes. They should replace the latter in the near future. RFID tags and bar-codes differ from several points: A tag can be remotely read without optical access to the item holder. Several tags can be read at the same time. While a bar-code represents a lot of items, a RFID tag has its own identifier (therefore an item has a unique identifier). Gildas AVOINE Radio Frequency Identification Systems in our Daily Lives p.7

23 Targeted Applications Speed up the checkouts in the shops Management of stocks and stocktakings Renting (e.g. libraries) Recycling Pets identification Carriage of small amount of data Anti-counterfeiting Sensor networks Gildas AVOINE Radio Frequency Identification Systems in our Daily Lives p.8

24 Every-Day Life Examples Gildas AVOINE Radio Frequency Identification Systems in our Daily Lives p.9

25 Every-Day Life Examples Wal-Mart announced that it wants their suppliers to embed RFID tags in products at the pallet/carton level. Gildas AVOINE Radio Frequency Identification Systems in our Daily Lives p.9

26 Every-Day Life Examples Wal-Mart announced that it wants their suppliers to embed RFID tags in products at the pallet/carton level. Michelin has decided to implant RFID tags inside the rubber sidewall of its tires. These tags aim at pinpointing tires belonging to a defective batch. The ultimate goal is to join some pressure sensors to the tags. Gildas AVOINE Radio Frequency Identification Systems in our Daily Lives p.9

27 Every-Day Life Examples Wal-Mart announced that it wants their suppliers to embed RFID tags in products at the pallet/carton level. Michelin has decided to implant RFID tags inside the rubber sidewall of its tires. These tags aim at pinpointing tires belonging to a defective batch. The ultimate goal is to join some pressure sensors to the tags. Gillette razors are one of the most shoplifted items in the world. Gildas AVOINE Radio Frequency Identification Systems in our Daily Lives p.9

28 Every-Day Life Examples Wal-Mart announced that it wants their suppliers to embed RFID tags in products at the pallet/carton level. Michelin has decided to implant RFID tags inside the rubber sidewall of its tires. These tags aim at pinpointing tires belonging to a defective batch. The ultimate goal is to join some pressure sensors to the tags. Gillette razors are one of the most shoplifted items in the world. Benetton planned to fit clothing with RFID tags, but it gives up this project. Gildas AVOINE Radio Frequency Identification Systems in our Daily Lives p.9

29 RFID Technology Security Issues A Practical Example of Identification Protocol Security Issues Gildas AVOINE Radio Frequency Identification Systems in our Daily Lives p.10

30 Threats Gildas AVOINE Radio Frequency Identification Systems in our Daily Lives p.11

31 Threats Threats on the tag s bearers (privacy) Gildas AVOINE Radio Frequency Identification Systems in our Daily Lives p.11

32 Threats Threats on the tag s bearers (privacy) Threats on the system (denial of service attacks, tag forgery,...) Gildas AVOINE Radio Frequency Identification Systems in our Daily Lives p.11

33 Threats Threats on the tag s bearers (privacy) Threats on the system (denial of service attacks, tag forgery,...) Gildas AVOINE Radio Frequency Identification Systems in our Daily Lives p.11

34 Privacy Privacy Information leakage Traceability Information leakage: The tag gives some information related to the object holder. Traceability: Thanks to the tag s identifier, an adversary is able to track the tag, and therefore its bearer. Gildas AVOINE Radio Frequency Identification Systems in our Daily Lives p.12

35 Information Leakage (Solution) A solution consists in using identifiers chosen randomly: the tag s identifier contains no useful data for an adversary; only the data processing manager can match the identifier with the corresponding item. Gildas AVOINE Radio Frequency Identification Systems in our Daily Lives p.13

36 Information Leakage (Solution) A solution consists in using identifiers chosen randomly: the tag s identifier contains no useful data for an adversary; only the data processing manager can match the identifier with the corresponding item. tag reader tag data processing reader tag tag Gildas AVOINE Radio Frequency Identification Systems in our Daily Lives p.13

37 Information Leakage (Solution) A solution consists in using identifiers chosen randomly: the tag s identifier contains no useful data for an adversary; only the data processing manager can match the identifier with the corresponding item. "Cryptography, theory and practice" tag reader tag data processing "Handbook of cryptography" reader tag "La sécurité biométrique" tag "Les réseaux euclidiens en cryptographie" Gildas AVOINE Radio Frequency Identification Systems in our Daily Lives p.13

38 Information Leakage (Solution) A solution consists in using identifiers chosen randomly: the tag s identifier contains no useful data for an adversary; only the data processing manager can match the identifier with the corresponding item. tag reader tag data processing reader tag tag Gildas AVOINE Radio Frequency Identification Systems in our Daily Lives p.13

39 Information Leakage (Solution) A solution consists in using identifiers chosen randomly: the tag s identifier contains no useful data for an adversary; only the data processing manager can match the identifier with the corresponding item. "Cryptography, theory..." "Handbook of..." "La sécurité..." "Les réseaux..." reader tag tag data processing reader tag tag Gildas AVOINE Radio Frequency Identification Systems in our Daily Lives p.13

40 Traceability (Solutions) Gildas AVOINE Radio Frequency Identification Systems in our Daily Lives p.14

41 Traceability (Solutions) Killing the Tags Gildas AVOINE Radio Frequency Identification Systems in our Daily Lives p.14

42 Traceability (Solutions) Killing the Tags : The tag is deactivated (or physically destroyed) when the customer pays for an item. Efficient and straightforward, but: 1. Suitable for some specific applications only 2. Loss of functionalities (the tag is not usable anymore) 3. Doubt kept in mind (Are tags really invalid?) 4. DoS attacks (the kill key is usually too short) Gildas AVOINE Radio Frequency Identification Systems in our Daily Lives p.14

43 Traceability (Solutions) Killing the Tags Gildas AVOINE Radio Frequency Identification Systems in our Daily Lives p.14

44 Traceability (Solutions) Killing the Tags Interfering the request/answer Gildas AVOINE Radio Frequency Identification Systems in our Daily Lives p.14

45 Traceability (Solutions) Killing the Tags Interfering the request/answer : This can use physical phenomena (e.g. Faraday cage) or electronic devices (e.g. blocker tag), but: 1. Not always possible 2. The tag has to stay in the device electronic field 3. Electronic pollution Gildas AVOINE Radio Frequency Identification Systems in our Daily Lives p.14

46 Traceability (Solutions) Killing the Tags Interfering the request/answer Gildas AVOINE Radio Frequency Identification Systems in our Daily Lives p.14

47 Traceability (Solutions) Killing the Tags Interfering the request/answer Answering to authorized readers Only Gildas AVOINE Radio Frequency Identification Systems in our Daily Lives p.14

48 Traceability (Solutions) Killing the Tags Interfering the request/answer Answering to authorized readers Only protocol exists yet. : No such a (secure) Gildas AVOINE Radio Frequency Identification Systems in our Daily Lives p.14

49 Traceability (Solutions) Killing the Tags Interfering the request/answer Answering to authorized readers Only Gildas AVOINE Radio Frequency Identification Systems in our Daily Lives p.14

50 Traceability (Solutions) Killing the Tags Interfering the request/answer Answering to authorized readers Only Refreshing the tag s identifier Gildas AVOINE Radio Frequency Identification Systems in our Daily Lives p.14

51 Traceability (Solutions) Killing the Tags Interfering the request/answer Answering to authorized readers Only Refreshing the tag s identifier : The tag s identifier is modified each time the tag is queried by a reader. Several schemes exist: Juels/Pappu, Ohkubo/Suzuki/Kinoshita, Henrici/Müller,... Gildas AVOINE Radio Frequency Identification Systems in our Daily Lives p.14

52 Traceability (Solutions) Killing the Tags Interfering the request/answer Answering to authorized readers Only Refreshing the tag s identifier : The tag s identifier is modified each time the tag is queried by a reader. Several schemes exist: Juels/Pappu, Ohkubo/Suzuki/Kinoshita, Henrici/Müller,... Gildas AVOINE Radio Frequency Identification Systems in our Daily Lives p.14

53 RFID Technology Security Issues A Practical Example of Identification Protocol A Practical Example of Identification Protocol Gildas AVOINE Radio Frequency Identification Systems in our Daily Lives p.15

54 Ohkubo, Suzuki, and Kinoshita Initially, the tag has the identity, also known by the database. The tag refreshes itself its current identifier using a hash function. Reader Tag Gildas AVOINE Radio Frequency Identification Systems in our Daily Lives p.16

55 % $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ % $ $ $ $ $ $ & ' Ohkubo, Suzuki, and Kinoshita (Cont.) Receiving, the database has to identify the corresponding tag. For that, it constructs the hash chains from the initial values it stores, until it finds such that. # "! % " ".. & where )( Gildas AVOINE Radio Frequency Identification Systems in our Daily Lives p.17

56 Ohkubo, Suzuki, and Kinoshita (Cont.) This scheme suffers from several drawbacks: Putting a hash function into the tags is not possible yet (but could become possible in the near future) The protocol implies a high complexity on the data processing hand. The singulation protocol is supposed to be atomic. Gildas AVOINE Radio Frequency Identification Systems in our Daily Lives p.18

57 Singulation protocol The singulation protocol is used to identify several tags at the same time in order to avoid collisions. The most used singulation protocol is a tree-walking-based algorithm, but such an algorithm, which is based on the identifier of the tag, needs several requests to identify the tags. Gildas AVOINE Radio Frequency Identification Systems in our Daily Lives p.19

58 Conclusion Gildas AVOINE Radio Frequency Identification Systems in our Daily Lives p.20

59 Work carried out and future work Three existing protocols have been studied until now (Juels/Pappu, Ohkubo/Suzuki/Kinoshita, Henrici/Müller). Each of them suffers from some flows. Developing a theory of the privacy in the RFID model. Generalization to ad hoc networks. Designing an identification protocol preserving the privacy of the tags s bearer. This cannot be done without considering the singulation subproblem. Gildas AVOINE Radio Frequency Identification Systems in our Daily Lives p.21

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