Imperial Breakdown Imperial Breakdown Video Series: Key Topics in U.S. History The Crisis of Imperial Authority

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1 Imperial Breakdown The Crisis of Imperial Authority What new challenges did the British government face in North America after 1763? Republican Ideology and Colonial Protest How did republican ideology inform the colonists view of their relationship to Britain? The Stamp Act and Townshend Duty Act Crises Why did the Stamp Act and Townshend Duty Act spark widespread unrest in the colonies? Imperial Breakdown Domestic Divisions What issues and interests divided the colonists? The Final Imperial Crisis What pushed the colonists from protest to rebellion? Video Series: Key Topics in U.S. History The Burdens of an Empire: The Stamp Act Boston Massacre The Boston Tea Party The Crisis of Imperial Authority Challenges of Control and Finance Native Americans and Frontier Conflict Dealing with the New Territories The Search for Revenue: The Sugar Act Challenges of Control and Finance French and Indian War Led to expanded British Empire New security concerns Financial problems Efforts to deal with these problems led to conflict with colonists 1

2 Efforts to deal with these problems led to conflict with colonists 7 Native Americans and Frontier Conflict South Carolina Settlers pushed into Cherokee lands Cherokee War ( ) Neolin Part of Indian resistance to changing situation Pontiac s War 1766 treaty signed 8 9 Dealing with the New Territories Proclamation of 1763 Reaction to conflicts with Indians Quartering Acts Colonial assemblies to support troops General distrust of standing armies The Search for Revenue: The Sugar Act George Grenville Financial concerns Currency Act Sugar Act Reaction to the Sugar Act Strongest in New England Petitions ignored in London Republican Ideology and Colonial Protest Power versus Liberty The British Constitution Taxation and Sovereignty Power versus Liberty Republicanism 2

3 Republicanism Linked to Country (Real Whig) Ideology Concerned with government power Also feared granting too much liberty Civil liberties The British Constitution British Constitution No written constitution Traditions and institutions Mixed government Monarchy Aristocracy House of Lords Commoners House of Commons Taxation and Sovereignty Taxation equated by many with loss of property rights New taxes raised concerns about representation Sovereignty Colonists attacked government s sovereignty when they attacked the power to tax The Stamp Act and Townshend Duty Act Crises Colonial Assemblies React to the Stamp Tax Colonists Take to the Streets Repeal and the Declaratory Act Townshend s Plan and Renewed Colonial Resistance The Boston Massacre Partial Repeal and Its Consequences Colonial Assemblies React to the Stamp Tax Grenville proposed Stamp Act Internal tax Opposition grew Stamp Act Congress Declaration of Rights and Grievances Growing popular opposition 3

4 Growing popular opposition Colonists Take to the Streets Boston Sons of Liberty Attacks on government officials homes Attacks on stamp distributors Stamp Act Congress Motivated partly by need to control situation British merchants petitioned for repeal of Stamp Act Explore the Imperial Crisis on MyHistoryLab Repeal and the Declaratory Act Stamp Act repealed Allegedly to protect commerce Declaratory Act Statement of Parliamentary sovereignty Revenue Act of 1766 Adjusted taxes on molasses Townshend s Plan and Renewed Colonial Resistance Charles Townshend Determined to suppress colonial resistance Townshend Duty Act of 1767 Liberty riot 1768 Nonimportation movement Successful in reducing imports The Boston Massacre Hostilities grew in Boston Boston Massacre 1770 British soldiers fired on crowd 4

5 1770 British soldiers fired on crowd Five killed Partial Repeal and Its Consequences Townshend duties partially repealed Not considered a great colonial triumph Hostilities continued Committees of correspondence To maintain communications among colonies Domestic Divisions Regulator Movements The Beginnings of Antislavery Regulator Movements Lawlessness in South Carolina Regulators attempted to impose order Regulators then appeared in North Carolina Regulators conflicted with colonial governments Alamance Creek 1771 The Beginnings of Antislavery Slaves used rhetoric of liberty in petitioning for freedom Massachusetts slaves petitioned colony s government Quakers Created antislavery society Abolished slaveholding for members The Final Imperial Crisis The Boston Tea Party The Intolerable Acts The Americans Reaction The First Continental Congress The Continental Association Political Polarization The Boston Tea Party Tea Act of

6 Tea Act of 1773 To save East India Company East India Company monopoly on sales resented Boston Tea Party Destroyed shipment of tea The Intolerable Acts Coercive Acts Expression of Parliament s sovereignty Boston Port Act Quartering Act Massachusetts Government Act Quebec Act Quebec to have no elected assembly These all labeled Intolerable Acts The Americans Reaction Opposition to Quebec Act Fear of Catholic dominance Committees of correspondence Propaganda Massachusetts s provincial congress Suffolk Resolves Preparations for conflict Minutemen The First Continental Congress First Continental Congress October 1774 Twelve colonies represented Approved nonimportation, nonexportation Suffolk Resolves adopted Declaration of Rights and Grievances The Continental Association 6

7 Continental Congress created Continental Association To enforce resolves of the Congress Created parallel radical governments Petition to George III Political Polarization Divisions between colonists grew Whigs Supporters of colonial rights Tories So-called by Whigs Loyalists Conclusion Attempts to tighten control backfired. Period of salutary neglect had created institutions and traditions that could not be easily set aside. Years of often violent political turmoil inspired colonists to think more systematically about their rights than they had ever done before. 7

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