Welcome to the Frog Hospital Urology Department (Excretory System)

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1 Welcome to the Frog Hospital Urology Department (Excretory System) Function of the excretory system The purpose of the excretory system is to remove waste and toxins from the frog s body. All living things carry out complex chemical reactions. As the frog takes in food and water, it will get the nutrients it needs and excrete (get rid of) solid or liquid waste that the body doesn t need. Kidneys: main organ of the system. They remove nitrogen waste from the blood. Basically, they purify the blood of any toxins. Uterers: These are very small yellow tubes that lead and carry liquid waste from kidneys to the bladder. Urinary Bladder: Urine is store here. A signal is sent to the brain when full, letting the frog know when it is time to get rid of the waste. Cloaca: Similar to the human colon, this larger sack at the bottom of the large intestine is a holding area for solid and liquid waste.

2 Gastroenterology (Digestive System) Function of the digestive system The purpose of the digestive system is to make energy available to the frog. All digestion begins at the mouth. Food is inserted, ground up by the teeth and swallowed. The stomach acids then dissolve the food, where it is then sent to the small intestine. The small intestine absorbs all of the nutrients from the food and sends them to different parts of the body. The large intestine removes extra water still left in the waste and prepares a piece of solid waste. Mouth: This is where digestion begins. It contains a tongue and two different sets of teeth for grinding up food. Esophagus: This is a muscular tube that connects the mouth to the stomach Stomach: This is a large J shaped organ in the frog. It contains folds called Rugae. The pyloric sphincter connects the stomach to the small intestine and lets the frog know when it is full. Small Intestine: This is where food absorption occurs. The nutrients in the food are sent throughout the body where they are needed. Large Intestine: Extra water that is still in the waste is absorbed into the body, forming a solid mass of waste, ready to be expelled. Cloaca See the Urology Department Liver: This is the LARGEST organ in the body. It contains enzymes that detoxify the blood, processes fats and stores carbohydrates or starches. Pancreas: Produces digestive enzymes to help break down food in the small intestine where nutrient absorption occurs. Also, it controls insulin and sugar levels. Gall Bladder: This stores bile that is made in the liver. When needed in digestion, the gall bladder releases small amounts of fluid to break down materials. Spleen: acts as blood filter. Holds excess in case of shock. It is a large, tough, red sack near the liver.

3 Cardiology (Heart and Circulatory System) Function of the circulatory system The main organ in this system is the heart. Frogs have a three-chambered heart, as opposed to the twochambered fish heart and four-chambered bird heart. The purpose of this system is to carry nutrients, water and oxygen to the cells through channels of veins and arteries. As blood is pumped through the body, it is giving away components such as its oxygen. However, once blood passes through the lungs and is re-oxygenated, and ready to deliver oxygen and nutrients where it is needed. Arteries take fresh oxygenated blood away from the heart and throughout the body. Veins carry blood back to the heart and lungs for re-oxygenation. Heart: This is the main organ in the circulatory system. It contains three different chambers. 1.) Right auricle this is where blood enters from veins 2.) Left auricle This is where blood that has passed through the lungs enters 3.) Ventricle blood leaves this chamber and is sent throughout the body. Arteries: Carry blood AWAY from the heart Veins: Carry blood TOWARDS the heart. Blood: A fluid in the body that contains nutrients, oxygen, sugars, proteins and even hormones. This fluid is able to pass throughout the body through a series of tubes and supplies nutrients to cells within the body. Lungs: Centrally located on both sides of the heart. They take in oxygen and supply it to the blood.

4 ENT Department (Ear, nose and throat) Function of the ears, nose and mouth system This series of systems performs a number of functions. The tympanic membrane is an external eardrum that the frog uses to hear. It can also pick up vibrations and allows the frog to be more alert and escape from predators. The nares, or nostrils, allow for the frog to breath and smell. The teeth and tongue work together to assist the frog in eating. Eyes: The eyes help the frog see. They are located on the left and right of the head. Tympanic Membrane: Also known as the eardrum. External Nares (nostrils): These are nostrils found on the outside tip of the nose. It allows frogs to smell and breath while keeping just the tip of their nose out of the water. Internal Nares (nostrils): These can be found on the inside of the mouth. They are used for the frog s sense of smell. Their main purpose is to pull in air into the mouth while it is closed and send the oxygen to the lungs. Vomerine teeth: There are two small sharp teeth on the roof of the mouth. They help the frog hold prey in the mouth as it feeds. Maxillary Teeth: They are smaller, sharp, cone-like teeth around the edge of the upper jaw. These function in crewing, grinding and crushing its prey. Eustachian tubes: These tubes can be found in the back of the mouth. They lead up to the middle ear. They help the frog equalize pressure within the ear while swimming.

5 Herpetology Unit (Study of amphibians) Frogs Toads Salamanders Function of the Herpetology Department Herpetology is the study of amphibians, such as frogs, toads and salamanders. It is also the study of reptiles, such as snakes, turtles and lizards. This department studies the basic characteristics and information of the frogs. Information studies Amphibian: this word means to live a double life. They begin their life in water and live part of their life on land. They are able to do this because of a number of things we will discuss. These organisms are ECTOTHERMIC. Ecto-, meaning outer and thermic-, meaning temperature; they are cold-blooded, meaning they take on the temperature of their surroundings. They also have two hind limbs and two fore limbs. The back leg (hind limb) is webbed and has five digits on each. The fore leg (front leg) is not webbed and only contains four digits. They consist of three main organisms: frogs, toads and salamanders. Salamanders are amphibians that keep their tail as an adult. Toads have stubbier bodies, dry skin and usually have bumps all over their bodies. They obtain their oxygen (breath) in a few different ways. While in the tadpole stage, they breathe through small gills. As young adults, they breathe through gills and lungs. Finally, when they fully grown adults, they breathe using developed lungs and take in oxygen through the pores in their skin. They have a larvae stage. Throughout their development, they go through a sophisticated metamorphosis. They begin as eggs, then become tadpoles, then grow into a complex adult frog. They must then return to the water to lay their eggs. Their eggs have a very soft coating and they lay them in the hundreds, if not thousands. This gives the eggs a better chance of survival, because predators love to snack on the eggs.

6 Neonatal and Life Cycles Department Purpose of Reproduction As with any species, the purpose of reproduction is to carry on your species. The frog begins its life as a clump of eggs in the water. When the eggs hatch, it becomes a legless tadpole and breathes using its gills. During the next stage of development, the hind legs begin to appear. After that, the most drastic changes occur. The frog begins leaving the water and walking with hind and fore legs. It develops small lungs, but cannot fully use them to breathe yet. This will happen when it is a full-grown adult. Finally, it becomes an adult frog and will one day return to the water to lay its eggs and start the process over. Testes: This is the male sex organ that produces sperm. The sperm will then fertilize the eggs of the female. Small, oval and yellowish structures above the kidneys. Fat-bodies: These are finger-like projections near the ovaries, testes and kidneys. They store fat, which can later be used as energy. They also help keep the frog warm and enable it to float. Ovaries: This is where the female eggs are formed. They may be large and filled with eggs. These can be hard to see if not eggs are present. Oviducts: These are small tubes that carry the eggs throughout the body.

7 Frog Hospital Student Note Guide Basics of the Frog (Herpetology Department) 1.) What does amphibian mean and why? 2.) What organisms fall under the amphibian class? 3.) They are Ectothermic; what does this mean? 4.) How do they obtain their oxygen? ***At all stages of their lives. 5.) Describe their eggs and where they are laid 6.) What is the largest organ in the frog s body? ***See gastrointestinal department Frog Reproduction (Neonatal Department and Life Cycle Studies) 1.) What five stages does the frog go through from the time the egg is laid until the time it is an adult frog? 2.) What is the purpose of the following reproductive organs in the frog? Testes: Ovaries: Fat Bodies: Oviducts:

8 Frog Digestion (Gastroenterology Department) 1.) What is the purpose of the frog s digestive system? 2.) Where does all digestion begin? 3.) What is the purpose of the following digestive organs in the frog? Mouth: Esophagus: Stomach: Small Intestine: Large Intestine: Cloaca: Liver: Pancreas: Gall Bladder: Spleen: Frog s Excretory System (Urology Department) 1.) What is the purpose of the frog s excretory system? 2.) What is the purpose of the following excretory organs in the frog? Kidneys: Urinary Bladder: Cloaca: Uterers;

9 Heart and Circulator System (Cardiology Department) 1.) What is the purpose of the circulatory system? 2.) What is the main organ of the circulatory system and how many chambers does it have 3.) What is the purpose of the following organs in the Circulatory System? Heart: - Right Auricle: - Left Auricle: - Ventricle: Arteries: Veins: Blood: External Head Features (ENT Ear, Nose and Throat Specialists) 1.) What are the main purposes of these external organs? 2.) What is the purpose of the following external organs? Eyes: Tympanic Membrane: External Nares (nostrils): Internal Nares (nostrils): Vomerine teeth: Maxillary teeth: Eustachian tubes:

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