CS101: Introduction to Computing

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1 Lecture 7: What is a Computer? Device that accepts input, process, and stores data, and gives output Understanding Computer Hardware Device that can execute specific set of instructions in a well-defined manner Understanding Personal Computer Personal Computer Hardware A Personal Computer (PC) consists of hardware or machinery containing Central Processing (CPU) and other attached device The hardware understanding of PC s is to know about its electronics and mechanical devices Types of Personal Computers Types of Personal Computers Laptop, Desktop Computer, Large Tower Computer Today market is dominated by IBM and IBM PC Clones Acer, Compaq, Dell, Gateway, Packard Bell, Toshiba, Sony, and Hewlett-Packard etc. Also known as Wintel Machines Wintel = Windows + Intel The Macintosh Personal Computers are manufactured by Apple Clones of Apple Machines manufactured by PowerComputing, UMAX, Digital DayStar, and Motorola are commonly known as Macs Vary in size, power, complexity, and number of components but all contain one or more input devices, a central processing unit, and one or more output devices Syed Raza Shahid 1

2 Sizes Term Abbreviations Value Example A bit b 1 or 0 8 bits character A Byte kilobyte B K, KB 8 bits 1024 Bytes 1 byte character A 48K file megabyte gigabyte M, MB G, GB = Bytes = Bytes 16 MB of RAM A 2.2 GB hard drive The Motherboard PCB (Printed Circuit Board) made of Fiberglass sheet with electrical pathways, called traces, etched into it Buses System Clock Microprocessor Read-Only (ROM) Random Access (RAM) Battery Power Supply Ports Expansion Slots The BUS A bus is an electrical pathway along which signals travel inside a computer Data Bus: connects the microprocessor to the various devices attached with the computer Address Bus: connects the microprocessor to the two kinds of internal memory in a computer ROM and RAM 32-bit address buses can address, can address 4 gigabytes or 4 billion bytes of RAM memory Integer Floating Point Cache Processor Address Bus Control RAM/ROM Keyboard Mouse CD Printer Data Bus Monitor HD Syed Raza Shahid 2

3 The Microprocessor Also known as Central Processing (CPU) The Microprocessor contains Control : directing the traffic of instructions on the computer s electrical highways or buses Arithmetic Logic : carries out arithmetic and logical operations Read Only (ROM) ROM is the permanent or nonvolatile memory of the computer ROM is hard wired into a chip on the motherboard ROM stores the Basic Input/Output System (BIOS) that controls the start-up, or boot, process and communication with components like keyboards and disk drives Random Access (RAM) RAM is the temporary or volatile memory of the computer RAM stores data and program while the computer is running The size of RAM limits how large application that can be run on a personal computer For windows XP operating system, 256 MB or higher size of the RAM is recommended Storage Devices Cache This memory is a holding area in which the data and instructions most recently called from the RAM by the processor are temporarily stores Personal computers have cache memory chips hardwired onto the mother board Virtual Computer treats part of a hard drive as an additional RAM Magnetic Storage Device Floppy disks, fixed hard drives, removable hard disks and tape Optical Storage Devices Operated by lasers CD-ROM s, CD-RW disks, DVD-ROMs Syed Raza Shahid 3

4 Input Devices Mouse Keyboard Joystick Trackball Light pen Camera Microphone Output Devices Printer laser, inkjet, dotmatrix Speakers Monitor Cathode ray tube (CRT), Liquid Crystal Displays (LCD), projector Performance of your Computer Depends on a lot of factors Processor design Clock Speed Size of Cache memory Bus Width Math-Coprocessor Graphics processor, Video Processor, Audio Processor RAM Size Reading David Shepherd (2002) Chapter 3: Understanding Computer Hardware Figure Acknowledgement How Computers Work 6th Ed by Ron White (Illustrated by Timothy Edward Downs) Que Corp 2002 Syed Raza Shahid 4

5 Grade Distribution Quizzes 10% Lab 15% Assignments 15% Mid Term 25% Final Examination 35% Syed Raza Shahid 5

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