Tutorial No. 1 - Solution (Introduction to Computers & Programming)

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Tutorial No. 1 - Solution (Introduction to Computers & Programming)"

Transcription

1 Tutorial No. 1 - Solution (Introduction to Computers & Programming) Computer Programming and Utilization ( ) 1. Draw a block diagram of computer architecture. 2. List various components of a computer system and briefly explain functions of each. [Note: Also draw the above diagram in this question when asked in the exam] The various components of a computer system are as follows: 1. Input Unit:- The process of sending the data and Instructions for the processing through some suitable devices such as Keyboard, Mouse etc. is called Input. The devices translate the data from human understandable form into electronic impulses which are understood by the computer. Some of the input devices of a computer system are as follows: i) Keyboard ii) Mouse iii) Joy Stick iv) Track Ball v) Light Pen vi) Scanner vii) Mic or Microphone

2 2. Central Processing Unit (CPU):- Computer Programming and Utilization ( ) Once the data accepted is fed in to Central Processing Unit before the output is generated, data has to be processed, which is done by CPU. This unit of the computer is the brain of computer system, which does all the processing, calculations, problem solving and controls all other functions of all other elements of the computer. The CPU consists of the following two distinct units: i) Control Unit (CU): This unit coordinates all the activities of each and every element of computer. It decodes the instructions given by various users and it sends commands and signals that determine the sequence of various instructions. Though this unit does not process data but it acts as the central system for data manipulation, as it controls the flow of data to and from the main storage. ii) Arithmetic and Logic Units (ALU): This unit performs arithmetic operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. It also does Logical Operations such as comparison of numbers etc. Thus this unit helps by processing data and taking logical decisions. 3. Output Unit:- The process of extracting the data from CPU through some suitable devices is called Output. An output device is any electronic or electromechanical equipment connected to a computer and used to transfer data out of the computer in the form of text, images, sounds, or other media. Some of the output devices of a computer system are as follows: i) Video Screen (CRT Monitor, LCD Screen, LED Screen) ii) Printer (Dot Matrix, Ink Jet, Laser Printer) iii) Speaker iv) Headphone v) Projector 4. Storage Unit/ Memory Unit :- Mainly Computer has following two types of memory: i) Main or Primary Memory: Primary storage, also known as main storage or memory, is the main area in a computer in which data is stored for quick access by the computer's processor. It is the only memory directly accessible to the CPU. The CPU continuously reads instructions stored there and executes them as required. Size of main memory is small. Its cost is high. Example RAM and ROM. ii) Secondary Memory: Secondary storage (also known as external memory or auxiliary storage), differs from primary storage in that it is not directly accessible by the CPU. The computer usually uses its input/output channels to access secondary storage and transfers the desired data using intermediate area in primary storage. Secondary storage does not lose the data when the device is powered down it is non-volatile. Speed of this memory is slow. But we can use a vast amount of secondary memory to story long size data. Cost of Secondary memory is low. Example - HDD (Hard disk Drive), FDD (Floppy Disk Drive), Pen drive and Memory Cards etc.

3 3. What is an operating system? An operating system (OS) is a collection of softwares that manages computer hardware resources and provides common services for computer programs. The operating system is an essential component of the system software in a computer system. The purpose of an operating system is to organize and control hardware and software so that the device it lives in behaves in a flexible and predictable way. Operating System is considered the backbone of a computer, managing both software and hardware resources. Operating systems are responsible for everything from the control and allocation of memory to recognizing input from external devices and transmitting output to computer displays. They also manage files on computer hard drives and control peripherals, like printers and scanners. Functions of an Operating System: i. Booting the computer ii. Performs basic computer tasks eg. Managing the various peripheral devices eg. mouse, keyboard iii. Provides a user interface, e.g. command line, graphical user interface (GUI) iv. Handles system resources such as computer's memory and sharing of the central processing unit (CPU) time by various applications or peripheral devices v. Provides file management which refers to the way that the operating system manipulates, stores, retrieves and saves data. 4. What is programming language? What is the need of a programming language? A programming language is a computer language, programmers use to develop applications, scripts, or other set of instructions for a computer to execute. Programming language is an artificial language used to write instructions that can be translated into machine language and then executed by a computer. Need of a Programming Language: A computer is a dumb device which cannot make any decision i.e. it can neither think nor make any decisions on its own. Therefore, it needs a program to tell it what to do. And as we know everything is dependent on computers these days. Even the Operating Systems that we are using now a days like XP, Vista or Windows 7, they all are made with the help of programming languages. Also all the different software and applications that we use on a computer are made with the help of a programming language. Thus programming languages are of great need in today s world for consistent and proper development. 5. Explain different types of programming languages with their advantages and disadvantages. There are mainly following three types of programming languages: 1) Machine Language/ Low Level Language It is the lowest and most elementary level of Programming language and was the first type of programming language to be developed. Machine Language is basically the only language which computer can understand. In fact, a manufacturer designs a computer to obey just one Language, its machine code, which is represented inside the computer by a string of binary digits (bits) 0 and 1. The symbol 0 stands for the absence of Electric pulse and 1 for the presence of an electric pulse. Since a computer is capable of recognizing electric signals, therefore, it understand machine Language. Advantages of Machine Language i) It makes fast and efficient use of the computer. ii) It requires no translator to translate the code i.e. directly understood by the computer

4 Disadvantages of Machine Language: i) All operation codes have to be remembered ii) All memory addresses have to be remembered. iii) It is hard to find errors in a program written in the machine language iv) These languages are machine dependent i.e. a particular Machine language can be used on only one type of computer 2) Assembly Language It was developed to overcome some of the many inconveniences of machine language. This is another low level but a very important language in which operation codes and operands are given in the form of alphanumeric symbols instead of 0 s and 1 s. These alphanumeric symbols are known as mnemonic codes and can have maximum up to 5 letter combination e.g. ADD for addition, SUB for subtraction, START, LABEL etc. Because of this feature it is also known as Symbolic Programming Language. This language is also very difficult and needs a lot of practice to master it. Advantages of Assembly Language i) It is easier to understand and use as compared to machine language. ii) It is easy to locate and correct errors. iii) It is modified easily Disadvantages of Assembly Language i) Like machine language it is also machine dependent. ii) Since it is machine dependent therefore programmer should have the knowledge of the hardware also. 3) High Level language High level computer languages give formats close to English language and the purpose of developing high level languages is to enable people to write programs easily and in their own native language environment (English). High-level languages are basically symbolic languages that use English words and/or mathematical symbols rather than mnemonic codes. Each instruction in the high level language is translated into many machine language with the help of various translators like compiler and interpreter. Advantages of High Level Language i) User-friendly ii) Similar to English with vocabulary of words and symbols therefore it is easier to learn. iii) They require less time to write. iv) They are easier to maintain. v) Problem oriented rather than 'machine' based. vi) Program written in a high-level language can be translated into many machine language and therefore can run on any computer for which there exists an appropriate translator. vii) It is independent of the machine on which it is used i.e. Programs developed in high level language can be run on any Computer

5 Disadvantages of High Level Language i) A high-level language has to be translated into the machine language by a translator and thus a price in computer time is paid. ii) The object code generated by a translator might be inefficient compared to an equivalent assembly language program 6. Explain what you mean by hardware and software. Software is a general term used to describe a collection of computer programs, procedures, and documentation that perform some task on a computer system. Practical computer systems divide software systems into three major classes: system software, programming software, and application software, although the distinction is arbitrary and often blurred. Software is an ordered sequence of instructions for changing the state of the computer hardware in a particular sequence. It is usually written in high-level programming languages that are easier and more efficient for humans to use (closer to natural language) than machine language. High-level languages are compiled or interpreted into machine language object code. Software may also be written in an assembly language, essentially, a mnemonic representation of a machine language using a natural language alphabet. Example Microsoft Office, Video Players, Browsers and Games etc. Hardware is best described as a device that is physically connected to the computer or something that can be physically touched. A CD-ROM, monitor, printer, and video card are all examples of computer hardware. Without any hardware your computer would not exist and software would have nothing to run on. It is the physical part of a computer, including the digital circuitry, as distinguished from the computer software that executes within the hardware. 7. What are the different types of software? There are basically following three types of software: 1) System Software System software is computer software designed to operate the computer hardware, to provide basic functionality, and to provide a platform for running application software. Example - device drivers, operating systems, servers, utilities, and window systems etc. 2) Programming Software Programming software include tools in the form of programs or applications that software developers use to create, debug, maintain, or otherwise support other programs and applications. The term usually refers to relatively simple programs that can be combined together to accomplish a task. Programming tools are intended to assist a programmer in writing computer programs, and they may be combined in an integrated development environment (IDE) to more easily manage all of these functions. Example - compilers, debuggers, interpreters, linkers, Java development tools, Microsoft development tools, web designing tools and text editors etc.

6 3) Application Software Applications software (also known as 'apps') are designed to allow the user of the system complete a specific task or set of tasks. They are usually the reason one buys the computer system in the first place and aren't concerned with the management or maintenance of the system itself. Example - web browsers, office software, games and so on. 8. Differentiate between compiler and interpreter. Sr. No. Compiler Interpreter 1. Compiler takes entire program as input Interpreter takes single instruction as input Compiler translates entire program in one turn and then executes it Compiler generates error report after the translation of entire page or program Interpreter reads one instruction, translate it and execute it and then read another statement Interpreter will stop the translation as soon as it gets the first error 4. Can run the program independently Always the program runs under the control of interpreter 5. Intermediate object code is generated No intermediate object code is generated 6. Memory requirement is more (since object code is generated) Memory requirement is less 7. Run-time memory requirement is less Run-time memory requirement is more 8. Spends a lot of time analysing and processing the program Relatively less time is spent analysing and processing the program 9. Program execution is fast Program execution is relatively slow 10. Example: C, C++, COBOL Example: BASIC, LISP

7 9. Give comparison of Flowcharts and Algorithms. Sr. No. Algorithm Flow Chart 1. An algorithm is a step by step solution of any problem Flow chart is a graphical/ pictorial representation of an algorithm 2. Various steps are used to write an algorithm Various symbols are used to draw the flowchart It is easier to depict any complex problem in terms of steps While making an algorithm a programmer must pay attention to the logic of solution to the problem No automated tools are required to maintain the algorithms It is quite difficult to depict complex problem using a flow chart While making flow chart, a programmer need not pay attention to the logic of the program. Without an automated tool, it is time consuming to maintain flowcharts Example: Algorithm Step 1: Start Step 2 Input a,b Step 3 Compute c=a+b Step 4 Print c Step 5 Stop Flow Chart Start Input a,b c a + b Print c Stop

8 10. Explain various symbols used in flowcharts. Symbol Name Description Start/ Stop (Oval) Computation/ Process (rectangle) Data I/ O (Parallelogram) This shows the start and stop points in a process. When used as a Start symbol, it depict a trigger action that sets the process flow into motion. Show a Process or action step. This is the most common symbol in flowcharts The Data flowchart shape indicates inputs to and outputs from a process. Decision (Diamond) Indicates a question or branch in the process flow. Typically, a Decision flowchart shape is used when there are 2 options (Yes/No.) Flow Line (Arrow) Connector (Circle) Flow line connectors show the direction that the process flows. In flowcharts, this symbol is typically small and is used as a Connector to show a jump from one point in the process flow to another. Connectors are usually labelled with capital letters (A, B, AA) to show matching jump points. 11. Write an algorithm to find maximum of three numbers and also draw a flowchart of it. Step 1: Start Step 2: Input a, b and c Step 3: If a>b and a>c then Step 4: print a is maximum Step 5: else if b>a and b>c then Step 6: print b is maximum Step 7: else print c is maximum Step 8: Stop

9 Start Input a,b,c If a>b and a>c No If b>a and b>c No Yes Yes Print a is max Print b is max Print c is max Stop 12. Write an algorithm and draw flowchart to add first 20 odd numbers. Step 1: Start Step 2: Initialize i 1, sum 0 Step 3: Repeat 4-6 until i<=40 Step 4: If i%2!= 0 then, Step 5: sum sum + i Step 6: i i+1 Step 7: print sum Step 8: Stop OR Step 1: Start Step 2: Initialize i 1, sum 0 Step 3: Repeat 4-5 until i<=40 Step 4: sum sum + i Step 5: i i+2 Step 6: print sum Step 7: Stop

10 Start Start Initialize i 1, sum 0 Initialize i 1, sum 0 No If i<=40 No If i<=40 Yes Yes If i%2!=0 OR sum sum+i i i+2 Yes sum sum+i i i+1 Print sum Print sum Stop Stop

1 PERSONAL COMPUTERS

1 PERSONAL COMPUTERS PERSONAL COMPUTERS 1 2 Personal computer a desktop computer a laptop a tablet PC or a handheld PC Software applications for personal computers include word processing spreadsheets databases web browsers

More information

Basics of Computer 1.1 INTRODUCTION 1.2 OBJECTIVES

Basics of Computer 1.1 INTRODUCTION 1.2 OBJECTIVES Basics of Computer :: 1 1 Basics of Computer 1.1 INTRODUCTION In this lesson we present an overview of the basic design of a computer system: how the different parts of a computer system are organized

More information

3 SOFTWARE AND PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES

3 SOFTWARE AND PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES 3 SOFTWARE AND PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES 3.1 INTRODUCTION In the previous lesson we discussed about the different parts and configurations of computer. It has been mentioned that programs or instructions have

More information

Software. Managing Software Assets. Major types of software BIOS

Software. Managing Software Assets. Major types of software BIOS Software Managing Software Assets A software program is a series of statements or instructions to the computer. The process of writing or coding programs is termed programming; and the individuals who

More information

MICROPROCESSOR AND MICROCOMPUTER BASICS

MICROPROCESSOR AND MICROCOMPUTER BASICS Introduction MICROPROCESSOR AND MICROCOMPUTER BASICS At present there are many types and sizes of computers available. These computers are designed and constructed based on digital and Integrated Circuit

More information

Topics. Introduction. Java History CS 146. Introduction to Programming and Algorithms Module 1. Module Objectives

Topics. Introduction. Java History CS 146. Introduction to Programming and Algorithms Module 1. Module Objectives Introduction to Programming and Algorithms Module 1 CS 146 Sam Houston State University Dr. Tim McGuire Module Objectives To understand: the necessity of programming, differences between hardware and software,

More information

Outline. hardware components programming environments. installing Python executing Python code. decimal and binary notations running Sage

Outline. hardware components programming environments. installing Python executing Python code. decimal and binary notations running Sage Outline 1 Computer Architecture hardware components programming environments 2 Getting Started with Python installing Python executing Python code 3 Number Systems decimal and binary notations running

More information

Management Challenge. Managing Hardware Assets. Central Processing Unit. What is a Computer System?

Management Challenge. Managing Hardware Assets. Central Processing Unit. What is a Computer System? Management Challenge Managing Hardware Assets What computer processing and storage capability does our organization need to handle its information and business transactions? What arrangement of computers

More information

CS 3530 Operating Systems. L02 OS Intro Part 1 Dr. Ken Hoganson

CS 3530 Operating Systems. L02 OS Intro Part 1 Dr. Ken Hoganson CS 3530 Operating Systems L02 OS Intro Part 1 Dr. Ken Hoganson Chapter 1 Basic Concepts of Operating Systems Computer Systems A computer system consists of two basic types of components: Hardware components,

More information

CS 16: Assembly Language Programming for the IBM PC and Compatibles

CS 16: Assembly Language Programming for the IBM PC and Compatibles CS 16: Assembly Language Programming for the IBM PC and Compatibles First, a little about you Your name Have you ever worked with/used/played with assembly language? If so, talk about it Why are you taking

More information

PROG0101 Fundamentals of Programming PROG0101 FUNDAMENTALS OF PROGRAMMING. Chapter 3 Algorithms

PROG0101 Fundamentals of Programming PROG0101 FUNDAMENTALS OF PROGRAMMING. Chapter 3 Algorithms PROG0101 FUNDAMENTALS OF PROGRAMMING Chapter 3 1 Introduction to A sequence of instructions. A procedure or formula for solving a problem. It was created mathematician, Mohammed ibn-musa al-khwarizmi.

More information

Machine Architecture and Number Systems. Major Computer Components. Schematic Diagram of a Computer. The CPU. The Bus. Main Memory.

Machine Architecture and Number Systems. Major Computer Components. Schematic Diagram of a Computer. The CPU. The Bus. Main Memory. 1 Topics Machine Architecture and Number Systems Major Computer Components Bits, Bytes, and Words The Decimal Number System The Binary Number System Converting from Decimal to Binary Major Computer Components

More information

Computer Organization

Computer Organization Basics Machine, software, and program design JPC and JWD 2002 McGraw-Hill, Inc. Computer Organization CPU - central processing unit Where decisions are made, computations are performed, and input/output

More information

Instructor Özgür ZEYDAN BEU Dept. of Enve. Eng. http://cevre.beun.edu.tr/zeydan/ CIV 112 Computer Programming Lecture Notes (1)

Instructor Özgür ZEYDAN BEU Dept. of Enve. Eng. http://cevre.beun.edu.tr/zeydan/ CIV 112 Computer Programming Lecture Notes (1) Instructor Özgür ZEYDAN BEU Dept. of Enve. Eng. http://cevre.beun.edu.tr/zeydan/ CIV 112 Computer Programming Lecture Notes (1) Computer Programming A computer is a programmable machine. This means it

More information

2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION TECHNIQUES

2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION TECHNIQUES 2 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION TECHNIQUES 2.1 INTRODUCTION Graphical representation of any process is always better and more meaningful than its representation in words. Moreover, it is very difficult to arrange

More information

KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA COMPUTER PARTS & COMPONENTS INPUT DEVICES OUTPUT DEVICES STORAGE DEVICES PUSAT PERKEMBANGAN KURIKULUM

KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA COMPUTER PARTS & COMPONENTS INPUT DEVICES OUTPUT DEVICES STORAGE DEVICES PUSAT PERKEMBANGAN KURIKULUM KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA Self Access Learning Module ICT Literacy for Secondary School Programme Computer Hardware COMPUTER PARTS & COMPONENTS INPUT DEVICES OUTPUT DEVICES STORAGE DEVICES PUSAT PERKEMBANGAN

More information

Chapter 1. The largest computers, used mainly for research, are called a. microcomputers. b. maxicomputers. c. supercomputers. d. mainframe computers.

Chapter 1. The largest computers, used mainly for research, are called a. microcomputers. b. maxicomputers. c. supercomputers. d. mainframe computers. Chapter 1 CD-ROM stands for: a. Compact Disk Random Only Memory b. Compact Disk Read Only Memory c. Computer Device Read Only Memory d. Computer Disk Random Online Memory Control Unit (CU) is the a. Main

More information

INTRODUCTION TO INFORMATION SYSTEMS

INTRODUCTION TO INFORMATION SYSTEMS INTRODUCTION TO INFORMATION SYSTEMS CHAPTER.3 COMPUTER SOFTWARE PART2 System software Software that manages and supports a computer system. It can be divided into the following categories. System management

More information

Introduction to Computers, Anatomy of Computers, Input and Output Devices

Introduction to Computers, Anatomy of Computers, Input and Output Devices LECTURE SCHEDULE 1 Introduction to Computers, Anatomy of Computers, Input and Output Devices In human affairs we have reached a point where the problems that we must solve are no longer solvable without

More information

CHAPTER 1 ENGINEERING PROBLEM SOLVING. Copyright 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

CHAPTER 1 ENGINEERING PROBLEM SOLVING. Copyright 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. CHAPTER 1 ENGINEERING PROBLEM SOLVING Computing Systems: Hardware and Software The processor : controls all the parts such as memory devices and inputs/outputs. The Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) : performs

More information

1.1 Electronic Computers Then and Now

1.1 Electronic Computers Then and Now 1.1 Electronic Computers Then and Now The first electronic computer was built in the late 1930s by Dr.John Atanasoff and Clifford Berry at Iowa State University in USA. They designed their computer to

More information

Obj: Sec 1.0, to describe the relationship between hardware and software HW: Read p.2 9. Do Now: Name 3 parts of the computer.

Obj: Sec 1.0, to describe the relationship between hardware and software HW: Read p.2 9. Do Now: Name 3 parts of the computer. C1 D1 Obj: Sec 1.0, to describe the relationship between hardware and software HW: Read p.2 9 Do Now: Name 3 parts of the computer. 1 Hardware and Software Hardware the physical, tangible parts of a computer

More information

AQA GCSE in Computer Science Computer Science Microsoft IT Academy Mapping

AQA GCSE in Computer Science Computer Science Microsoft IT Academy Mapping AQA GCSE in Computer Science Computer Science Microsoft IT Academy Mapping 3.1.1 Constants, variables and data types Understand what is mean by terms data and information Be able to describe the difference

More information

EKT150 Introduction to Computer Programming. Wk1-Introduction to Computer and Computer Program

EKT150 Introduction to Computer Programming. Wk1-Introduction to Computer and Computer Program EKT150 Introduction to Computer Programming Wk1-Introduction to Computer and Computer Program A Brief Look At Computer Computer is a device that receives input, stores and processes data, and provides

More information

ALGORITHM AND FLOW CHART

ALGORITHM AND FLOW CHART ALGORITHM AND FLOW CHART 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Problem Solving 1.3 Algorithm 1.3.1 Examples of Algorithm 1.3.2 Properties of an Algorithm 1.4 Flow Chart 1.4.1 Flow Chart Symbols 1.4.2 Some Flowchart Examples

More information

Algorithms, Flowcharts & Program Design. ComPro

Algorithms, Flowcharts & Program Design. ComPro Algorithms, Flowcharts & Program Design ComPro Definition Algorithm: o sequence of steps to be performed in order to solve a problem by the computer. Flowchart: o graphical or symbolic representation of

More information

Lesson 06: Basics of Software Development (W02D2

Lesson 06: Basics of Software Development (W02D2 Lesson 06: Basics of Software Development (W02D2) Balboa High School Michael Ferraro Lesson 06: Basics of Software Development (W02D2 Do Now 1. What is the main reason why flash

More information

Chapter 2 Basic Structure of Computers. Jin-Fu Li Department of Electrical Engineering National Central University Jungli, Taiwan

Chapter 2 Basic Structure of Computers. Jin-Fu Li Department of Electrical Engineering National Central University Jungli, Taiwan Chapter 2 Basic Structure of Computers Jin-Fu Li Department of Electrical Engineering National Central University Jungli, Taiwan Outline Functional Units Basic Operational Concepts Bus Structures Software

More information

Chapter 1 An Introduction to Computers and Problem Solving

Chapter 1 An Introduction to Computers and Problem Solving hapter 1 n Introduction to omputers and Problem Solving Section 1.1 n Introduction to omputers 1. Visual Basic is considered to be a () first-generation language. (B) package. () higher-level language.

More information

An Introduction to Computer Science and Computer Organization Comp 150 Fall 2008

An Introduction to Computer Science and Computer Organization Comp 150 Fall 2008 An Introduction to Computer Science and Computer Organization Comp 150 Fall 2008 Computer Science the study of algorithms, including Their formal and mathematical properties Their hardware realizations

More information

Parts of a Computer. Preparation. Objectives. Standards. Materials. 1 1999 Micron Technology Foundation, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Parts of a Computer. Preparation. Objectives. Standards. Materials. 1 1999 Micron Technology Foundation, Inc. All Rights Reserved Parts of a Computer Preparation Grade Level: 4-9 Group Size: 20-30 Time: 75-90 Minutes Presenters: 1-3 Objectives This lesson will enable students to: Identify parts of a computer Categorize parts of a

More information

Chapter 6. Inside the System Unit. What You Will Learn... Computers Are Your Future. What You Will Learn... Describing Hardware Performance

Chapter 6. Inside the System Unit. What You Will Learn... Computers Are Your Future. What You Will Learn... Describing Hardware Performance What You Will Learn... Computers Are Your Future Chapter 6 Understand how computers represent data Understand the measurements used to describe data transfer rates and data storage capacity List the components

More information

Objectives. Chapter 2: Operating-System Structures. Operating System Services (Cont.) Operating System Services. Operating System Services (Cont.

Objectives. Chapter 2: Operating-System Structures. Operating System Services (Cont.) Operating System Services. Operating System Services (Cont. Objectives To describe the services an operating system provides to users, processes, and other systems To discuss the various ways of structuring an operating system Chapter 2: Operating-System Structures

More information

Overview of MIS Professor Merrill Warkentin

Overview of MIS Professor Merrill Warkentin Management Systems (MIS) Mississippi State University Data raw numbers - not processed facts, lists, numbers, tables of value to an organization 1 2 Data Processing (DP) the restructuring of data to improve

More information

Example of Standard API

Example of Standard API 16 Example of Standard API System Call Implementation Typically, a number associated with each system call System call interface maintains a table indexed according to these numbers The system call interface

More information

Chapter 3: Computer Hardware Components: CPU, Memory, and I/O

Chapter 3: Computer Hardware Components: CPU, Memory, and I/O Chapter 3: Computer Hardware Components: CPU, Memory, and I/O What is the typical configuration of a computer sold today? The Computer Continuum 1-1 Computer Hardware Components In this chapter: How did

More information

Fundamentals of Programming and Software Development Lesson Objectives

Fundamentals of Programming and Software Development Lesson Objectives Lesson Unit 1: INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS Computer History Create a timeline illustrating the most significant contributions to computing technology Describe the history and evolution of the computer Identify

More information

Chapter 3: Operating-System Structures. System Components Operating System Services System Calls System Programs System Structure Virtual Machines

Chapter 3: Operating-System Structures. System Components Operating System Services System Calls System Programs System Structure Virtual Machines Chapter 3: Operating-System Structures System Components Operating System Services System Calls System Programs System Structure Virtual Machines Operating System Concepts 3.1 Common System Components

More information

Computers. Hardware. The Central Processing Unit (CPU) CMPT 125: Lecture 1: Understanding the Computer

Computers. Hardware. The Central Processing Unit (CPU) CMPT 125: Lecture 1: Understanding the Computer Computers CMPT 125: Lecture 1: Understanding the Computer Tamara Smyth, tamaras@cs.sfu.ca School of Computing Science, Simon Fraser University January 3, 2009 A computer performs 2 basic functions: 1.

More information

Module 1 Introduction to Information and Communication Technologies

Module 1 Introduction to Information and Communication Technologies Module 1 Introduction to Information and Communication Technologies Lesson 3 What are the Hardware Components of a Computer? UNESCO EIPICT Module 1. Lesson 3 1 Rationale The hardware components are the

More information

Fall 2009. Lecture 1. Operating Systems: Configuration & Use CIS345. Introduction to Operating Systems. Mostafa Z. Ali. mzali@just.edu.

Fall 2009. Lecture 1. Operating Systems: Configuration & Use CIS345. Introduction to Operating Systems. Mostafa Z. Ali. mzali@just.edu. Fall 2009 Lecture 1 Operating Systems: Configuration & Use CIS345 Introduction to Operating Systems Mostafa Z. Ali mzali@just.edu.jo 1-1 Chapter 1 Introduction to Operating Systems An Overview of Microcomputers

More information

TEST CHAPTERS 1 & 2 OPERATING SYSTEMS

TEST CHAPTERS 1 & 2 OPERATING SYSTEMS TEST CHAPTERS 1 & 2 OPERATING SYSTEMS True/False Indicate whether the statement is true or false. 1. Changes that you make in virtual machines do not affect your physical computer. 2. The size of a bus

More information

Chapter 9 Input/Output Devices

Chapter 9 Input/Output Devices Chapter 9 Input/Output Devices Contents: I. Introduction II. Input Devices a. Keyboard,mouse,joystick,scanners,digital camera, bar code reader, touch Sreeen,Speech input device (microphone) III. Output

More information

Operating Systems. John SUM Institute of Technology Management National Chung Hsing University Taichung, ROC. December 6, 2012

Operating Systems. John SUM Institute of Technology Management National Chung Hsing University Taichung, ROC. December 6, 2012 Operating Systems John SUM Institute of Technology Management National Chung Hsing University Taichung, ROC December 6, 2012 Contents 1 Introduction 2 2 System Initialization 2 2.1 Instructions from BIOS......................

More information

Introduction to Programming

Introduction to Programming Introduction to Programming If you re new to programming, you might be intimidated by code and flowcharts. You might even wonder how you ll ever understand them. This lesson offers some basic ideas and

More information

Chapter 3. Operating Systems

Chapter 3. Operating Systems Christian Jacob Chapter 3 Operating Systems 3.1 Evolution of Operating Systems 3.2 Booting an Operating System 3.3 Operating System Architecture 3.4 References Chapter Overview Page 2 Chapter 3: Operating

More information

Chapter 2: Operating-System Structures

Chapter 2: Operating-System Structures Chapter 2: Operating-System Structures Chapter 2: Operating-System Structures Operating System Services User Operating System Interface System Calls Types of System Calls System Programs Operating System

More information

Hardware: Input, Processing, and Output Devices

Hardware: Input, Processing, and Output Devices Hardware: Input, Processing, and Output Devices Computer Systems Hardware Components Execution of an Instruction Processing Characteristics and Functions Physical Characteristics of CPU Memory Characteristics

More information

Computer Systems. Computer Systems COMP1208. Objectives of the Module. Course Assessment. Reading List. What will you need

Computer Systems. Computer Systems COMP1208. Objectives of the Module. Course Assessment. Reading List. What will you need Computer Systems Computer Systems Lecturer: Ruth Coffey Room KE-4-027, email: ruth.coffey@dit.ie Today s Lecture >> Module Overview Objectives of Module Course Assessment Reading List Introduction to Computer

More information

ICT THEORY 4 MAIN AREAS

ICT THEORY 4 MAIN AREAS ICT THEORY RE- CAP & REVISION (SUMMARY OF THE THEORY HANDOUT) 4 MAIN AREAS 1. HARDWARE 2. SOFTWARE 3. NETWORKS, CONNECTIVITY, COMMUNICATION & THE INTERNET. 4. USE/MISUSE AND CARE OF COMPUTERS 1 Hardware

More information

THREE YEAR DEGREE (HONS.) COURSE BACHELOR OF COMPUTER APPLICATION (BCA) First Year Paper I Computer Fundamentals

THREE YEAR DEGREE (HONS.) COURSE BACHELOR OF COMPUTER APPLICATION (BCA) First Year Paper I Computer Fundamentals THREE YEAR DEGREE (HONS.) COURSE BACHELOR OF COMPUTER APPLICATION (BCA) First Year Paper I Computer Fundamentals Full Marks 100 (Theory 75, Practical 25) Introduction to Computers :- What is Computer?

More information

Chap-02, Hardware and Software. Hardware Model

Chap-02, Hardware and Software. Hardware Model Philadelphia University School of Business Administration INFO-101 Information Systems Prof London Chap-02, Hardware and Software Hardware Components Central processing unit (CPU) Arithmetic/logic unit

More information

MULTIPLE CHOICE FREE RESPONSE QUESTIONS

MULTIPLE CHOICE FREE RESPONSE QUESTIONS MULTIPLE CHOICE FREE RESPONSE QUESTIONS World ORT Union I n p u t d e v i c e s Where would you find the letters QUERTY? A. Mouse B. Keyboard C.Numeric Keypad How did the computer mouse get its name? A.

More information

Introducción. Diseño de sistemas digitales.1

Introducción. Diseño de sistemas digitales.1 Introducción Adapted from: Mary Jane Irwin ( www.cse.psu.edu/~mji ) www.cse.psu.edu/~cg431 [Original from Computer Organization and Design, Patterson & Hennessy, 2005, UCB] Diseño de sistemas digitales.1

More information

CIS Mid Semester Examinations

CIS Mid Semester Examinations CIS Mid Semester Examinations Candidate must answer all questions. Multiple Choice questions are to be answered on the answer sheet. 1. A computer is an electronic device, operating under the control of

More information

Programming Logic controllers

Programming Logic controllers Programming Logic controllers Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) is a microprocessor based system that uses programmable memory to store instructions and implement functions such as logic, sequencing,

More information

High level code and machine code

High level code and machine code High level code and machine code Teacher s Notes Lesson Plan x Length 60 mins Specification Link 2.1.7/cde Programming languages Learning objective Students should be able to (a) explain the difference

More information

Computer Hardware HARDWARE. Computer Hardware. Mainboard (Motherboard) Instructor Özgür ZEYDAN

Computer Hardware HARDWARE. Computer Hardware. Mainboard (Motherboard) Instructor Özgür ZEYDAN Computer Hardware HARDWARE Hardware: the collection of physical elements that comprise a computer system. Bülent Ecevit University Department of Environmental Engineering 1. Case and inside 2. Peripherals

More information

CHAPTER 2: HARDWARE BASICS: INSIDE THE BOX

CHAPTER 2: HARDWARE BASICS: INSIDE THE BOX CHAPTER 2: HARDWARE BASICS: INSIDE THE BOX Multiple Choice: 1. Processing information involves: A. accepting information from the outside world. B. communication with another computer. C. performing arithmetic

More information

Chapter 13: Program Development and Programming Languages

Chapter 13: Program Development and Programming Languages Understanding Computers Today and Tomorrow 12 th Edition Chapter 13: Program Development and Programming Languages Learning Objectives Understand the differences between structured programming, object-oriented

More information

Computer Layers. Hardware BOOT. Operating System. Applications

Computer Layers. Hardware BOOT. Operating System. Applications Computers Software Computer Layers Hardware BOOT Operating System Applications Software Classifications System Software (operating system) Application Software Utility Software Malware Viruses and worms

More information

Primary Memory. Input Units CPU (Central Processing Unit)

Primary Memory. Input Units CPU (Central Processing Unit) Basic Concepts of Computer Hardware Primary Memory Input Units CPU (Central Processing Unit) Output Units This model of the typical digital computer is often called the von Neuman compute Programs and

More information

Algorithms and Flowcharts Week 2

Algorithms and Flowcharts Week 2 Algorithms and Flowcharts Week 2 1 Principles of Programming The program or set of programs in a computer that helps in processing the information is called SOFTWARE. Software is a detailed writing of

More information

İSTANBUL AYDIN UNIVERSITY

İSTANBUL AYDIN UNIVERSITY İSTANBUL AYDIN UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGİNEERİNG SOFTWARE ENGINEERING THE PROJECT OF THE INSTRUCTION SET COMPUTER ORGANIZATION GÖZDE ARAS B1205.090015 Instructor: Prof. Dr. HASAN HÜSEYİN BALIK DECEMBER

More information

ASSEMBLY PROGRAMMING ON A VIRTUAL COMPUTER

ASSEMBLY PROGRAMMING ON A VIRTUAL COMPUTER ASSEMBLY PROGRAMMING ON A VIRTUAL COMPUTER Pierre A. von Kaenel Mathematics and Computer Science Department Skidmore College Saratoga Springs, NY 12866 (518) 580-5292 pvonk@skidmore.edu ABSTRACT This paper

More information

Computer Programming Lecturer: Dr. Laith Abdullah Mohammed

Computer Programming Lecturer: Dr. Laith Abdullah Mohammed Algorithm: A step-by-step procedure for solving a problem in a finite amount of time. Algorithms can be represented using Flow Charts. CHARACTERISTICS OF AN ALGORITHM: Computer Programming Lecturer: Dr.

More information

Basic Concepts of Information Technology (IT)

Basic Concepts of Information Technology (IT) Basic Concepts of Information Technology (IT) Objectives Define Computer and Identify the Four Basic Computing Functions Identify the Different Types of Computers Describe Hardware Devices and Their Uses

More information

TYPES OF COMPUTERS AND THEIR PARTS MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS

TYPES OF COMPUTERS AND THEIR PARTS MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 1. What is a computer? a. A programmable electronic device that processes data via instructions to output information for future use. b. Raw facts and figures that has no meaning

More information

Operating system Dr. Shroouq J.

Operating system Dr. Shroouq J. 3 OPERATING SYSTEM STRUCTURES An operating system provides the environment within which programs are executed. The design of a new operating system is a major task. The goals of the system must be well

More information

what operations can it perform? how does it perform them? on what kind of data? where are instructions and data stored?

what operations can it perform? how does it perform them? on what kind of data? where are instructions and data stored? Inside the CPU how does the CPU work? what operations can it perform? how does it perform them? on what kind of data? where are instructions and data stored? some short, boring programs to illustrate the

More information

Basic Computer Skills

Basic Computer Skills Basic Computer Skills Mouse, Keyboard, and Windows Sponsored by Greene County Public Library http://www.greenelibrary.info Rev. 05/07 1 What is a Computer? To put it simply, a computer is an electronic

More information

Logical Operations. Control Unit. Contents. Arithmetic Operations. Objectives. The Central Processing Unit: Arithmetic / Logic Unit.

Logical Operations. Control Unit. Contents. Arithmetic Operations. Objectives. The Central Processing Unit: Arithmetic / Logic Unit. Objectives The Central Processing Unit: What Goes on Inside the Computer Chapter 4 Identify the components of the central processing unit and how they work together and interact with memory Describe how

More information

ZIMBABWE SCHOOL EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL. COMPUTER STUDIES 7014/01 PAPER 1 Multiple Choice SPECIMEN PAPER

ZIMBABWE SCHOOL EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL. COMPUTER STUDIES 7014/01 PAPER 1 Multiple Choice SPECIMEN PAPER ZIMBABWE SCHOOL EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL General Certificate of Education Ordinary Level COMPUTER STUDIES 7014/01 PAPER 1 Multiple Choice SPECIMEN PAPER Candidates answer on the question paper Additional materials:

More information

Montgomery College Course Designator/Course Number: CS 110 Course Title: Computer Literacy

Montgomery College Course Designator/Course Number: CS 110 Course Title: Computer Literacy Montgomery College Course Designator/Course Number: CS 11 Course Title: Computer Literacy Course Length: 3 credits 3 5-minute meetings per week or equivalent Course Description: An introduction to the

More information

Central Processing Unit

Central Processing Unit Chapter 4 Central Processing Unit 1. CPU organization and operation flowchart 1.1. General concepts The primary function of the Central Processing Unit is to execute sequences of instructions representing

More information

Computer Literacy. Hardware & Software Classification

Computer Literacy. Hardware & Software Classification Computer Literacy Hardware & Software Classification Hardware Classification Hardware is just another word for computer equipment; it is the physical parts of the computer that we can see and touch. All

More information

Chapter 3: Operating-System Structures. Common System Components

Chapter 3: Operating-System Structures. Common System Components Chapter 3: Operating-System Structures System Components Operating System Services System Calls System Programs System Structure Virtual Machines System Design and Implementation System Generation 3.1

More information

Programming & Computers

Programming & Computers Programming & Computers CS1110 - Kaminski CS1110 focus 1. Problem solving Understand problem & requirements (I P O) Design modular program Design algorithms Code solution Test & debug 2. Programming PP

More information

A White Paper By: Dr. Gaurav Banga SVP, Engineering & CTO, Phoenix Technologies. Bridging BIOS to UEFI

A White Paper By: Dr. Gaurav Banga SVP, Engineering & CTO, Phoenix Technologies. Bridging BIOS to UEFI A White Paper By: Dr. Gaurav Banga SVP, Engineering & CTO, Phoenix Technologies Bridging BIOS to UEFI Copyright Copyright 2007 by Phoenix Technologies Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication

More information

1 Classical Universal Computer 3

1 Classical Universal Computer 3 Chapter 6: Machine Language and Assembler Christian Jacob 1 Classical Universal Computer 3 1.1 Von Neumann Architecture 3 1.2 CPU and RAM 5 1.3 Arithmetic Logical Unit (ALU) 6 1.4 Arithmetic Logical Unit

More information

Chapter 2 Logic Gates and Introduction to Computer Architecture

Chapter 2 Logic Gates and Introduction to Computer Architecture Chapter 2 Logic Gates and Introduction to Computer Architecture 2.1 Introduction The basic components of an Integrated Circuit (IC) is logic gates which made of transistors, in digital system there are

More information

Computer Hardware Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of degree Of MCA

Computer Hardware Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of degree Of MCA A Seminar report On Computer Hardware Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of degree Of MCA SUBMITTED TO: SUBMITTED BY: www.studymafia.org www.studymafia.org Preface I have

More information

Introduction to C++ Programming I. Ian Aitchison and Peter King

Introduction to C++ Programming I. Ian Aitchison and Peter King Introduction to C++ Programming I Ian Aitchison and Peter King August 1997 Contents 1 The Computer 11 1.1 Central Processing Unit... 13 1.2 Memory.... 13 1.2.1 Main memory..... 14 1.2.2 External Memory...

More information

Software: Systems and. Application Software. Software and Hardware. Types of Software. Software can represent 75% or more of the total cost of an IS.

Software: Systems and. Application Software. Software and Hardware. Types of Software. Software can represent 75% or more of the total cost of an IS. C H A P T E R 4 Software: Systems and Application Software Software and Hardware Software can represent 75% or more of the total cost of an IS. Less costly hdwr. More complex sftwr. Expensive developers

More information

Advanced Computer Architecture-CS501. Computer Systems Design and Architecture 2.1, 2.2, 3.2

Advanced Computer Architecture-CS501. Computer Systems Design and Architecture 2.1, 2.2, 3.2 Lecture Handout Computer Architecture Lecture No. 2 Reading Material Vincent P. Heuring&Harry F. Jordan Chapter 2,Chapter3 Computer Systems Design and Architecture 2.1, 2.2, 3.2 Summary 1) A taxonomy of

More information

MICROPROCESSOR. Exclusive for IACE Students www.iace.co.in iacehyd.blogspot.in Ph: 9700077455/422 Page 1

MICROPROCESSOR. Exclusive for IACE Students www.iace.co.in iacehyd.blogspot.in Ph: 9700077455/422 Page 1 MICROPROCESSOR A microprocessor incorporates the functions of a computer s central processing unit (CPU) on a single Integrated (IC), or at most a few integrated circuit. It is a multipurpose, programmable

More information

TH2. Input devices, processing and output devices

TH2. Input devices, processing and output devices TH2. Input devices, processing and output devices http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/ict/ Input devices allow us to enter raw data into a computer. The computer processes the data and then produces

More information

Let s put together a Manual Processor

Let s put together a Manual Processor Lecture 14 Let s put together a Manual Processor Hardware Lecture 14 Slide 1 The processor Inside every computer there is at least one processor which can take an instruction, some operands and produce

More information

Python Programming: An Introduction to Computer Science

Python Programming: An Introduction to Computer Science Python Programming: An Introduction to Computer Science Chapter 1 Computers and Programs 1 The Universal Machine n A computer -- a machine that stores and manipulates information under the control of a

More information

Multimedia Systems Hardware & Software THETOPPERSWAY.COM

Multimedia Systems Hardware & Software THETOPPERSWAY.COM Multimedia Systems Hardware & Software THETOPPERSWAY.COM Table of Content 1. Categories of multimedia systems 2. Categories of multimedia devices 3. Evolution of multimedia PC 4. Authoring tools 5. Classification

More information

8051 MICROCONTROLLER COURSE

8051 MICROCONTROLLER COURSE 8051 MICROCONTROLLER COURSE Objective: 1. Familiarization with different types of Microcontroller 2. To know 8051 microcontroller in detail 3. Programming and Interfacing 8051 microcontroller Prerequisites:

More information

Basic Computer Hardware and Software

Basic Computer Hardware and Software Overview: This lesson is an introduction to basic computer hardware and software. If possible, have one or more types of computers available to show students the hardware components found on different

More information

SECTION C [short essay] [Not to exceed 120 words, Answer any SIX questions. Each question carries FOUR marks] 6 x 4=24 marks

SECTION C [short essay] [Not to exceed 120 words, Answer any SIX questions. Each question carries FOUR marks] 6 x 4=24 marks UNIVERSITY OF KERALA First Degree Programme in Computer Applications Model Question Paper Semester I Course Code- CP 1121 Introduction to Computer Science TIME : 3 hrs Maximum Mark: 80 SECTION A [Very

More information

Chapter 12 Programming Concepts and Languages

Chapter 12 Programming Concepts and Languages Chapter 12 Programming Concepts and Languages Chapter 12 Programming Concepts and Languages Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 12-1 Presentation Overview Programming Concepts Problem-Solving Techniques The Evolution

More information

PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLERS Unit code: A/601/1625 QCF level: 4 Credit value: 15 OUTCOME 3 PART 1

PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLERS Unit code: A/601/1625 QCF level: 4 Credit value: 15 OUTCOME 3 PART 1 UNIT 22: PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLERS Unit code: A/601/1625 QCF level: 4 Credit value: 15 OUTCOME 3 PART 1 This work covers part of outcome 3 of the Edexcel standard module: Outcome 3 is the most demanding

More information

Chapter One Introduction to Computer

Chapter One Introduction to Computer Chapter One Introduction to Computer Computer A computer is an electronic device, operating under the control of instructions stored in its own memory that can accept data (input), process the data according

More information

Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTING AND ENGINEERING PROBLEM SOLVING

Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTING AND ENGINEERING PROBLEM SOLVING Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTING AND ENGINEERING PROBLEM SOLVING Outline Objectives 1. Historical Perspective 2. Recent Engineering Achievements 3. Computing Systems 4. Data Representation and Storage

More information

Computer Architecture

Computer Architecture Computer Architecture Having studied numbers, combinational and sequential logic, and assembly language programming, we begin the study of the overall computer system. The term computer architecture is

More information

Levels of Programming Languages. Gerald Penn CSC 324

Levels of Programming Languages. Gerald Penn CSC 324 Levels of Programming Languages Gerald Penn CSC 324 Levels of Programming Language Microcode Machine code Assembly Language Low-level Programming Language High-level Programming Language Levels of Programming

More information

C Programming Dr. Hasan Demirel

C Programming Dr. Hasan Demirel C How to Program, H. M. Deitel and P. J. Deitel, Prentice Hall, 5 th edition (3 rd edition or above is also OK). Introduction to C Programming Dr. Hasan Demirel Programming Languages There are three types

More information