Unit 1 Lesson 4 The Digestive and Excretory Systems Essential Question: How do your body s digestive and excretory systems work?

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1 Unit 1 Lesson 4 The Digestive and Excretory Systems Essential Question: How do your body s digestive and excretory systems work? Lesson 4 Key Terms The Digestive and Excretory Systems Digestive system Pancreas Enzyme Liver Esophagus Excretory system Stomach Kidney Small intestine Nephron large intestine urine Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

2 - The Digestive Process Begins Functions of the Digestive System The digestive system has three main functions. 1. breaks down food into molecules the body can use. 2. nutrient molecules are absorbed into the blood and carried throughout the body. 3. undigested wastes are eliminated from the body.

3 Unit 1 Lesson 4 The Digestive and Excretory Systems p48 You Are What You Eat! What is the digestive system? Cells use nutrients from food for energy, growth, maintenance, and repair. The digestive system breaks down food into nutrients that can be used as building materials that provide energy for cells. 1.Mechanical Digestion 2.Chemical Digestions

4 Digestion Two Types of Digestion 1. Mechanical Digestion is the breaking, crushing, and mashing of food. Increases surface area of food 2. Chemical Digestions uses an enzyme is a chemical that breaks down large molecules into smaller molecules. In your mouth, teeth grind food Salivary glands release a liquid that helps break down food p49 Muscles contract (stomach) to grind food into pulpy mixture Nutrients break down with enzymes (small intestine)

5 Unit 1 Lesson 4 The Digestive and Excretory Systems P50-51 Chew on This What are the parts of the digestive system? The mouth is where mechanical and chemical digestion begins. Saliva helps to break down food. Food moves through the throat into a long tube called the esophagus. The stomach is a muscular bag that crushes food and contains acids and enzymes for killing bacteria and breaking down proteins. Pancreas and Liver aide in digestion The small intestine is a muscular tube where most chemical digestion takes place and most nutrients are absorbed. In the large intestine, water and nutrients are absorbed, leaving waste.

6 - The Digestive Process Begins The Mouth p50 Both mechanical and chemical digestion begin in the mouth. Saliva: Important in both types of digestion Enzyme Amylase - Breaks down starches (carbohydrates) into sugar National Geographic - Digestive System

7 Esophagus p50 Connects mouth to stomach is lined with mucus Easier to swallow Helps move food along When food enters esophagus Contraction of smooth muscles push food toward stomach Involuntary muscle contractions (peristalsis) Keeps food moving in one direction science/health-and-humanbody/human-body/digestivesystem-article.html

8 p48 - The Digestive Process Begins The Stomach Most mechanical digestion and some chemical digestion occur in the stomach. The stomach is a muscular bag that crushes food and contains acids (HCl) and enzymes (pepsin) for killing bacteria and breaking down proteins into amino acid. Chyme is the mushy mix of food that passes from the stomach to the small intestines.

9 The Pancreas Triangular organ that lies between stomach and first part of small intestine Role - produces enzymes that flow into the small intestine and help break down carbohydrates, proteins, fats, and nucleic acids Remember = enzymes do not break down all food substances Ex. Fiber Fiber thickens material makes it easier for peristalsis to occur

10 The Liver Largest organ inside the body (chemical factory) Role: produce bile (substance that breaks up fat particles) Flows from liver into gallbladder (stores bile). Not an enzyme. Does not chemically digest food. Does break up large fat particles into smaller fat droplets. Fat droplets then can be chemically broken down by enzymes produced in pancreas

11

12 - The Digestive Process Begins Small Intestine p51 Chyme is the mushy mix of food that passes from the stomach to the small intestines. The small intestine is a muscular tube Most chemical digestion and most nutrients are absorbed

13 - Final Digestion and Absorption Absorption in The Small Intestine Nutrients are absorbed into the bloodstream. Tiny finger-shaped projections called villi line the inside of the small intestine. Villi absorb nutrient molecules. The molecules pass from the villi into blood vessels. When material reaches the end of the small intestine most nutrients have been absorbed.

14 - The Digestive Process Begins Large Intestine p51 The large intestine is where water and nutrients are absorbed. Waste is compacted, stored, and eliminated from the body

15 The Large Intestine The material entering the large intestine contains water and undigested food. Bacteria live in the large intestine to help break down foods the body cannot use or digest. Job of Large Intestine: As material moves through, water and vitamins are absorbed into the bloodstream Remaining material is readied for elimination from the body Rectum is where waste (feces) material is compressed into a solid form Anus is where waste material is eliminated

16 Unit 1 Lesson 4 The Digestive and Excretory Systems Toxic Waste! What are the functions of the excretory system? Waste in the body would become toxic without a method to eliminate it. The excretory system eliminates cellular wastes from the body through the lungs, skin, kidneys, and digestive system. To Sweat: Excess salts are released through the skin as you sweat. To Exhale: The lungs release carbon dioxide and water as you exhale. To Produce Urine and Feces: Kidneys remove cellular waste from the blood; Digestive system eliminates feces

17 Unit 1 Lesson 4 The Digestive and Excretory Systems What organs are in the urinary system? A kidney is one of a pair of organs that remove cellular waste from the blood. Nephrons are structures in the kidneys where fluid is filtered from the blood. Water and wastes filtered from the blood form a liquid called urine. Urine travels from the kidneys, through the ureters, to the bladder. The bladder is a saclike organ that stores urine. Urine exits the bladder through a tube called the urethra. Cleanup Crew

18 Unit 1 Lesson 4 The Digestive and Excretory Systems 1) Filtered blood can get recycled back into the bloodstream 2) Waste leave the kidney as urine

19 Unit 1 Lesson 4 The Digestive and Excretory Systems

20 Unit 1 Lesson 4 The Digestive and Excretory Systems How does the urinary system maintain homeostasis? Cells need a certain level of salt and water to maintain homeostasis. Chemical messengers called hormones signal the kidneys to filter more or less water and salt as needed.

21 Unit 1 Lesson 4 The Digestive and Excretory Systems How does the urinary system maintain homeostasis? When you sweat the water content of your blood can drop. A hormone is released that signals the kidneys to conserve more water and make less urine.

22 Unit 1 Lesson 4 The Digestive and Excretory Systems How does the urinary system maintain homeostasis? When your blood has too much water, less of the hormone is released. The nephrons conserve less water, and more urine is produced by the kidneys.

23 - The Digestive Process Begins Digestion Click the Video button to watch a movie about digestion. Digestive System

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