Biosecurity. Protecting Animal Agriculture

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1 Biosecurity Protecting Animal Agriculture Julie D. Helm, DVM Clemson University Livestock-Poultry Health Columbia, SC (803)

2 Houston, we have a problem. Our Goal to Avoid

3 What is Biosecurity? What is Bio -- Security? Life-Protection Protecting the life of your flock or herd Protecting your flock or herd from biological diseases Risk of disease is always present Disease pathogens are everywhere: air, water, clothes, vehicle, hands, feet, rodents, wildlife

4 Biosecurity Today Biosecurity concerns have been around for a long time cannot be ignored nowadays Success of the industry = increase in production = increased risk of spreading disease Acceptable practices in the past can produce higher levels of risk that are unacceptable today

5 Biosecurity Today Bio-Terrorism (Agroterrorism) is a real threat Strict biosecurity practices can save your flock/herd Accidental introduction Intentional introduction

6 Chain of Infection Infectious Agents (FMD, AI, etc.) Susceptible Host Mode of Transportation

7 Chain of Infection Infectious Agents = pathogens All pathogens have reservoir where they thrive = commercial animals or wild animals Modern commercial industry with large densities = created larger populations of susceptible & reservoir animals

8 Mode of Transportation Chain of Infection People Vehicles Equipment New Animals Pests (rodents, insects, wildlife) Feed, Water, Air Susceptible Host Animals that can get the disease

9 Breaking the Chain of Infection Reducing Your Risk Infectious Agents (FMD, AI, etc.) Susceptible Host Mode of Transportation

10 Key Areas in Biosecurity Traffic Control New Animals Pest Control Dead Animal Disposal Cleaning & Disinfection Susceptible Animals Communication Goal: isolate the unit/farm keep any infectious disease from entering or leaving

11 Biosecurity Basics Customize a program for your farm Do it RIGHT the first time and every time Every Day Is Biosecurity Day!! Biosecurity is a Process: Requires objectives Requires procedures Have written procedures Keep everyone informed An auditing system to check it

12 Traffic Control Most beneficial & least cost Control the movement of people & machinery in & out of your facilities People are the greatest risk of spreading disease (act as a fomite)

13 Traffic Control People, vehicles & equipment can transport pathogens great distances in a short period of time. Less common wild birds or pests

14 Traffic Control Who is involved on your operation: Vehicles personnel live-haul feed semen dead animal utility People growers employees co. personnel veterinarians other producers crew: loading, cleaning, insemination utility/meter readers

15 Traffic Control Who are you and what have you brought to my animals? No person should enter your farm without a good reason and without your permission Restrict the entrance -- gates, fences No gates or fences then lock the houses Signs Restricted, No Admittance

16 Traffic Control -- Visitors Approved visitors can enter only after following Biosecurity measures showers, coveralls, boots Follow your Rules Don t forget Contractors, Utility/Meter Readers, Suppliers Visitor s Log helps to trace back spread of disease

17 Traffic Control Farm Employees Wear clean work clothes and footwear everyday Better: wear Farm clothes and footwear change when leaving. Best: shower-in facilities with Farm clothes & footwear No contact with other animals outside of your farm

18 Traffic Control Feet Disinfectant boot dips Footwear (boots) for each barn

19 Traffic Control Vehicles Park vehicles away from barns Spray tires & wheel wells when leaving farm Clean & disinfect all vehicles and trucks routinely (once a week car wash)

20 Traffic Control Other Growers Don t share equipment or people between farms or Clean & Disinfect vehicles & equipment in between Change out of your farm clothes, footwear, hats Treat different type production units as separate farms

21 Traffic Control International Travel Other countries have exotic diseases (foreign animal diseases FAD) that we do not have in the U.S. You can accidentally bring back pathogens to your animals. No contact with U.S. animals for at least 5 days after returning. Clean all travel clothing, shoes & equipments No international food or any raw meat product on farm.

22 Introducing New Animals Moved in clean & disinfected trailers Inspected before unloading Maintain on-farm & off-farm security line for unloading Truck drivers wear clean clothes & boots Clean & disinfect emptied trailer & loading areas

23 Introducing New Animals Breeding stock Same unloading routine Quarantined in isolation Minimum 30 days Minimum 200 yards away from existing flock/herd

24 Pest Control Rodent, Insects, Wildlife (birds, raccoons) Pets Establish a formal program... & monitor it Rodents Insects Wildlife

25 Pest Control Rodents Rodents Carry diseases (Salmonella, E. coli) Use bait stations, keep grass mowed, pick up garbage

26 Pest Control Insects Insects (flies, mosquitoes, roaches, darkling beetles) Mechanical spread of diseases (Salmonella) Ponds are breeding grounds for mosquitoes who can carry diseases (EEE, WNV, Fowl Pox)

27 Pest Control Wildlife Wild Birds (wild birds, waterfowl, shore birds) Carry diseases (Salmonella, Avian Influenza) Ponds / lagoons attract wild waterfowl (influenza) Hunters keep hunting clothes & dead game away from resident animals. Raccoons, skunks, feral swine Sharing a waterfowl habitat = influenza. Feral Swine infected with pseudorabies Keep pets out of barn

28 Feed Use good quality feed Keep it dry to avoid mold growth Clean up spills to not attract wild birds or rodents

29 Water Test well water for metals & bacteria levels Wash and disinfect open drinkers daily to prevent bacteria build-up Avoid using pond water (waterfowl and Avian Influenza which can infect poultry & pigs)

30 Dead Animal Disposal Remove dead stock daily Container needs to be pet / wildlife-proof Clean & Disinfect (C&D) farm equipment used to haul dead Personnel dress in designated clothing & boots or do at end of day before leaving farm Bad example

31 Dead Animal Disposal -- On-Site Preferred to removing off the farm lower risk of spreading disease to other farms Burial Large SC commercial type farms: get your on-site Mass Animal Burial site approved by SC DHEC or another near-by site approved. Required for SC DHEC permitted animal agriculture facilities. Good idea for other farms (beef, etc.) to be prepared. Composting Incineration

32 Dead Animal Disposal -- Off-Site Central location for drop-offs landfills/renderer Best to avoid due to disease spread risk Or go at the end of the day, C&D vehicle after leaving (spray tires/wells or car wash) Rendering service pick-up Place pick-up container away from houses & from main farm entrance (use another side driveway) Report leaky render trucks

33 Cleaning & Disinfection C&D Any organic material can be a reservoir of infection for your next flock/herd inside & outside Dust, manure particles, feed, feathers, dead animals

34 C&D C + D = 2. 2 step process Cleaning (90%) = removing organic material, getting physical Disinfection (10%) = sterilizing the clean surface Cannot disinfect poop or dirt

35 C&D -- Cleaning Inside & outside the barn Curtains Pens Vents/fans Feed lines, augers, tanks Waterlines Mats, etc.

36 C&D -- Cleaning Plus all other equipment & vehicles used in the last flock/herd Make sure your cleaning detergents & soaps are compatible with the disinfectant

37 C&D -- Disinfection What type to use when? Find out the best ones for your operation from your equipment supplier, veterinarian or integrator Common Disinfectants Chlorine - water sanitizing, processing plants, boot washing Iodine - water sanitizing, equipment & surfaces Quaternary ammonium meat-packing & food-handling equipment, feed bins, waterers, feed pans Phenol - floors, walls, foot baths Cresols - floors, walls, soil Formaldehyde - floors, environmental fumigation

38 C&D -- Disinfection Comparison of Activity Type Irritating Corrosive Active in Organic Material Prefers ph Chlorine Yes Yes No Acidic/Low Iodine Yes Yes No Acidic/Low Quats No No Reduced Basic/High Phenol Yes Slight Yes Acidic/Low Cresols Yes Yes Yes Formaldehyde Yes** Yes*** No

39 Susceptible Animals Inadequate immune protection against a disease Get infected and get sick Contribute to the spread of disease as a reservoir

40 Susceptible Animals Reduce the Risks Vaccination correct type & dose for area risk Zone Raising All in All out system Downtime average 2 weeks Time out to properly C&D facilities & equipment, get on top of rodent/insect control More important is WHAT you do during this time, rather than the time itself Create Hazardous Living Conditions for pathogens

41 Most Important Key At the Top Level Communication Management works with Industry through Associations, Publications, Universities to determine best procedures to use At the Regional Level Info on the diseases in your area Learning new developments in animal health At the Farm Level Know what s going on in your area Follow your biosecurity rules & report rule breakers

42 Awareness Training SC Ag-Watch Program Using Biosecurity to protect our Industries Awareness of Diseases & Biosecurity Measures Developing Manual Manual for Animal/Plant Producers & Food Processors Specific Info on problems Who to contact when

43 Biosecurity Use It Or Lose It! A farm infected with Foot & Mouth Disease or Avian Influenza can result in the destruction of the herd or flock. Can you afford NOT to use it?

44 References U.S. Poultry & Egg Association s Poultry Disease Risk Management: Practical Biosecurity Resources CD Biosecurity Guide for Pork Producers. National Pork Board, Wages, Dennis P. Poultry Sanitation and Disinfection handout, 1996

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