Pragmatics (Lecture on Language Education and Linguistic Information I)

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Pragmatics (Lecture on Language Education and Linguistic Information I)"

Transcription

1 Pragmatics (Lecture on Language Education and Linguistic Information I) Speech Acts D. Y. Oshima Second Semester, AY DICOM-GSID-Nagoya University

2 Speech Act Theory Initiated by John L. Austin, developed by John R. Searle. saying & doing, words & deeds

3 Performatives vs. constatives Background: Logical positivism; the key function of language is to make true or false statements. 1. Snow is white. Some sentences do not state: 2. Good morning! 3. Is she a vegetarian? 4. Close the window, please.

4 Performatives vs. constatives Some declaratives performatives are not used to describe a state of affairs but rather to carry out an action. 1. I christen/name this ship the Princess Elizabeth. 2. I now pronounce you man and wife. 3. I sentence you to ten years in prison. 4. I promise to come back by 6pm. 5. I command you to surrender immediately. 6. I apologize for being late.

5 Performatives vs. constatives The performativity can be made explicit by the use of a performative verb and the adverb hereby. A performative verb typically (i) has a first- A performative verb typically (i) has a firstperson singular subject, and (ii) is in the simple present tense, the indicative mood, and the active voice.

6 Performatives vs. constatives Constatives: 1. It is raining outside. 2. He will come to the party. 3. I promised to come to the party. Performatives: Explicit (with a performative verb) 4. I promise to come to the party. Implicit (without a performative verb) 5. I ll come to the party.

7 Felicity conditions on performatives felicity conditions vs. truth conditions Certain conditions must be met for a performative to be successful (or felicitous ). misfire, abuse

8 Locutionary, illocutionary, and perlocutionary speech acts From the constative/performative dichotomy to a general theory of speech acts: 1. a. (in the middle of an academic talk) Excuse me, but I think... b. John s wife is feminist. 2. I hereby state that John is innocent. Constatives are a special case of performatives.

9 Locutionary, illocutionary, and perlocutionary speech acts Three facets of a speech act: locutionary act (phonic, phatic, rhetic): the production of a meaningful linguistic expression illocutionary act: the action intended to be performed by a speaker in uttering a linguistic expression, by virtue of the conventional force associated with it. perlocutionary act: the bringing about of consequences or effects on the audience through the uttering of a linguistic expression, such consequences or effects being special to the circumstances of the utterance.

10 Locutionary, illocutionary, and perlocutionary speech acts 1. Don t do it. 2. a. He said Don t do it. b. He ordered me not to do it. c. He stopped me. d. He pissed me off.

11 Locutionary, illocutionary, and perlocutionary speech acts An illocutionary act refers to an action that the speaker accomplishes (or intends to accomplish) in the course of an utterance; e.g., accusing, apologizing, blaming, congratulating, giving permission, joking, naming, promising, ordering, refusing, swearing, and thanking. illocutionary force, illocutionary force indicating device, illocutionary act potential

12 Locutionary, illocutionary, and perlocutionary speech acts The same locutionary act may have different illocutionary forces in different settings. 1. The gun is loaded. The same force may be realized by different types of clauses. 2. Give me coffee, please. 3. Can I have coffee? 4. I d like coffee.

13 Locutionary, illocutionary, and perlocutionary speech acts Perlocutionary acts/effects (i) are not always intentional, (ii) are not under the speaker s full-control, and (iii) are less conventionally tied to linguistic forms. consequence, by-product

14 Felicity conditions as constitutive rules Searle s view: the felicity conditions are not only ways in which a speech act can be (in)appropriate, but they also jointly constitute the illocutionary act/force. In other words, the felicity conditions are the constitutive rules, i.e., rules that create the activity itself.

15 Felicity conditions as constitutive rules Searle s classification of felicity conditions: i. propositional content ii. preparatory conditions iii. sincerity conditions iv. essential conditions

16 Taxonomy of speech acts Austin s five types: i. verdictives ii. exercitives iii. commissives iv. behabitatives v. expositives

17 Taxonomy of speech acts Searle s taxonomy (of illocutionary acts): 1. speech act type 2. direction of fit ( words to world or world to words ) 3. expressed psychological state 4. propositional content

18 Taxonomy of speech acts Searle s five types: i. representatives (assertives) ii. directives iii. commissives iv. expressives v. declarations (declaratives)

19 Taxonomy of speech acts i. representatives (assertives) ii. asserting, claiming, concluding, reporting, stating,... words-to-world expresses the speaker s belief directives advice, command, order, question, request,... world-to-words expresses the speaker s desire

20 Taxonomy of speech acts iii. commissives offer, pledge, promise, refusal, threat,... world-to-words expresses the speaker s intention iv. expressives apologizing, blaming, congratulating, praising, thanking,... no direction of fit expresses the speaker s emotions

21 Taxonomy of speech acts v. declarations (declaratives) declaring war, excommunicating, firing from employment, nominating a candidate,... two-way fit does not express psychological state relies on extralinguistic institutions

22 Direct vs. indirect speech acts Three (arguably) universal clause types: i. declarative ii. iii. interrogative imperative Clause types may be differentiated by various morphological, syntactic, and phonological means. Different clause types are associated with different illocutionary forces: declaratives & asserting/stating, interrogatives & questionning, imperatives & ordering/requesting

23 Direct vs. indirect speech acts direct speech acts: cases where there is a direct match between a clause type and an illocutionary force (including explicit performatives) indirect speech acts: cases where there is no direct match. 1. I request you to pass the salt. 2. Pass the salt. 3. Can you pass the salt? Indirect speech acts are generally considered to be more polite than direct ones.

24 Direct vs. indirect speech acts Indirect usages are not rare or marginal. 1. Close the window. 2. I want you to close the window. 3. You ought to close the window. 4. I wonder if you d mind closing the window. 5. Can you close the window? 6. Would you close the window? 7. Would you mind closing the window?

25 Direct vs. indirect speech acts How is an indirect speech act analysed? 1) Searle (1975b): dual illocutionary force primary (indirect, non-literal) vs. secondary (direct, literal) disambiguation involves Gricean inference (based on the Co-operative Principle) There is a certain degree of conventionality about indirect speech acts (Morgan s (1978) short-circuited implicature)

26 Direct vs. indirect speech acts 1. a. Can you pass the salt? b. Are you able to pass the salt? c. Do you have the ability to pass the salt? 2. a. Please pass the salt. b. Can you please pass the salt? c.?are you able to pass the salt please? d.?do you have the ability to pass the salt please?

27 Direct vs. indirect speech acts 2) Conversational postulates (Gordon & Lakoff 1975) 3) Idiom model (Sadock 1974, among others) 1. Can you pass the salt? Yes, I can. Here you are. 2. Would you mind closing the window? Of course I don t.

Semantics versus Pragmatics

Semantics versus Pragmatics Linguistics 103: Language Structure and Verbal Art Pragmatics and Speech Act Theory Semantics versus Pragmatics semantics: branch of linguistics concerned with the meanings of propositions pragmatics:

More information

PRAGMATICS 2. ANCA DINU Feb.2012

PRAGMATICS 2. ANCA DINU Feb.2012 PRAGMATICS 2 ANCA DINU Feb.2012 Austin In his seminal book, How to do things with words (1962), Austin stated that one of the age-old enigmas of philosophy - how to bridge the gap between language and

More information

Speech Act Theory. 3 components of a speech act. 3 components of a communication. How Speakers and Hearers use Language. Message. Hearer.

Speech Act Theory. 3 components of a speech act. 3 components of a communication. How Speakers and Hearers use Language. Message. Hearer. Speech Act Theory How Speakers and Hearers use Language 3 components of a communication Message Speaker Hearer 3 components of a speech act Message Illocution What speaker means to convey Locution Actual

More information

Hugvísindasvið. Speech Act Theory. A Critical Overview. Ritgerð til B.A.-prófs. Loftur Árni Björgvinsson

Hugvísindasvið. Speech Act Theory. A Critical Overview. Ritgerð til B.A.-prófs. Loftur Árni Björgvinsson Hugvísindasvið Speech Act Theory A Critical Overview Ritgerð til B.A.-prófs Loftur Árni Björgvinsson Maí 2011 Háskóli Íslands Hugvísindasvið Enska Speech Act Theory A Critical Overview Ritgerð til B.A.-prófs

More information

Speech Acts Jerrold Sadock

Speech Acts Jerrold Sadock Speech Acts Jerrold Sadock When we speak we can do all sorts of things, from aspirating a consonant, to constructing a relative clause, to insulting a guest, to starting a war. These are all, pre-theoretically,

More information

SPEECH ACTS THEORIES A.

SPEECH ACTS THEORIES A. SPEECH ACTS THEORIES A. Culture, meaning and Context A study which relates language to culture and society are not able to be separated from understanding of basic concepts of culture, meaning and context.

More information

Speech Act Theory, Dialogue, and Information State Updates

Speech Act Theory, Dialogue, and Information State Updates Speech Act Theory, Dialogue, and Information State Updates Staffan Larsson May 30, 2013 Speech Act Theory Speech acts and dialogue Plan-based dialogue models Information state update models Outline Speech

More information

Requests in International Business Emails

Requests in International Business Emails Requests in International Business Emails Dissertation zur Erlangung des Grades der Doktorin der Philosophie bei der Fakultät für Geisteswissenschaften Fachbereiche Sprache, Literatur, Medien & Europäische

More information

What is meaning? IAT-811 Metacreation 2

What is meaning? IAT-811 Metacreation 2 What is meaning? The communication of meaning is both the purpose and function of human language. Human communication: linguistic and extralinguistic (often at the same time!) We will only address linguistic

More information

Pragmatic Meaning (Ch. 4 from Chierchia & McConnell-Ginet)

Pragmatic Meaning (Ch. 4 from Chierchia & McConnell-Ginet) Ling216: Pragmatics II Maribel Romero April 20, 2010 Pragmatic Meaning (Ch. 4 from Chierchia & McConnell-Ginet) 1. Literal meaning vs. utterance meaning. (1) UTTERANCE MEANING What the utterer meant by

More information

Meaning and Speech Acts Volume I: Principles of Language Use Volume II: Formal Semantics of Success and Satisfaction

Meaning and Speech Acts Volume I: Principles of Language Use Volume II: Formal Semantics of Success and Satisfaction Meaning and Speech Acts Volume I: Principles of Language Use Volume II: Formal Semantics of Success and Satisfaction Daniel Vanderveken (Universit6 du Qu6bec a Trois-Rivi6res) Cambridge, England: Cambridge

More information

stress, intonation and pauses and pronounce English sounds correctly. (b) To speak accurately to the listener(s) about one s thoughts and feelings,

stress, intonation and pauses and pronounce English sounds correctly. (b) To speak accurately to the listener(s) about one s thoughts and feelings, Section 9 Foreign Languages I. OVERALL OBJECTIVE To develop students basic communication abilities such as listening, speaking, reading and writing, deepening their understanding of language and culture

More information

SEARLE ON MEANING AND ACTION

SEARLE ON MEANING AND ACTION published in G. Grewendorf & G. Meggle (eds) Speech Acts, Mind and Social Reality Discussions with Searle, Studies in Linguistics and Philosophy, Dordrecht, Kluwer, pp 141-161, 2002 SEARLE ON MEANING AND

More information

Language Meaning and Use

Language Meaning and Use Language Meaning and Use Raymond Hickey, English Linguistics Website: www.uni-due.de/ele Types of meaning There are four recognisable types of meaning: lexical meaning, grammatical meaning, sentence meaning

More information

Meaning in Interaction: an Introduction to Pragmatics

Meaning in Interaction: an Introduction to Pragmatics Meaning in Interaction: an Introduction to Pragmatics Jenny Thomas An imprint of Pearson Education Harlow, England London New York Reading, Massachusetts San Francisco Toronto Don Mills, Ontario Sydney

More information

Grice: Meaning. In cases of natural meaning, x means that p entails that p; in cases of meaning NN, there is no such entailment.

Grice: Meaning. In cases of natural meaning, x means that p entails that p; in cases of meaning NN, there is no such entailment. INTENTION BASED SEMANTICS Grice: Meaning Grice is proposing an intention based semantics i.e., a semantical theory according to which the meaning of an utterance is explicated in terms of the psychological

More information

VARIATION IN THE PERFORMANCE OF SPEECH ACTS IN PENINSULAR SPANISH: APOLOGIES AND REQUESTS. A Dissertation

VARIATION IN THE PERFORMANCE OF SPEECH ACTS IN PENINSULAR SPANISH: APOLOGIES AND REQUESTS. A Dissertation VARIATION IN THE PERFORMANCE OF SPEECH ACTS IN PENINSULAR SPANISH: APOLOGIES AND REQUESTS A Dissertation Submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical

More information

TO HELL WITH SPEECH ACT THEORY

TO HELL WITH SPEECH ACT THEORY In: Marcelo Dascal (Ed.), Dialogue: An Interdisciplinary Approach, Amsterdam / Philadelphia (Benjamins), 1985, S. 205-211. Georg Meggle TO HELL WITH SPEECH ACT THEORY 0. During the last few years semantics,

More information

GUESSING BY LOOKING AT CLUES >> see it

GUESSING BY LOOKING AT CLUES >> see it Activity 1: Until now, you ve been asked to check the box beside the statements that represent main ideas found in the video. Now that you re an expert at identifying main ideas (thanks to the Spotlight

More information

Introduction to Business Email Writing

Introduction to Business Email Writing Introduction to Business Email Writing When teaching business email writing I usually start by explaining a theory of email writing I have developed over my years as a teacher which is based on Systemic

More information

Adoption Date: July 22, 2013

Adoption Date: July 22, 2013 Grade 4 Language Standards : Conventions of Standard English Essential Questions: 1. Why is it important to have command of Standard English conventions? 2. How do I determine the meaning of an unfamiliar

More information

Students workload: ECTS: 4; 1h lectures + 1h seminar (30 h) + 60 h of preparation and seminar papers

Students workload: ECTS: 4; 1h lectures + 1h seminar (30 h) + 60 h of preparation and seminar papers University of Zadar English Department COURSE SYLLABUS Course: Semantics Year: 3 rd Semester: 5 th Course prerequisites: Introduction to the Study of English Language and Linguistics Lecturer: Jadranka

More information

LANGUAGE! 4 th Edition, Levels A C, correlated to the South Carolina College and Career Readiness Standards, Grades 3 5

LANGUAGE! 4 th Edition, Levels A C, correlated to the South Carolina College and Career Readiness Standards, Grades 3 5 Page 1 of 57 Grade 3 Reading Literary Text Principles of Reading (P) Standard 1: Demonstrate understanding of the organization and basic features of print. Standard 2: Demonstrate understanding of spoken

More information

Proposition of Reduced Sentences with Non-Finite Clauses

Proposition of Reduced Sentences with Non-Finite Clauses World Applied Sciences Journal 22 (2): 181-185, 2013 ISSN 1818-4952 IDOSI Publications, 2013 DOI: 10.5829/idosi.wasj.2013.22.02.2972 Proposition of Reduced Sentences with Non-Finite Clauses Fazira Aidarkhanovna

More information

Glossary of key terms and guide to methods of language analysis AS and A-level English Language (7701 and 7702)

Glossary of key terms and guide to methods of language analysis AS and A-level English Language (7701 and 7702) Glossary of key terms and guide to methods of language analysis AS and A-level English Language (7701 and 7702) Introduction This document offers guidance on content that students might typically explore

More information

Formal Pragmatics of Non Literal Meaning*

Formal Pragmatics of Non Literal Meaning* Formal Pragmatics of Non Literal Meaning* Daniel Vanderveken, Québec In the past decades, there has been much progress in the formal Semantics of ordinary language. Logicians, linguists and philosophers

More information

Cohesive devices Teacher resource: textual features

Cohesive devices Teacher resource: textual features Cohesive devices Teacher resource: textual features Textual features relevant to the second objective of Dimension 2 are described below. These are features that teachers may like to draw on to further

More information

IGCSE English Language

IGCSE English Language IGCSE English Language Technical Skills: Grammar Copyright 2012 Eddis Tutorial Services, LLC Grammar is boring! I don t know why I have to learn grammar, it s so boring and I already know how to write.

More information

English auxiliary verbs

English auxiliary verbs 1. Auxiliary verbs Auxiliary verbs serve grammatical functions, for this reason they are said to belong to the functional category of words. The main auxiliary verbs in English are DO, BE and HAVE. Others,

More information

An analysis of legal speech acts in English Contract Law *

An analysis of legal speech acts in English Contract Law * Anna Trosborg 65 An analysis of legal speech acts in English Contract Law * It is hereby performed Abstract This paper is concerned with the language used in legal speech acts in legislative texts in the

More information

"Sorry!" Remarks on the Semantics and Pragmatics of Apology. John Partridge University of Kent, Canterbury

Sorry! Remarks on the Semantics and Pragmatics of Apology. John Partridge University of Kent, Canterbury "Sorry!" Remarks on the Semantics and Pragmatics of Apology John Partridge University of Kent, Canterbury The Fillmore/McCawley model explicit performative "I apologise" central form for apologies REQUEST

More information

Using Language Stage Research** and CCEE ELA Language Domain, Standard 1, to Develop Conventions of Standard English

Using Language Stage Research** and CCEE ELA Language Domain, Standard 1, to Develop Conventions of Standard English Using Language Stage Research** and CCEE ELA Language Domain, Standard, to Develop Conventions of Standard English Language Stage CCSS* Supporting Speaking and Writing for Students with Complex Communication

More information

Course Syllabus My TOEFL ibt Preparation Course Online sessions: M, W, F 15:00-16:30 PST

Course Syllabus My TOEFL ibt Preparation Course Online sessions: M, W, F 15:00-16:30 PST Course Syllabus My TOEFL ibt Preparation Course Online sessions: M, W, F Instructor Contact Information Office Location Virtual Office Hours Course Announcements Email Technical support Anastasiia V. Mixcoatl-Martinez

More information

Section 8 Foreign Languages. Article 1 OVERALL OBJECTIVE

Section 8 Foreign Languages. Article 1 OVERALL OBJECTIVE Section 8 Foreign Languages Article 1 OVERALL OBJECTIVE To develop students communication abilities such as accurately understanding and appropriately conveying information, ideas,, deepening their understanding

More information

Livingston Public Schools Scope and Sequence K 6 Grammar and Mechanics

Livingston Public Schools Scope and Sequence K 6 Grammar and Mechanics Grade and Unit Timeframe Grammar Mechanics K Unit 1 6 weeks Oral grammar naming words K Unit 2 6 weeks Oral grammar Capitalization of a Name action words K Unit 3 6 weeks Oral grammar sentences Sentence

More information

Reflections on the nature of pragmatic failure

Reflections on the nature of pragmatic failure Jan. 2010, Volume 8, No.1 (Serial No.76) US-China Foreign Language, ISSN 1539-8080, USA Reflections on the nature of pragmatic failure YAN Li-ming, ZHUANG Yan (College of Foreign Languages and Cultures,

More information

10th Grade Language. Goal ISAT% Objective Description (with content limits) Vocabulary Words

10th Grade Language. Goal ISAT% Objective Description (with content limits) Vocabulary Words Standard 3: Writing Process 3.1: Prewrite 58-69% 10.LA.3.1.2 Generate a main idea or thesis appropriate to a type of writing. (753.02.b) Items may include a specified purpose, audience, and writing outline.

More information

KINDGERGARTEN. Listen to a story for a particular reason

KINDGERGARTEN. Listen to a story for a particular reason KINDGERGARTEN READING FOUNDATIONAL SKILLS Print Concepts Follow words from left to right in a text Follow words from top to bottom in a text Know when to turn the page in a book Show spaces between words

More information

The Top 10 Misconceptions about Implicature

The Top 10 Misconceptions about Implicature [for a festschrift for Larry Horn, edited by Betty Birner and Gregory Ward (John Benjamins 2005)] The Top 10 Misconceptions about Implicature Kent Bach kbach@sfsu.edu I ve known about conversational implicature

More information

PTE Academic Preparation Course Outline

PTE Academic Preparation Course Outline PTE Academic Preparation Course Outline August 2011 V2 Pearson Education Ltd 2011. No part of this publication may be reproduced without the prior permission of Pearson Education Ltd. Introduction The

More information

ILLOCUTIONARY ACTS OF THE OATH UTTERANCES EMPLOYED IN ENGLISH TRANSLATION OF THE NOBLE QUR AN

ILLOCUTIONARY ACTS OF THE OATH UTTERANCES EMPLOYED IN ENGLISH TRANSLATION OF THE NOBLE QUR AN ILLOCUTIONARY ACTS OF THE OATH UTTERANCES EMPLOYED IN ENGLISH TRANSLATION OF THE NOBLE QUR AN Fathur Rahman Machmud Evynurul Laily Zen State University of Malang E-mail: Ibnumachmud@gmail.com Address:

More information

Curso académico 2015/2016 INFORMACIÓN GENERAL ESTRUCTURA Y CONTENIDOS HABILIDADES: INGLÉS

Curso académico 2015/2016 INFORMACIÓN GENERAL ESTRUCTURA Y CONTENIDOS HABILIDADES: INGLÉS Curso académico 2015/2016 INFORMACIÓN GENERAL ESTRUCTURA Y CONTENIDOS HABILIDADES: INGLÉS Objetivos de Habilidades: inglés El objetivo de la prueba es comprobar que el alumno ha adquirido un nivel B1 (dentro

More information

On the rise and fall of declaratives

On the rise and fall of declaratives In Reich, Ingo et al. (eds.), Proceedings of Sinn & Bedeutung 15, pp. 1 16. Universaar Saarland Unversity Press: Saarbrücken, Germany, 2011. On the rise and fall of declaratives Tue Trinh MIT tuetrinh@mit.edu

More information

Online Tutoring System For Essay Writing

Online Tutoring System For Essay Writing Online Tutoring System For Essay Writing 2 Online Tutoring System for Essay Writing Unit 4 Infinitive Phrases Review Units 1 and 2 introduced some of the building blocks of sentences, including noun phrases

More information

or conventional implicature [1]. If the implication is only pragmatic, explicating logical truth, and, thus, also consequence and inconsistency.

or conventional implicature [1]. If the implication is only pragmatic, explicating logical truth, and, thus, also consequence and inconsistency. 44 ANALYSIS explicating logical truth, and, thus, also consequence and inconsistency. Let C1 and C2 be distinct moral codes formulated in English. Let C1 contain a norm N and C2 its negation. The moral

More information

Dealing with Grammar Errors. Compiled by Ms. Terri Yueh

Dealing with Grammar Errors. Compiled by Ms. Terri Yueh Dealing with Grammar Errors Compiled by Ms. Terri Yueh What is your Approach to Error Correction? I correct students sometimes, but not all the time. If we re practicing one particular language point,

More information

Lecture 9 Maher on Inductive Probability

Lecture 9 Maher on Inductive Probability Lecture 9 Maher on Inductive Probability Patrick Maher Scientific Thought II Spring 2010 Two concepts of probability Example You know that a coin is either two-headed or two-tailed but you have no information

More information

TOPIC 6: The Clause (continued...)

TOPIC 6: The Clause (continued...) TOPIC 6: The Clause (continued...) Types of Clause (iii): Function Classes In traditional grammar, clauses are often identified on the basis of the function they serve: 1. Adverbial Clause: a clause which

More information

Strand: Reading Literature Topics Standard I can statements Vocabulary Key Ideas and Details

Strand: Reading Literature Topics Standard I can statements Vocabulary Key Ideas and Details Strand: Reading Literature Key Ideas and Details Craft and Structure RL.3.1 Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text, referring explicitly to the text as the basis for the answers.

More information

Advanced Conditionals Explained. Real Conditionals

Advanced Conditionals Explained. Real Conditionals Advanced Conditionals Explained A conditional is made up of two parts: the if-clause and the main clause. We can put either one first and it doesn t change the meaning. We usually use a comma if we put

More information

REPORTED SPEECH. Reported speech is used to retell or report what other person has actually said. It is a very usual function in everyday language.

REPORTED SPEECH. Reported speech is used to retell or report what other person has actually said. It is a very usual function in everyday language. REPORTED SPEECH USE Reported speech is used to retell or report what other person has actually said. It is a very usual function in everyday language. STRUCTURE Formal aspects We can find different ways

More information

Language Usage V Grade Level 5

Language Usage V Grade Level 5 Language Usage V Language Usage V introduces students to a variety of topics including: identifying and using nouns, verbs, contractions, conjunctions, pronouns, adjectives, and adverbs in sentences understanding

More information

Level 1 Song Lyrics. Well-Ordered Language. Eight Parts of Speech (1 1) Sentence (1 2) Principal Elements (1 3)

Level 1 Song Lyrics. Well-Ordered Language. Eight Parts of Speech (1 1) Sentence (1 2) Principal Elements (1 3) Well-Ordered Language Level 1 Song Lyrics Note: This document contains the lyrics for all of the songs in WOL1A and 1B. Eight Parts of Speech (1 1) The eight parts of speech are classes of words with the

More information

Below is a suggested thirteen-week schedule for completing this course.

Below is a suggested thirteen-week schedule for completing this course. Grammar and Style of the Sentence Course Overview Grammar and Style of the Sentence is an online course designed to teach basic principles of grammar and style to improve your writing. New topics are introduced

More information

Towards a Pragmatic Category of Conditionals: A Radical Contextualist Account

Towards a Pragmatic Category of Conditionals: A Radical Contextualist Account The 88 th Joint Session of the Aristotelian Society and the Mind Association Fitzwilliam College, 11-13 July 2014 Towards a Pragmatic Category of Conditionals: A Radical Contextualist Account Chi-Hé Elder

More information

Strand: Reading Literature Topics Standard I can statements Vocabulary Key Ideas and Details

Strand: Reading Literature Topics Standard I can statements Vocabulary Key Ideas and Details Strand: Reading Literature Topics Standard I can statements Vocabulary Key Ideas and Details Craft and Structure RL.5.1 Quote accurately from a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when

More information

12TH OECD-JAPAN SEMINAR: GLOBALISATION AND LINGUISTIC COMPETENCIES: RESPONDING TO DIVERSITY IN LANGUAGE ENVIRONMENTS

12TH OECD-JAPAN SEMINAR: GLOBALISATION AND LINGUISTIC COMPETENCIES: RESPONDING TO DIVERSITY IN LANGUAGE ENVIRONMENTS 12TH OECD-JAPAN SEMINAR: GLOBALISATION AND LINGUISTIC COMPETENCIES: RESPONDING TO DIVERSITY IN LANGUAGE ENVIRONMENTS ENGLISH EDUCATION AND POLICY IN JAPAN Tetsuya Kashihara Institut d'etudes Politiques

More information

NOTES ON WORDS, PHRASES, SENTENCES AND CLAUSES

NOTES ON WORDS, PHRASES, SENTENCES AND CLAUSES Universidad de Los Andes Facultad de Humanidades y Educación Escuela de Idiomas Modernos NOTES ON WORDS, PHRASES, SENTENCES AND CLAUSES In English, as in many other languages in the world, individual words

More information

Lecture 2: Moral Reasoning & Evaluating Ethical Theories

Lecture 2: Moral Reasoning & Evaluating Ethical Theories Lecture 2: Moral Reasoning & Evaluating Ethical Theories I. Introduction In this ethics course, we are going to avoid divine command theory and various appeals to authority and put our trust in critical

More information

A Primer in the Semantics of English

A Primer in the Semantics of English A Primer in the Semantics of English Some Nuts and Bolts 2000-2010 by Terence Parsons A Primer in the Semantics of English Some Nuts and Bolts Chapter 0: Preliminary Issues 0.1 What Sentences Do 0.2 Standing-for

More information

A grade of C or better in previous English courses.

A grade of C or better in previous English courses. Course of Study Information Page COURSE TITLE Creative Writing DISTRICT COURSE NUMBER (#0128) Rationale: Course Description that will be in the Course Directory: How Does this Course align with or meet

More information

CHAPTER 1. Logic, Proofs Propositions

CHAPTER 1. Logic, Proofs Propositions CHAPTER 1 Logic, Proofs 1.1. Propositions A proposition is a declarative sentence that is either true or false (but not both). For instance, the following are propositions: Paris is in France (true), London

More information

Philosophy of Language

Philosophy of Language Philosophy of Language Phil 234, Winter 2013 Bates College Professor William Seeley (315 Hedge) Office Hours: T/Th 11-Noon Course Description: It has been argued that language is what sets us as human

More information

Indiana Department of Education

Indiana Department of Education GRADE 1 READING Guiding Principle: Students read a wide range of fiction, nonfiction, classic, and contemporary works, to build an understanding of texts, of themselves, and of the cultures of the United

More information

Correlation: ELLIS. English language Learning and Instruction System. and the TOEFL. Test Of English as a Foreign Language

Correlation: ELLIS. English language Learning and Instruction System. and the TOEFL. Test Of English as a Foreign Language Correlation: English language Learning and Instruction System and the TOEFL Test Of English as a Foreign Language Structure (Grammar) A major aspect of the ability to succeed on the TOEFL examination is

More information

CHAPTER 5: Tense in Conditional Constructions

CHAPTER 5: Tense in Conditional Constructions CHAPTER 5: Tense in Conditional Constructions 5.0 Introduction This chapter examines the behavior of tense in the protasis ('if clause') and apodosis ('then clause') of hypothetical and counterfactual

More information

Interlanguage pragmatics. CAS LX 400 Second Language Acquisition. Anecdotal examples. Breakdown. Modals and mitigation. Pragmatic transfer

Interlanguage pragmatics. CAS LX 400 Second Language Acquisition. Anecdotal examples. Breakdown. Modals and mitigation. Pragmatic transfer CAS LX 400 Second Language Acquisition Week 14a. Interlanguage pragmatics Interlanguage pragmatics Becoming a high-proficiency second language speaker requires knowledge of vocabulary, pronunciation, syntax

More information

GMAT.cz www.gmat.cz info@gmat.cz. GMAT.cz KET (Key English Test) Preparating Course Syllabus

GMAT.cz www.gmat.cz info@gmat.cz. GMAT.cz KET (Key English Test) Preparating Course Syllabus Lesson Overview of Lesson Plan Numbers 1&2 Introduction to Cambridge KET Handing Over of GMAT.cz KET General Preparation Package Introduce Methodology for Vocabulary Log Introduce Methodology for Grammar

More information

Categorizing automated messages

Categorizing automated messages Categorizing automated messages Scott A. Moore Computer & Information Systems Department University of Michigan Business School Abstract This paper discusses a field study that investigates the relationship

More information

ELPS TELPAS. Proficiency Level Descriptors

ELPS TELPAS. Proficiency Level Descriptors ELPS TELPAS Proficiency Level Descriptors Permission to copy the ELPS TELPAS Proficiency Level Descriptors is hereby extended to Texas school officials and their agents for their exclusive use in determining

More information

PASSING SCORES. Example: W 37 +R 41+ M 45 = 123

PASSING SCORES. Example: W 37 +R 41+ M 45 = 123 CBEST WRITING TIME MANAGEMENT You will be given a test booklet with all three sections Writing, Reading and Math. You may take all three sections at one sitting, or you can spend four hours on just one

More information

Speech act theory and the analysis of conversations. Sequencing and interpretation in pragmatic theory

Speech act theory and the analysis of conversations. Sequencing and interpretation in pragmatic theory Speech act theory and the analysis of conversations. Sequencing and interpretation in pragmatic theory Jacques Moeschler Department of Linguistics University of Geneva 1. Introduction Conversation has

More information

CHARTES D'ANGLAIS SOMMAIRE. CHARTE NIVEAU A1 Pages 2-4. CHARTE NIVEAU A2 Pages 5-7. CHARTE NIVEAU B1 Pages 8-10. CHARTE NIVEAU B2 Pages 11-14

CHARTES D'ANGLAIS SOMMAIRE. CHARTE NIVEAU A1 Pages 2-4. CHARTE NIVEAU A2 Pages 5-7. CHARTE NIVEAU B1 Pages 8-10. CHARTE NIVEAU B2 Pages 11-14 CHARTES D'ANGLAIS SOMMAIRE CHARTE NIVEAU A1 Pages 2-4 CHARTE NIVEAU A2 Pages 5-7 CHARTE NIVEAU B1 Pages 8-10 CHARTE NIVEAU B2 Pages 11-14 CHARTE NIVEAU C1 Pages 15-17 MAJ, le 11 juin 2014 A1 Skills-based

More information

Obligation/necessity

Obligation/necessity Modal verbs Modal verbs (also called modal auxiliary verbs) express a variety of attitudes ( moods ) towards a possible action or state the lexical verb refers to. They are used to express meaning connected

More information

COMPETENT COMMUNICATION MANUAL (NEW)

COMPETENT COMMUNICATION MANUAL (NEW) Project #1: THE ICE BREAKER Executive Summary: For your first speech project, you will introduce yourself to your fellow club members and give them some information about your background, interests and

More information

Meaning and communication, swearing and silence

Meaning and communication, swearing and silence or pragmatics? Two case studies Meaning and communication, swearing and silence Gary Thoms 2/12/14 or pragmatics? Two case studies Outline communication and linguistic meaning semantics and pragmatics

More information

1 Propositional Logic

1 Propositional Logic 1 Propositional Logic Propositions 1.1 Definition A declarative sentence is a sentence that declares a fact or facts. Example 1 The earth is spherical. 7 + 1 = 6 + 2 x 2 > 0 for all real numbers x. 1 =

More information

Conditional Sentences

Conditional Sentences Conditional Sentences 3 MAIN TYPES: First, second and third conditional First Conditional If I see Andrew at the meeting, I'll give him your message. If clause: PRESENT SIMPLE Main clause: FUTURE SIMPLE

More information

Pragmatics and Semantics. François Recanati Institut Jean Nicod (CNRS) 1bis avenue de Lowendal Paris, France

Pragmatics and Semantics. François Recanati Institut Jean Nicod (CNRS) 1bis avenue de Lowendal Paris, France 1 Pragmatics and Semantics François Recanati Institut Jean Nicod (CNRS) 1bis avenue de Lowendal 75007 Paris, France Around the middle of the twentieth century, there were two opposing camps within the

More information

Quine on truth by convention

Quine on truth by convention Quine on truth by convention March 8, 2005 1 Linguistic explanations of necessity and the a priori.............. 1 2 Relative and absolute truth by definition.................... 2 3 Is logic true by convention?...........................

More information

Course: LIN 438/538 Semantics I Term: Fall 2003 Instructor: Bohnemeyer Text: Saeed 2003

Course: LIN 438/538 Semantics I Term: Fall 2003 Instructor: Bohnemeyer Text: Saeed 2003 Course: LIN 438/538 Semantics I Term: Fall 2003 Instructor: Bohnemeyer Text: Saeed 2003 Overview: This course offers an introduction to the basic concepts and methods in the analysis of natural language

More information

Modal Verbs in New Zealand English Directives'

Modal Verbs in New Zealand English Directives' Modal Verbs in New Zealand English Directives' BERNADETTE VINE 1. Introduction The distribution and semantics of the different modal verbs in English have been explored using a number of corpora (e.g.,

More information

Listening Speaking Reading Writing

Listening Speaking Reading Writing Advanced CB 21 A One level Assess descriptions and narrations of factual and technical materials. Discriminate for accurate information while taking notes of a complex discourse. Assess the essential message

More information

Grade 3 Language Arts/Writing Unit 4 of 14 Persuasive: Speech. Overview

Grade 3 Language Arts/Writing Unit 4 of 14 Persuasive: Speech. Overview Grade 3 Language Arts/Writing Unit 4 of 14 Persuasive: Speech Overview Overall days: 15 1 day = 50 minutes (The number of days is a guide for pacing to ensure that all the curriculum units for the year

More information

Read this syllabus very carefully. If there are any reasons why you cannot comply with what I am requiring, then talk with me about this at once.

Read this syllabus very carefully. If there are any reasons why you cannot comply with what I am requiring, then talk with me about this at once. LOGIC AND CRITICAL THINKING PHIL 2020 Maymester Term, 2010 Daily, 9:30-12:15 Peabody Hall, room 105 Text: LOGIC AND RATIONAL THOUGHT by Frank R. Harrison, III Professor: Frank R. Harrison, III Office:

More information

A Language/Action Perspective on the Design of Cooperative Work

A Language/Action Perspective on the Design of Cooperative Work Page 1 of 23 A Language/Action Perspective on the Design of Cooperative Work Terry Winograd Published in Human-Computer Interaction 3:1 (1987-88), 3-30. Earlier version presented at the Conference on Computer-Supported

More information

SAMPLE COURSE OUTLINE GERMAN: SECOND LANGUAGE GENERAL YEAR 11

SAMPLE COURSE OUTLINE GERMAN: SECOND LANGUAGE GENERAL YEAR 11 SAMPLE COURSE OUTLINE GERMAN: SECOND LANGUAGE GENERAL YEAR 11 Copyright School Curriculum and Standards Authority, 2014 This document apart from any third party copyright material contained in it may be

More information

ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1 VP; MOOD. Greenbaum and Quirk, 1990: pp Blaganje and Konte, 1998: pp ;

ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1 VP; MOOD. Greenbaum and Quirk, 1990: pp Blaganje and Konte, 1998: pp ; ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1 VP; MOOD Greenbaum and Quirk, 1990: pp. 34-44 Blaganje and Konte, 1998: pp. 198 217; 213-217 Types of verbs Full / lexical: carry te lexical meaning (work, sleep, know,...) and are open

More information

A LEXICAL CONSTRUCTIONAL APPROACH TO ILLOCUTION: THE CASE OF PROMISES* Nuria Del Campo Martínez

A LEXICAL CONSTRUCTIONAL APPROACH TO ILLOCUTION: THE CASE OF PROMISES* Nuria Del Campo Martínez A LEXICAL CONSTRUCTIONAL APPROACH TO ILLOCUTION: THE CASE OF PROMISES* Nuria Del Campo Martínez Universidad de La Rioja Abstract The present contribution studies the cognitive motivation and linguistic

More information

The Notions of Literal and Non-literal Meaning in Semantics and Pragmatics

The Notions of Literal and Non-literal Meaning in Semantics and Pragmatics The Notions of Literal and Non-literal Meaning in Semantics and Pragmatics Dissertation zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades doctor philosophiae (Dr. phil) Eingereicht an der Philologischen Fakultät der

More information

Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Year 6

Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Year 6 Discussion Texts Vocabulary Phonics and whole word spelling words containing each of the 40+ phonemes taught common exception words the days of the week name the letters of the alphabet in order using

More information

Building with the 6 traits

Building with the 6 traits Building with the 6 traits Like the foundation of a house, IDEA DEVELOPMENT serves as the solid base on which a good piece of writing rests. If you start with a solid idea, your writing can grow as big

More information

Virginia English Standards of Learning Grade 8

Virginia English Standards of Learning Grade 8 A Correlation of Prentice Hall Writing Coach 2012 To the Virginia English Standards of Learning A Correlation of, 2012, Introduction This document demonstrates how, 2012, meets the objectives of the. Correlation

More information

Modal Verbs. Modal verbs for BSL are Can, Must, Should, Want (these are productive requirements)

Modal Verbs. Modal verbs for BSL are Can, Must, Should, Want (these are productive requirements) Modal Verbs Modal verbs for BSL are Can, Must, Should, Want (these are productive requirements) What is a model verb? http://www.englishbaby.com/lessons/3364/member_submitted/what_are _modal_verbs What

More information

A PRAGMATICS ANALYSIS OF THE SLOGANS IN TV COMMERCIAL ADVERTISEMENT PRODUCTS

A PRAGMATICS ANALYSIS OF THE SLOGANS IN TV COMMERCIAL ADVERTISEMENT PRODUCTS A PRAGMATICS ANALYSIS OF THE SLOGANS IN TV COMMERCIAL ADVERTISEMENT PRODUCTS RESEARCH PROPOSAL Submitted as a Partial Fulfillment of Requirements for Getting Bachelor Degree of Education in English Department

More information

Academic Standards for Reading, Writing, Speaking, and Listening June 1, 2009 FINAL Elementary Standards Grades 3-8

Academic Standards for Reading, Writing, Speaking, and Listening June 1, 2009 FINAL Elementary Standards Grades 3-8 Academic Standards for Reading, Writing, Speaking, and Listening June 1, 2009 FINAL Elementary Standards Grades 3-8 Pennsylvania Department of Education These standards are offered as a voluntary resource

More information

Date Re-Assessed. Indicator. CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RF.5.3 Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.

Date Re-Assessed. Indicator. CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RF.5.3 Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words. CCSS English/Language Arts Standards Reading: Foundational Skills Fifth Grade Retaught Reviewed Assessed Phonics and Word Recognition CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RF.5.3 Know and apply grade-level phonics and word

More information

Laying the Foundation English Diagnostic Activity Comparison/Contrast Grade 7 KEY

Laying the Foundation English Diagnostic Activity Comparison/Contrast Grade 7 KEY Multiple Choice Activity Mother to Son and Fear Answer Section 1. ANS: D The correct answer is choice D. The colon introduces the advice the mother is going to offer the son. She offers this advice in

More information

A Guide To Verb Tense Voice And Mood In Scientific Writing

A Guide To Verb Tense Voice And Mood In Scientific Writing A Guide To Verb Tense Voice And Mood In Scientific Writing A. Present Tense Use present tense: 1. To describe something that is happening now: Appendix A summarizes the results of the survey. 2. To describe

More information

İNGİLİZCE DERS KİTAPLARINDA EDİMSEL ÖGELER PRAGMATIC ELEMENTS IN EFL COURSE BOOKS. Ömer Gökhan ULUM

İNGİLİZCE DERS KİTAPLARINDA EDİMSEL ÖGELER PRAGMATIC ELEMENTS IN EFL COURSE BOOKS. Ömer Gökhan ULUM ISSN 1308 8971 INOVED Özel Sayı, 2015, 93-106 İNGİLİZCE DERS KİTAPLARINDA EDİMSEL ÖGELER PRAGMATIC ELEMENTS IN EFL COURSE BOOKS Ömer Gökhan ULUM Arş. Gör., Hakkari Üniversitesi, İngilizce Öğretmenliği,

More information