Ricardo-AEA. Biofuels feedstocks and conversion technology overview. Presentation to New Energy Forum Event. Biofuels, where next?

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1 Ricardo-AEA Biofuels feedstocks and conversion technology overview Presentation to New Energy Forum Event Biofuels, where next? Judith Bates London, 10 th July,

2 2 Biofuels feedstocks and conversion technologies Overview of technologies Production of biofuels from oils Biochemical routes Thermochemical routes Lignocellulosic feedstocks Microalgae

3 3 Overview of conversion technologies Feedstock Conversion Fuel Vegetable oils and animal fats Sugar and starch crops Lignocellulosic biomass, including residues and wastes Sugar extraction Sugar extraction Transesterification Hydrotreatment Sugar extraction with advanced pre-treatment Gasification Fermentation distillation Microbial fermentation Fermentation and distillation Fischer Tropsch Other catalytic processes FAME biodiesel HVO biodiesel Bioethanol, biobutanol, ETBE Diesel (via farnesene) Bioethanol, biobutanol, ETBE BtL diesel, kerosene, SNG, DME Bioethanol biobutanol Pyrolysis Upgrading Liquid biofuels Wastes and residues Anaerobic digestion Upgrading Biomethane

4 4 Production of biofuels from vegetable oils Copyright CPL Press

5 5 FAME biodiesel production capacity Well established, mature technology Current production capacity: UK 0.6 Mt/yr, Europe 23.5 Mt/yr, US 7.1 Mt/yr Significant capacity in Indonesia/Malaysia and South America (Brazil, Argentina)

6 6 Hydrotreatment of Oils Chemical reaction of oils with hydrogen to produce diesel type hydrocarbon HVO or renewable diesel drop in fuel Can be tailored to meet aviation fuel requirements First commercial plants now in operation Neste Oil have four commercial plants world wide (Finland, Nls and Singapore); total output of 1.9 Mt/yr Dynamic Fuels one commercial plant in US (0.2 Mt/yr) AliphaJet planning pilot plant based on catalytic decarboxylation of crude fats (230 t/yr)

7 7 Feedstocks for FAME Current feedstocks Vegetable oils from food crops oil seed rape, soy, palm, sunflower Waste oil/used cooking oil Animal fats tallow Future feedstocks under consideration non-food crops suitable for less favourable conditions, e.g. less productive land, lower rainfall Jatropha Camelina Sustainability issues for vegetable oils: lower GHG savings for many vegetable oils will not meet EU s GHG saving criteria in 2017 ILUC factor may be higher for oil based crops

8 8 UK Biodiesel feedstocks and origins 2010/2011 Currently increased use of UCO (mainly from Europe) due to incentives double counting towards RED targets Origin of UK biodiesel 2011/12 3% 1% 2011/12 Used cooking oil 87% Oilseed rape 7% Soy 3% Palm 1% Tallow 1% 16% 19% 7% 26% 4% S. America ROW Other EU Canada Netherlands United Kingdom United States Unknown 1% 25% Unknown

9 9 Potential future locations of FAME biodiesel feedstocks (2030) Potential location of sustainable feedstocks i.e. those meeting EU GHG saving requirements (excludes UCO) Based on forecasts of spare agricultural land Modelling forecast that supplies of sustainable biodiesel might be limited Source: Based on modelling work carried out for DECC by Ricardo-AEA on global bioenergy supply

10 10 Biochemical routes for biofuels production Established technology Advanced biofuels Copyright CPL Press

11 Billion Gallons 11 Bioethanol sugar and starch crops Fermentation to bioethanol - commercial technology Fermentation to biobutanol - subject of research Global production dominated by US (corn) and Brazil (sugar cane) Global Ethanol Production by Country/Region and Year Africa Australia Mexico & Central America Other South America (minus Brazil) Asia (minus China) Canada China Europe Brazil USA Origin of UK bioethanol 2011/12 US 77% Corn 87% Other 7% UK 4% Spain 6% Wheat 5% France 6% Sweet sorghum 3% Sugar beet 2% Other 3%

12 12 Potential future locations of sugar and starch feedstocks for bioethanol (2030) Potential location of sustainable feedstocks i.e. those meeting EU GHG saving requirements Based on forecasts of spare agricultural land Supply heavily dominated by North and Latin America Source: Based on modelling work carried out for DECC by Ricardo-AEA on global bioenergy supply

13 13 Bioethanol production lignocellulosic materials Requires additional steps Challenge is to overcome inhibition of fermentation and low conversion rates for C5 sugars. Can be combined with hydrolysis step Milling/chopping Breakdown shell of material and increase reactivity Split polymers in cellulose into sugar monomers Chemical Physical Biological Acids Steam explosion Ammonia fibre explosion Fungi and bacteria Cellulose Hemicellulose Enzymatic hydrolysis Diluted acids or bases Enzymatic hydrolysis Can happen as part of pretreatment

14 14 Status of biochemical lignocellulosic routes Over 50 demonstration and pilot plant operational in Europe, US, Japan, and Brazil Commercial plant listed below several more planned for 2013 and 2014/ 2015 Biorefinery concept being explored e.g. uses for lignin Company Location Feedstock Output Start-up Abengoa Bioenergy Biomass of Kansas US Corn stover, straw, switch grass 75, (under construction) Beta Renewables Italy Straw, giant reed grass Ineos Bio US Vegetative waste, waste wood, garden waste 60, , (under construction) POET-DSM US Agricultural residues 75, (under construction)

15 Thermochemical routes for biofuels production Two key routes gasification and pyrolysis Pyrolysis = thermal decomposition at high temperature in absence of oxygen Bio-oil can be of poor quality particularly if from feedstocks with high ash content. Requires upgrading for use in diesel engines in road transport Syngas from gasification process is mainly CO and H 2. It can be methanated to produce synthetic natural gas. Catalysts (iron and cobalt in FT process) are used to produce alkanes Product conditioning: distillation, hydration, isomerization, reforming and cracking Potential products include diesel and gasoline type liquids and DME (Dimethyl Ether) a gas with similar properties to propane Copyright CPL Press 15

16 16 Status of thermo-chemical conversion routes Several pilot and some demonstration plant operational in Europe, North America and Australia No commercial plant currently operational Enerkem have commercial (30,000 t/yr) plant under construction in Canada producing ethanol, methanol and various chemicals from sorted MSW, and plans for two further plant. Solena planning plant operating on waste to produce aviation fuel in UK for 2014/15 CHOREN industries who were planning 200,000 FT plant in Germany operating on wood chips are now insolvent; plans for plant utilising forest residues to produce FT liquids in Finland have also been stopped Gasification plants typically need to be large scale to achieve the economies of scale needed to produce biofuels cost-effectively, and could require large quantities of feedstock to be transported. Pyrolysis technologies could be developed at smaller scale with bio-oil then transported to central facility for upgrading

17 17 Lignocellulosic feedstocks Wide variety of wastes, agricultural residues and woody biomass potentially suitable Wastes: Organic component of municipal solid waste, food waste, wood waste Agricultural residues: Corn stover, cereal straw, bagasse Energy crops: perennial grasses such as switchgrass, giant reed grass short rotation coppice e.g. poplar, willow Short rotation forestry Biochemical routes mainly using agricultural residues and organic waste Potential competitions for woody biomass with heat and power sector Waste feedstocks have large cost advantage, and use of wastes (and residues) also avoids the food vs fuel debate Some R&D on tailoring energy crops to improve properties for conversion to biofuels

18 18 Comparative costs of biofuels (2020) Diesel type fuels Petrol type fuels Source: Based on work carried out by Ricardo-AEA for DfT

19 19 Potential location of future resources (2030) Forestry resource Energy crops Source: Based on modelling work carried out for DECC by Ricardo-AEA on global bioenergy supply

20 20 Microalgae Currently much interest but long term prospect Several cultivation/conversion routes: Open pond on land Floating bags in inland seas and bays Biofilms Photobioreactors: closed vessel; higher productivity, higher costs Heterotrophic ( dark fermentation ), requires sugar or cellulose substrate Main R&D emphasis is on feedstock development Can use waste water as a cultivation medium Extract oils for conversion to FAME/HVO

21 21 Assessment of algae potential Source: Algal Bioenergy Special Interest Group Report, Feb 2012

22 22 Timescales for commercialisation of algal products Source: Algal Bioenergy Special Interest Group Report, Feb 2012

23 Judith Bates Ricardo-AEA Ltd The Gemini Building Fermi Avenue Harwell, Didcot, OX11 0QR T: E: W:

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