Matching nutritional requirements of gestating cows from October to April with various extended grazing practices

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1 Matching nutritional requirements of gestating cows from October to April with various extended grazing practices Greg Penner, PhD Associate Professor and Centennial Enhancement Chair in Ruminant Nutritional Physiology Department of Animal and Poultry Science, University of Saskatchewan Key concepts Nutritional requirements of pregnant beef cattle nearly double from early gestation (October) to late gestation and early lactation (April/May) Forage quality differs markedly among crops and both yield and quality decrease during the winter grazing season Limit over feeding of nutrients early in the winter feeding period Ensure adequate nutrient provision in late gestation 1

2 Nutrient requirements of beef cattle Net energy requirement, Mcal/d Assumptions ~12 lb cow 4 kg calf Metabolizable CP, g/d NRC, 2 Nutrient requirements of beef cattle Extended winter grazing must meet needs when nutrient requirements are lowest and greatest Nutrient requirements will: Increase with cold temperatures Increase with greater activity Distance cows walk Snow depth / mud Increase if BCS gain is required 2

3 Effects of pre and post partum energy on reproduction Low/Low b Low/High High/Low High/High Prepartum BW change (lb) Postpartum BW change (lb) Prepartum BCS change Postpartum BCS change Cyclic by d 15 (%) PPI (days) a Prepartum period = 11 d; Postpartum period = calving to 2 nd ovulation or 15 d. b Low = 7% NRC req. for NE m ; High = 15% of NRC req. from NE m Perry et al J. Anim. Sci. 69:3762 Adequate vs. inadequate nutrients during gestation: implications on the male offspring Funston et al., 29 3

4 Adequate vs. inadequate nutrients during gestation: implications on the heifer offspring Funston et al., 29 Options for winter grazing Swath grazing Bale grazing Straw/chaff grazing Corn grazing Bale processing Stockpiled forage 4

5 Practical challenges to consider Correct cow Access to shelter and water Snow depth or freeze/thaw Swath grazing vs. bale grazing vs. standing corn Mud Predation Yield loss (leaf loss and shelling, inaccessible feed) Nutrient loss (decreased IVODM and CP, and increased NDF) Reduction in digestibility with time IVOMD, % Swathed barley Baron et al., 26 Linear P <.1 IVOMD, % Standing corn Baron et al., 23 Linear P <.5 5

6 Changes in nutrient concentration over time 9 Sep-28 Nov-27 Apr-28 8 NDF content, % DM Constraints to DMI? 1 Barley Oat Pea Aasen et al., 24 Matching nutritional requirements of gestating cows from October to April with various extended grazing practices 6

7 Simulation approach 13 lb cow eating at 2.2% of BW Intake was adjusted lower when NDF intake exceeded 1.2% BW The 2 nd trimester cow was assigned at 5 mo of gestation The 3 rd trimester cow at 8 mo of gestation Assumed diet consisting of only the specified feed and a mineral and vitamin supplement Feed composition based on published reports from V.S. Baron (Lacombe, AB) and H.A Lardner (Lanigan, SK) or default values in CowBytes version 5.5 Crop types and nutrient requirements Crop type Item Barley chaff Barley Oat Triticale Corn October to December (2nd trimester) Predicted DMI, kg/d TDN, lbs/d Requirement Supply Balance CP, g/d Requirement Supply Balance Note: All crops exceed far exceed protein requirements except barley chaff 7

8 Crop types and nutrient requirements Crop type Item Barley chaff Barley Oat Triticale Corn January to April (3rd trimester) Predicted DMI, kg/d TDN Requirement Supply Balance CP Requirement Supply Balance Note: Only corn and triticale are expected to meet nutrient requirements of cattle Potential strategies to optimize winter grazing Net energy requirement, Mcal/d Likely underfeeding energy Over-feeding protein and potentially energy Metabolizable CP, g/d 8

9 A strategy to increase yield and reduce over feeding of CP Altering maturity at harvest Barley Early dough (Kaulbars and King, 24) Oat Late milk (Kaulbars and King, 24) Rosser et al., 213 A strategy to increase yield and reduce over feeding of CP The current recommendations are for ensiling DM content Available carbohydrates Changes in digestibility with storage Loss of potential forage yield for dry forages. Whole plant yield with growing degree days (GDD) In vitro organic matter digestibility remains unchanged (Baron et al. 1992) 9

10 Nutrient Composition Barley Chemical composition, % DM Head emergence Early dough Late dough Hard dough SEM P value DM content Linear OM Linear CP Quadratic NDF Linear NFC Linear Ca Linear P Quadratic Rosser et al., 213 Delaying maturity at harvest increases digestible nutrient yield EDDM, % EDDM yield, g EDDM/m 2 Barley Oat EDDM; linear P =.45, quadratic P =.583) Yield of EDDM; linear P =.41, quadratic P =.953 EDDM; linear P =.6, quadratic P =.14 Yield of EDDM; linear P =.5, quadratic P =.957 Rosser et al., 213 1

11 Late gestation: providing more energy Supplementation is likely required How to provide more energy Lipid feeding very challenging Concentrate Cereal grain (estimated 2 lb requirement) Byproduct pellet (estimated 2.2 lb requirement) Grain Supplementation influences medium quality forage intake 8 7 Forage Intake Total Intake 5 Dry Matter Intake, kg/d Control Digestible OM Intake, kg/d Control Supplemental Barley kg DM/d Supplemental Barley, kg DM/d Lardy et al., 24 11

12 High fat byproduct pellets Chemical composition of pelleted supplements Nutrient (% DM) LS/HF HS/LF Dry matter (%) Crude protein Soluble crude protein (% CP) Acid detergent fibre Neutral detergent fibre Starch Fat Ash DE (Mcal kg 1 DM) DE = digestible energy High fat byproduct pellets 8 75 Forage Utilization Forage Dry Matter Intake P =.5 12 P =.9 1 % kg hd 1 d CON LS/HF HS/LF CON LS/HF HS/LF 12

13 Key concepts Nutritional requirements of pregnant beef cattle nearly double from early gestation (October) to late gestation and early lactation (April/May) Forage quality differs markedly among crops and both yield and quality decrease during the winter grazing season Limit over feeding of nutrients early in the winter feeding period Late maturity harvested cereals may provide an option Ensure adequate nutrient provision in late gestation Triticale and corn may be ideal Barley and oat greenfeed will likely require supplementation Questions/comments Swath grazing Bale grazing Straw/chaff grazing Corn grazing Bale processing Stockpiled forage 13

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