National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine Beef Nutrient Requirements

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1 National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine Beef Nutrient Requirements Overview of Revisions to the NRC (1996, 2000) Publication M. L. Galyean College of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Texas Tech University, Lubbock

2 STATEMENT OF TASK A committee will prepare a report that reviews the scientific literature on the nutrition of beef cattle. All life phases and types of production will be addressed. The report will include the following elements: a comprehensive analysis of recent research on feeding and nutrition of beef cattle including research on the amounts of amino acids, lipids, minerals, vitamins, and water needed by growing and reproducing beef cattle; a summary of recent research on energy systems used in beef cattle nutrition; an update of the nutrient requirements contained in the 1996 NRC publication Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle; a summary of the composition of feed ingredients, mineral supplements, and feed additives routinely fed to beef cattle; a summary of information about coproducts from the biofuels industry, which will include information about the various types of products and their most effective use and information about phosphorus and sulfur contents; a review of nutritional and feeding strategies to minimize nutrient losses in manure and reduce greenhouse gas production; a discussion of the effect of feeding on the nutritional quality and food safety of beef; new information about nutrient metabolism and utilization (e.g., rumen bypass of protein and lipids, nutrient encapsulation, and starch processing); new information on feed additives that alter rumen metabolism and post-absorptive metabolism; and future areas of needed research. Depending on the extent of new information available, an update of the current computer model to calculate nutrient requirements may be developed.

3 Committee on Nutrients Requirements of Beef Cattle

4 Determining Nutrient Requirements of Ruminants Animal Requirements for Nutrients Protein Energy Vitamins Minerals Water Effects of: Sex Breed Growth Pregnancy Lactation Environment Management Kinetics of digestion Digestion/absorption Toolbox Literature reviews Dose-response data Data mining and analyses Independent data for validation Factors affecting nutrient supply Interactions among nutrients - Efficiency coefficients - Effects of nutrient deficiencies and excesses Modeling nutrient retention Feed and Water Intake Validation with independent data Ability of Feedstuffs to Meet Requirements Feed Composition average values and variation Protein Carbohydrate fractions Lipids Vitamins Minerals Water Drinking Water Energy Application: Published equations Computer models Ability to revise and update

5 Overview of Major Changes Beef Nutrient Requirements New chapters included in the 8 th Revised Edition: Beef Production: Systems, Quality, and Safety Anatomy, Digestion, and Nutrient Utilization Energy Terms and Concepts o Maintenance Consideration: Energy and Protein o Growth Carbohydrates Lipids Separate Vitamins and Water Chapters Metabolic Modifiers Environment (nutrient excretion and management) Utilization of Byproduct Feeds by Cattle Research Needs

6 Overview of Major Changes Chapter 1. Beef Production: Systems, Quality, and Safety Information on beef cattle production systems in North America Provides backdrop for understanding the settings from which data are derived to establish nutrient requirements and typical conditions in which recommendations are applied New information on beef safety in terms of foodborne pathogens and antimicrobial resistance Brief review of the nutritional profile of beef products Significance of animal welfare issues to the beef industry

7 Overview of Major Changes Chapter 2. Anatomy, Digestion and Nutrient Utilization: Comprehensive review of ruminant anatomy, digestion, and nutrient utilization Provides conceptual basis for establishing nutrient requirements and developing mechanistic

8 Overview of Major Changes Chapter 3. Energy Terms and Concepts: Update on energy terminology Suggestions for additional analyses and statistical relationships (e.g., DE:ME conversion and effects on NE values

9 Chapter 4. Carbohydrates: Overview of various types of carbohydrates Focus on physiochemical properties and metabolism Essential to understanding nutrient supply and model development Effects of processing on nutrient supply and the importance of forage fiber in maintaining rumen function Overview of Major Changes

10 Overview of Major Changes Chapter 5. Lipids: Role of lipids in beef cattle nutrition; lipid digestion and absorption Energy value of lipid sources and supplementation of lipids in beef diets Importance of biohydrogenation of fatty acids by the ruminal microbes

11 Chapter 6. Protein: Overview of Major Changes Metabolizable protein system reviewed and updated New equations for predicting microbial protein synthesis New equation for urea nitrogen used for anabolism (recycled N incorporated into microbial CP or other microbial products = UUA) EE< 3.9% EE 3.9% MCP = (TDNI) MCP = (FFTDNI) ; where MCP is microbial CP, g/d; TDNI is TDN intake, g/d; and FFTDNI is fat-free TDNI, g/d where UUA is urea-n used for anabolism, g N/d; CP is crude protein, % DM; and NI is nitrogen intake, g N/d

12 Chapter 7. Minerals: Overview of Major Changes Updates macro- and micro-mineral requirements for cattle and reviews new information on minerals in beef production New information relative to the role of sulfur in beef cattle production Mineral Unit Growing and Finishing Cattle Calcium % See Chapter 19 Requirement Gestating Cows Early Lactation Maximum Tolerable Concentration Chlorine % Chromium mg/kg _ 1, b Cobalt mg/kg Copper mg/kg c Iodine mg/kg Iron mg/kg Magnesium % Manganese mg/kg , Molybdenum mg/kg 5.00 Nickel mg/kg Phosphorus % See Chapter 19 Potassium % Selenium mg/kg Sodium % _ Sulfur % c Zinc mg/kg

13 Overview of Major Changes Chapter 8. Vitamins: Provides update of beef cattle vitamin nutrition Greater clarity provided on recommendations for provision of vitamin E in various production settings Summary of New Recommendations for Vitamin E Based on available data the Committee recommends the following: It is likely that for non-stressed mature beef cattle, vitamin E requirements are low, and that vitamin E needs are met through normal dietary ingredients. For newly received stressed calves, the Committee recommends 400 to 500 IU/d or 1.6 to 2.0 IU/kg of BW during the receiving period. Once received and adapted to conditions, for normal healthy finishing cattle, dietary vitamin E should fall within previously recommended ranges of between 25 to 35 IU/ kg DMI or 0.52 to 0.73 IU/kg of BW. The data are limited for other classes of beef cattle and additional research during periods of stress would provide insight into vitamin E requirements for beef cattle.

14 Chapter 9. Water: Overview of Major Changes Updates equations to predict water intake by beef cattle Examines factors that influence water intake, including the role of water quality in beef cattle production Water intake, L/d = ( x MT) + (2.432 x DMI) (3.870 x PP) (4.437 x DS); where MT is the maximum temperature in degrees Celsius, DMI is dry matter intake in kg fed daily, PP is precipitation in cm/d, and DS is the percentage of dietary salt Guidelines for Total Soluble Salts (TSS) in Water for Cattle TSS, mg/l Comments <1,000 Safe and should pose no health problems. 1,000 2,999 Generally safe but may cause a mild temporary diarrhea in animals not accustomed to the water. 3,000 4,999 Water may be refused when first offered to animals or cause temporary diarrhea. Animal performance may be less than optimum because water intake is not maximized. 5,000 6,999 Avoid these waters for pregnant or lactating animals. May be offered with reasonable safety to animals where maximum performance is not required. 7,000 These waters should not be fed to cattle. Health problems and/or poor production will result.

15 Chapter 10. Feed Intake: Overview of Major Changes A larger database used to re-evaluate the existing NEm-based equations and develop new equation for growing-finishing beef cattle Equations for beef cows remain the same, but additional options are provided for predicting intake by beef cows grazing forages Beef cows: NEm intake, Mcal/d = BW 0.75 x ( x NEm ); intercept for non-pregnant cows = Calves: NE m intake, Mcal/d = BW 0.75 x ( x NE m x NE m ); Yearlings: NE m intake, Mcal/d = BW 0.75 x ( x NE m x NE m ) DMI, % of BW = x NEm x NEm 2 Forage type TDN, % Low-quality < 52 Example forages Dry winter forage, mature legume and grass hay, straw Forage DMI capacity, % of BW Dry Lactating DMIR, kg/d = ([NEm required, Mcal/d]/NEm) + ([NEg required, Mcal/d]/NEg) Steers: DMI, kg/day = x Initial shrunk BW, kg; Heifers: DMI, kg/d = x Initial shrunk BW, kg Averagequality High-quality > 59 Dry summer pasture, dry pasture during fall, late-bloom legume hay, boot stage and early bloom grass hay Mid-bloom, early bloom, and pre-bloom legume hay; pre-boot stage grass hay; lush, growing pasture; silages

16 Overview of Major Changes Chapter 11. Maintenance Consideration: Energy and Protein: No major changes to calculations for NEm or MP for maintenance used in the 7 th edition Added guidance (caution) on applying adjustments for cold stress and physical activity added Chapter 12. Growth: No changes were made to the equations used in the 7 th edition New data used to provide additional evaluation of equations in predicting retained energy and protein

17 Chapter 13. Reproduction: Overview of Major Changes Comprehensive review of the use of body condition scoring (BCS) for assessing the protein and energy requirements of beef cows Major change from the 7 th edition adoption of a fixed percentage of shrunk body weight (SBW) change per unit of BCS New information on the role of nutrition in developmental programming SBW change/bcs = 7.105% of BW BCS BW, % of BCS

18 Overview of Major Changes Chapter 14. Compounds that Modify Digestion and Metabolism: Consolidates information on metabolic modifiers and includes a more complete review than the 7 th edition Updated guidelines for adjustments to dietary energy values associated with the use of ionophores (7 th edition recommended 12% increase in NEm concentration) No major changes to recommendations for adjustments to final SBW associated with the use of implants and betaagonists Increase dietary ME by 2.3% for monensin Increase dietary ME by 1.5% for lasalocid

19 Overview of Major Changes Chapter 15. Effects of Stress on Beef Cattle Nutrient Requirements: Reviewed effects of stress on nutrient requirements Recommendations are largely unchanged from the 7 th edition Suggested Nutrient Concentrations for Stressed Calves (DM basis) Daily nutrient intake for 250-kg calf a,b Nutrient Unit Suggested range Unit/d 0-7 d 0-14 d Dry matter % kg Crude protein % kg NEm Mcal/kg Mcal NEg Mcal/kg Mcal Calcium % g Phosphorus % g Potassium % g Magnesium % g Sodium % g Copper mg/kg mg Iron mg/kg mg Manganese mg/kg mg Zinc mg/kg mg Cobalt mg/kg mg Selenium mg/kg mg Iodine mg/kg mg Vitamin E IU/day IU

20 Chapter 16. Environment: Overview of Major Changes Reviews environmental effects of livestock operations o Factors affecting nutrient losses in feces and urine and greenhouse gas, ammonia, and volatile compounds emissions Developed and evaluated several equations to estimate enteric methane o Provided users multiple equations for diets with varying forage concentrations Urine N/Total N = (ln N intake) ; r 2 = 0.548, RMSE = P excretion, g/d = x P intake; r 2 = 0.49

21 Chapter 17. Utilization of Byproduct Feeds by Beef Cattle: Review of byproduct feeds, especially grain-based biofuels o Application in cow-calf, stocker, and growing/finishing settings o Interactions with other ingredients and management practices Role of excess nutrients (e.g., sulfur) in byproducts Overview of Major Changes

22 Overview of Major Changes Chapter 18. Composition of Selected Feeds for Beef Cattle: Statistically based evaluation of data from commercial laboratories to create new feed composition tables Updated information on effects of grain processing New tables on composition of grazed forages were added

23 Overview of Major Changes Chapter 19. Model Equations and Sensitivity Analyses: Sensitivity analysis of model components Chapter 20. Tables of Nutrient Requirements: Table generator provided in software to create tables of nutrient requirements through an optimization procedure Mature SBW, kg 550 Diets TDN ME NEm NEg %DM Mcal/kg Mcal/kg Mcal/kg Maintenance Shrunk Body weight (SBW), kg A B NEm Mcal/d C MP g/d D Ca g/d P g/d SBW Diets DMI ADG CP RDP MP Ca P kg kg/d kg/d %DM %CP g/d % DM % DM Growth (ADG) NEg required for gain, Mcal/d 250 A kg/d B kg/d C kg/d D kg/d A kg/d B MP required for gain, g/d C kg/d D kg/d A kg/d B kg/d C kg/d D Calcium required for gain, g/d 400 A kg/d B kg/d C kg/d D kg/d A kg/d B Phosphorus required for gain, g/d C kg/d D kg/d A kg/d B kg/d C kg/d D

24 Overview of Major Changes Appendix A. A User s Guide for Application of the Beef Cattle Nutrient Requirements Model: Spreadsheet-based model, user-friendly interface Ability to turn specific calculations on or off and change some coefficients Includes an optimizer to assist with diet formulation/balancing and the ability to perform stochastic modeling

25 Thank you!

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