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1 E-Day Resource E-Day Topic Resource Page Grade 2 Topic - Fresh water biomes Streams, Rivers, Lakes and the Water Cycle Brief Overview/objective: To introduce children to the diversity, majesty, and beauty of God s creation as seen in the fresh water biomes of rivers, streams and lakes. To begin to understand His amazing design of never-ending fresh water for our world in the water cycle. This unit connects to previous and future studies of biomes of the world (oceans, frozen lands, rainforest, African savannah, and deserts.) It is also preparation for an in-depth class study of the book Paddle to the Sea (a Native American paddles his canoe from the Great Lakes to the Atlantic Ocean. Some specific study of the Mississippi River and Great Lakes should be covered in this lesson. After completing this Enrichment Day, the students will be able to: Identify the attributes of fresh water rivers, streams and lakes and explain their importance animals, plants, and humans Identify animals and plants found in the lake biome Explain the water cycle and define the following terms: atmosphere, evaporation, condensation and precipitation. Resources in workroom: Streams, Rivers and Lakes 3-ring binder- information and suggested activities Planet Earth (DVD) We have two sets and the DVDs can be found in the Resource Cabinet (look around they tend to travel as they are used for a variety of topics.) Ideas to get you started: Find and label the largest rivers and lakes in the world, in the US, in Georgia. On a map of the US, find and label the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River. Identify animals and plants that live in or near fresh water streams, rivers and lakes. Draw or make a collage of animal life dependent upon fresh water sources. John James Audubon drew many birds that live on or near lakes. Look at a selection of these paintings, then select one bird for a picture study and reproduction of one of these birds. Create a chart of photographs to classify plants and animals from different biomes of the world that they have studied to date. Create a Venn Diagram of plants/animals that live near or in Salt Water/ Fresh Water biomes. Discuss the water cycle define terms. Re-create the water cycle with warm water and ice. (see experiments in resource book) Have the children make a diagram or poster of the water cycle. Visit the Chattahoochee River (there are many good field trips to Nature Centers near here.) PERIME TE R SCHOOL E-DAY RE SOURCE last updated

2 Interesting Info on Lakes Lakes are an important source of freshwater to sustain human and natural systems. Only 2.5 % of the earth s water is fresh, and almost 99 % of that freshwater is locked up in glaciers and icecaps or in underground aquifers. Slightly more than 1.2 % of the earth s freshwater is located on its surface, but a large share of this surface freshwater is locked up in permafrost or ground ice. This makes the 21 % of surface freshwater stored in lakes (a mere % of all the water stored on earth) extremely valuable for sustaining life, and it is the large lakes of the world that hold the vast majority of that life-sustaining water. Large lakes occur on all of the earth s continents except Antarctica. There are over 250 natural lakes worldwide that are over 500 km2 in size (roughly the size of Lake Tahoe in California/Nevada and larger). Of these, 189 are fresh and the remainder salt (saline or fresh to salt variation). The northern hemisphere contains a majority of the world s large lakes, in large part formed as a result of the scouring action of Pleistocene glaciers. Tectonic movement is responsible for the rift valleys that are home to the great lakes of East Africa and Siberia. The greatest of the world s large lakes, the great lakes of North America (Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie, and Ontario), Africa (Victoria, Malawi, and Tanganyika), and Siberia (Baikal) hold a staggering amount of valuable freshwater. The Laurentian Great Lakes hold 21 % of the world s readily available (not frozen) surface freshwater, the African Rift Lakes 27%, and Siberia s Lake Baikal nearly 20%. These lakes are critically important not only as sources of freshwater, but also for the abundance of life they support and the economic, social and environmental benefits they provide to the millions of people who reside in the surrounding areas. They support some of the most diverse freshwater ecosystems and fisheries in the world and draw millions of visitors annually to their shores. Each great lake has unique features and species, however they all share similar challenges to future health ranging from impacts of invasive and introduced species, pollution from industry and agricultural runoff, population growth and urbanization, impacts from a changing climate, and potentially increasing demands for water diversion to a thirsty world. PE RIMETE R SCHOOL E-DAY RESOURCE [2 of 10] last updated

3 Where is Earth's water? For a detailed explanation of where Earth's water is, look at the data table below. Notice how of the world's total water supply of about 333 million cubic miles (1,386 million cubic kilometers) of water, over 96 percent is saline. And, of the total freshwater, over 68 percent is locked up in ice and glaciers. Another 30 percent of freshwater is in the ground. Thus, rivers and lakes that supply surface water for human uses only constitute about 22,300 cubic miles (93,100 cubic kilometers), which is about percent of total water, yet rivers are the source of most of the water people use. PE RIMETE R SCHOOL E-DAY RESOURCE [3 of 10] last updated

4 One Estimate of Global Water Distribution (Numbers are rounded) Water source Water volume, in cubic miles Oceans, Seas, & Bays Ice caps, Glaciers, & Permanent Snow Water volume, in cubic kilometers Percent of freshwater Percent of total water 321,000,000 1,338,000, ,773,000 24,064, Groundwater 5,614,000 23,400, Fresh 2,526,000 10,530, Saline 3,088,000 12,870, Soil Moisture 3,959 16, Ground Ice & Permafrost 71, , Lakes 42, , Fresh 21,830 91, Saline 20,490 85, Atmosphere 3,095 12, Swamp Water 2,752 11, Rivers 509 2, Biological Water 269 1, Source: Igor Shiklomanov's chapter "World fresh water resources" in Peter H. Gleick (editor), 1993, Water in Crisis: A Guide to th PE RIMETE R SCHOOL E-DAY RESOURCE [4 of 10] last updated

5 Atmosphere Condensation Evaporation Evapotranspiration Freshwater storage Groundwater flow Groundwater storage Ice and snow Infiltration Oceans Precipitation Runoff Snowmelt Springs Streamflow Sublimation Global water distribution For an estimated explanation of where Earth's water exists, look at the chart below. By now, you know that the water cycle describes the movement of Earth's water, so realize that the chart and table below represent the presence of Earth's water at a single point in time. If you check back in a thousand or million years, no doubt these numbers will be different! Notice how of the world's total water supply of about million cubic miles of water, over 96 percent is saline. And, of the total freshwater, over 68 percent is locked up in ice and glaciers. Another 30 percent of freshwater is in the ground. Fresh surface-water sources, such as rivers and lakes, only constitute about 22,300 cubic miles (93,100 cubic kilometers), which is about 1/150th of one percent of total water. Yet, rivers and lakes are the sources of most of the water people use everyday. PE RIMETE R SCHOOL E-DAY RESOURCE [5 of 10] last updated

6 WATER CYCLE EXPERIMENTS, PROJECTS, and SUMMARIES Water Cycle in a baggie excellenceinteachingscience.blogspot.ca/2013/07/the-water-cycle.html The whole water cycle can be seen in a model using water and a ziplock baggie. Seal the baggie and tape to a window to warm. As the process unfolds, students can identify accumulation, condensation, precipitation and evaporation. I like to have the students set up the experiment and then formulate their ideas and definition based on their experiences. Teacher will probably need to guide them with some skillful questioning. Teacher Background Information: Water on earth is used over and over. The water cycle is the continuous movement of water from ocean to air and land then back to the ocean in a cyclic pattern, is a central concept in meteorology. In the water cycle, the sun heats the Earth's surface water, causing that surface water to evaporate (gas). This water vapor then rises into the earth's atmosphere where it cools and condenses into liquid droplets. These droplets combine and grow until they become too heavy and fall to the earth as precipitation (rain, snow, sleet, hail). Water accumulates and is temporarily stored in lakes, glaciers, underground, or living organisms. The water can move from these places by streams and rivers, returns to the oceans, is used by plants or animals or is evaporated directly back into the atmosphere. PE RIMETE R SCHOOL E-DAY RESOURCE [6 of 10] last updated

7 Making rain msdsgarden.blogspot.com/search/label/science%20experiments This is a great activity to try during a weather unit. You need 2 liter soda bottles (or another type of plastic bottle). Cut the bottle in half. Put about an inch of warm water in the bottom of the bottle. It helps to color it blue (for the ocean). Invert the top half into the bottom half (with the cap on). Fill the top with ice. After a few minutes clouds will form and droplets of "rain" will form on the inverted top. It's raining! PE RIMETE R SCHOOL E-DAY RESOURCE [7 of 10] last updated

8 Make a mini water cycle! We know that water can be a liquid, a gas, or a solid. Outside, water is always changing from liquid to gas and back again. This process is called the water cycle. You can see how the water cycle works. The sun's heat causes water to evaporate from streams, lakes, rivers, and oceans. The water vapor rises. When it reaches cooler air, it condenses to form clouds. When the clouds are full of water, or saturated, they release some of the water as rain. The Water Cycle: Create Your Own: To do this experiment, you will need: a large metal, glass or plastic bowl a pitcher or bucket a sheet of clear plastic wrap a dry ceramic mug (like a coffee mug) a long piece of string or large rubber band PE RIMETE R SCHOOL E-DAY RESOURCE [8 of 10] last updated

9 water ice cube 1. Using the pitcher or bucket, pour water into the bowl until it is about ¼ full. 2. Place the mug in the center of the bowl. Be careful not to splash any water into it. 3. Cover the top of the bowl tightly with the plastic wrap. 4. Tie the string around the bowl to hold the plastic wrap in place. 5. Place an ice cube in the center of the plastic wrap 6. Watch the bowl to see what happens. The "mist" that forms on the plastic wrap will change into larger drops of water that will begin to drip. When this happens, continue watching for a few minutes, then carefully peel back the plastic. Is the coffee mug still empty? Water from the "ocean" of water in the bowl evaporated. It condensed to form misty "clouds" on the plastic wrap. When the clouds became saturated it "rained" into the mug! This experiment adapted from resources provided by the Monroe County Water Authority This little girl is adorable doing her water cycle experiment! PE RIMETE R SCHOOL E-DAY RESOURCE [9 of 10] last updated

10 PE RIMETE R SCHOOL E-DAY RESOURCE [10 of 10] last updated

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