# H2 Fuel Cell for transport applications: Automotive & Material handling skills for technicians. Dr. Ir. Marc NELIS Campus Francorchamps

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1 H2 Fuel Cell for transport applications: Automotive & Material handling skills for technicians Dr. Ir. Marc NELIS Campus Francorchamps

2 Vehicles concerned electric ones In fact hybrid vehicles: FC + battery (*) pictures from knowhy partners 14/06/2016 KnowHy-Description 2

3 Why using FC as a powertrain? Some considerations about the LHV of «fuels» LHV gasoline/diesel 45 MJ/kg 12,5 kwh/kg LHV hydrogen 120 MJ/kg 33 kwh/kg vs ENERGY in a «regular» battery kwh 1 battery 1,6 to 2,4 kg gasoline 0,6 to 0,9 kg H2 (*) Without considering efficiency of ICE or FC 1 battery 6,4 to 9,6 kg gasoline 1,2 to 1,8 kg H2 (**) Considering efficiency of ICE or FC 1 battery a range of km enough? Yes for urban journeys but no for other travels or other equipment with a heavy duty cycle like forklifts in big distribution centres. Fuel cell with adequate storage of hydrogen, ex. 5 to 8 kg for a car 14/06/2016 KnowHy-Description 3

4 Philosophy of the course: What we do: What we skip: Description of components «How it works» approach Assembly in a system Description of a regular operation Safety aspects Certifications Technical devices Working procedures General approach, not focussed on a brand Practical training based on the course knowledge Deep theoretical concepts in: Thermodynamics, chemistry, material science, mathematical formulas, equations, calculations & simulations 14/06/2016 KnowHy-Description 4

5 Course module: technical content 6 UNITS 1. Introduction to the transport sector 2. Basics of fuel cell for transport applications 3. High & low pressure components 4. High voltage components 5. Architecture of a FC vehicle 6. Maintenance of a FC vehicle 1. Why this technology? 2. Which type(s), how does it work? 3. Which components, including safety? 4. Which components, including safety? 5. How are they organised in a system and on the chassis? (Support of Toyota & Educam) 6. Which operations for regular maintenance & troubleshooting? 14/06/2016 KnowHy-Description 5

6 UNIT 1: Introduction to the transport sector Why this technology? Huge world energy demand 12 GTOE 80% from fossil origin Transport consumes 50% of oil products Transport is the second emitter of GHG Emissions of engines (HC, NOX, CO, fine particles) There is a limit or we need a technology change 14/06/2016 KnowHy-Description 6

7 UNIT 2: Basics of fuel cell for transport How does it work? What are the general rules to work on specific vehicles? Not a repetition of the core module A short reminder of important topics Illustrations of PEM fuel cell components Limitations - R&D aspects General working procedures (safety) Professional sector certifications Identification of vehicles Personal protection equipment & specific tools Signage when working on a vehicle Isolation of the vehicle Safe disconnection of H2 tanks / connection Check list 14/06/2016 KnowHy-Description 7

8 UNIT 3: High & low pressure components «Non electrical» All components from the tank to the fuel cell Namely: filling line, tank(s), high pressure line, pressure regulator, pressure sensors, temperature sensors & valves Technology developments (storage) Safety devices associated to the components Safety procedures to connect or disconnect Including fuel cell auxiliaries: air system, cooling system & exhaust Knowledge of the components separately 14/06/2016 KnowHy-Description 8

9 UNIT 4: High voltage components (EV) «Electrical» All components from the fuel cell to the wheels Namely: fuel cell, HV battery or supercaps, battery booster, HV bus, DC/DC converter, inverter, 12V battery, motor/generator, transmission Technological aspects: How it works (DC/DC, AC/DC, regen, ) Examples of signals, of correct measurements Safety requirements (certifications, individual protections, procedures) Knowledge of the components separately 14/06/2016 KnowHy-Description 9

10 UNIT 5: Architecture of a FC vehicle A system approach Based on functional diagrams Interaction between components How to split the power between FC and battery How the system works 3D view of actual chassis designs Where the components are located Where the risks are located! 14/06/2016 KnowHy-Description 10

11 UNIT 5: Architecture of a FC vehicle Frame: Monty E70 Modified Electric Engine: Brushless. 250W, 500W peak Battery: 4 batteries, Lead acid. 48V 7,6Ah Maximum speed: 30km/h Charging time: 1 h (metal hydride tanks) Range: 60 km Wheels: 16» 2,4 Brakes: drum brakes Analogic speedometer: Speed/charge Weight. 80 kg 14/06/2016 KnowHy-Description 11

12 UNIT 6: Maintenance of a FC vehicle Preparation of the maintenance Workshop (detectors, ventilation) Equipment (individual, special tools) Procedures Regular maintenance of components (filters) Troubleshooting Scenario based on functional diagrams Introduction of the scooter from Environment Park; return of experience will be developed during practical session Good idea of what the practical session will be 14/06/2016 KnowHy-Description 12

13 UNIT 6: Maintenance of a FC vehicle Hydrogen concentration in the workshop: the worker must be prepared to this reality. H 2 concentration H 2 concentration change his way of thinking Safety topic Safety device high in ppm low in ppm Maintenance work Personal safety device Personal safety Alarms, system failure Avoid imminent danger Automatic ventilation increase Built-in safety measures (also check off) Automatic shutdown Danger, effects on human Combustion, explosion body Table: Estimation of hydrogen gas concentrations in the working environment? Good idea of what the practical session will be 14/06/2016 KnowHy-Description 13

14 Organisation e-learning of the 6 UNITS 1 test of 10 Questions after each unit 1 test of 40 Questions after 6 units 1 serious game Optional readings proposed Discussion forum Practical training session Presentation Demonstrations Specific activities: Regular maintenance Troubleshooting, measurements In your country 14/06/2016 KnowHy-Description 14

15 Acknowledgements Toyota training centre Zaventem (BE) EDUCAM training (BE) University of Liège (BE) RWTH-IKA (DE) Contact: Marc Nélis - Development engineer 14/06/2016 KnowHy-Description 15

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