# Grade 6 Math Circles October 25 & 26, Number Systems and Bases

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1 Faculty of Mathematics Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 Centre for Education in Mathematics and Computing Grade 6 Math Circles October 25 & 26, 2016 Number Systems and Bases Numbers are very important. Numbers are a part of our daily lives. We use numbers to keep track of the time, count the money in our piggy banks, call and text our friends and family, the list goes on and on and on. Number System: The mathematical notation for representing a set of numbers using digits or symbols Base: The number of unique digits, including zero, used to represent numbers In today s society, our knowledge of numbers has grown so much that we have multiple number systems. But where did they all originate from? There are many ancient number systems but today we will learn about the ancient Egyptian number system. 1

2 Ancient Egyptian Number System Egyptian hieroglyphs was the formal writing system used by the ancient Egyptians. Not only did they have hieroglyphs for words, they had hieroglyphs for numbers as well. Similar to our decimal system, the ancient Egyptians also used a base 10 number system to represent numbers as shown in the figure below. Line Heel bone Coil of rope Water lily Finger Tadpole Man Contrary to how we write left to right, the ancient Egyptians wrote their numbers from right to left! To write a number using the Egyptian hieroglyphs, we write the largest value first followed by smaller values in descending order from right to left. For example, we would write 4622 as follows: Example 1 Write using the Egyptian hieroglyphs: Answers may vary. Example 2 Solve the following equation using Egyptian hieroglyphs: + = =

3 Decimal Numbers As mentioned earlier, the decimal number system is the number we use to represent numbers in our lives. Similar to the ancient Egyptians, our decimal number system is a base 10 number system because we have 10 unique digits (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9) to represent numbers. We can write numbers using these 10 digits or in words as shown in the example below = four thousand eight hundred and ninety two We can also write numbers using powers of 10! Here are a few powers of Below is an example of how we can write numbers in expanded form using powers of = = (4)(1000) + (8)(100) + (9)(10) + (2)(1) = (4)(10 3 ) + (8)(10 2 ) + (9)(10 1 ) + (2)(10 0 ) Example 1 Write 539 in expanded form: 539 = (5)(10 2 ) + (3)(10 1 ) + (9)(10 0 ) Example 2 Write the following in standard form (our usual digit representation): (3)(10 3 ) + (4)(10 2 ) + (7)(10 1 ) + (5)(10 0 ) =

4 Binary Numbers A binary number is a number that is represented by 0s and 1s. For example, 11, 101, 1011 and are all binary numbers. The binary number system is another commonly used number system. In fact, all of our electronic devices use binary numbers and we probably do not even know it! This is a base 2 number system because we represent our numbers using only two unique digits, 0 and 1. Binary numbers are read a little differently = one-zero-one-one-zero-one Converting from Binary to Decimal Earlier, we learned how to write decimal numbers in expanded form using powers of 10. Similar to that, we can write binary numbers using powers of 2! Let s try an example and rewrite (1)(2 5 ) + (0)(2 4 ) + (1)(2 3 ) + (1)(2 2 ) + (0)(2 1 ) + (1)(2 0 ) = = 45 So, the binary number is equal to the decimal number 45. Example Convert into a decimal number: (1)(2 5 ) + (1)(2 4 ) + (1)(2 3 ) + (0)(2 2 ) + (1)(2 1 ) + (1)(2 0 ) = = 59 4

5 Converting from Decimal to Binary So we have learned how to convert binary numbers into decimal numbers, but what about the other way around? We can convert decimal numbers into binary numbers using division! Recall: divisor quotient dividend remainder Suppose we want to convert 62 into a binary number. Since we are working in a base 2 number system, we will divide by 2. Division Remainder 62 2 = = = = = = 0 1 If we read the remainder column from the bottom to the top, the decimal number 62 is converted to the binary number Don t believe it? We can check by converting our binary number back into a decimal number. Try it for yourself as an exercise! Example Convert 37 from decimal to binary: Division Remainder 37 2 = = = = = =

6 Hexadecimal Numbers Here is another commonly used number system. The hexadecimal number system is used in accessing computer memory, in defining colours and more! It is widely used by computer system designers and programmers. This is a base 16 number system and uses the following numbers and letters to represent numbers: (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B, C, D, E, F) A-F represents the numbers respectively. For example, 2A1C is a hexadecimal number. Converting from Hexadecimal to Decimal We can convert hexadecimal numbers into decimal numbers in the same way we convert binary numbers into decimal numbers except this time, we are working in base Rewrite A1C into a decimal number... A1C (10)(16 2 ) + (1)(16 1 ) + (12)(16 0 ) = = 2588 The hexadecimal number A1C is equal to the decimal number Example Convert 2C5 from hexadecimal to decimal: 2C5 (2)(16 2 ) + (12)(16 1 ) + (5)(2 0 ) = = 709 6

7 Converting from Decimal to Hexadecimal To convert a decimal number into a hexadecimal number, we can use the same method we used to convert decimal numbers into binary! For an example, let s convert into a hexadecimal number. Since hexadecimal numbers are in a base 16 number system, we will be dividing by 16. Division Remainder = (F) = = 2 14 (E) 2 16 = 0 2 Reading the remainder column from the bottom to the top, the decimal number is converted to the hexadecimal number 2E2F. Also like before, you check to see if this is correct by converting the hexadecimal number back into a decimal number. Example Convert 2548 from decimal into hexadecimal: Division Remainder = = 9 15 (F) 9 16 = F4 Notation for Number Systems There are so many different number systems with different bases, it can get a little confusing. How can we tell the difference between numbers in different bases? We include the base as a subscript when writing numbers. Examples * The decimal number 435 is written as * The binary number is written as * = * 2A1C 16 =

8 Other Base Number Systems Decimal, binary, and hexadecimal number systems are the more commonly used systems that we use. However, there are many different base number systems! For example, you can have numbers in base 46. The ancient Babylonians used a base 60 number system! So how do we work with these other base number systems? We can pretty much deal with any base number system the way we have been dealing with the binary, decimal, and hexadecimal number systems. Converting from One Base Number to Another Suppose we want to convert into a base 7 number. There is no immediate direct way of converting from base 5 to base 7. To do this, we do the following steps: We can convert into a decimal number as seen below = (1)(5 3 ) + (4)(5 2 ) + (2)(5 1 ) + (0)(5 0 ) = = Next, convert into a base 7 number as we did for the previous few base number systems. Since we want our number to be in base 7, we will divide by 7! Division Remainder = = = = Reading the remainder column from the bottom to the top, the correct answer is Example Convert the into a base 6 number = (1)(3 3 ) + (0)(3 2 ) + (1)(3 1 ) + (0)(3 0 ) = = Division Remainder 30 6 = = = =

9 Problem Set Solutions 1. Write the following numbers using Egyptian hieroglyphs: Answers may vary. (a) (b) (c) Solve the following using Egyptian hieroglyphs: Answers may vary. (a) + = (b) + = (c) + = 3. What integers are allowed to be digits in the base 7 number system? 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 9

10 4. Write the following numbers in expanded form: (a) = (6)(10 3 ) + (2)(10 2 ) + (2)(10 1 ) + (1)(10 0 ) (b) = (1)(2 5 ) + (0)(2 4 ) + (1)(2 3 ) + (1)(2 2 ) + (0)(2 1 ) + (1)(2 0 ) (c) F4A1 16 = (15)(16 3 ) + (4)(16 2 ) + (10)(16 1 ) + (1)(16 0 ) (d) = (2)(8 4 ) + (4)(8 3 ) + (6)(8 2 ) + (0)(8 1 ) + (7)(8 0 ) 5. Write the following in standard form: (a) (2)(10 3 ) + (1)(10 2 ) + (0)(10 1 ) + (6)(10 0 ) = (b) (8)(16 2 ) + (11)(16 1 ) + (3)(16 0 ) = 8B3 16 (c) (1)(2 4 ) + (1)(2 3 ) + (0)(2 2 ) + (1)(2 1 ) + (0)(2 0 ) = (d) (10)(18 3 ) + (6)(18 2 ) + (17)(18 1 ) + (2)(18 0 ) = A6H Why do you think we use a base 10 number system? We learn how to count using our hands and we have a total of 10 fingers, 5 on each hand. This is a simple reason as to why we use a base 10 number system (better known as our decimal system). If we excluded our thumbs, we would be using a base 8 number system! 7. Convert the following numbers into a decimal number: (a) = (b) 1EA7 16 = (c) = Convert the following numbers from decimal to binary: (a) = (b) = (c) = Convert the following numbers from decimal to hexadecimal: (a) = 1E8 16 (b) = (c) = 30A

11 10. Convert the following numbers into the base number given in parentheses: (a) (base 7) 23 7 (b) (base 5) (c) EG42 17 (base 15) 16B86 15 *11. We can use number systems to encrypt secret messages as well! (a) Convert the alphabet into binary numbers. (ex. A 1, B 10, C 11,...) A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z (b) Decrypt the message below: , " - Walt Disney All our dreams can come true, if we have the courage to pursue them. - Walt Disney **12. Do the following binary calculations: (Hint: It might help to convert the numbers into decimal numbers. But remember your answer must be a binary number!) (a) + 1 (b) + 1 (c) + 10 (d)

12 **13. (a) How many possible binary numbers with 6 digits are there? There are a few possible solutions. Here is one solution: Each digit can be 0 or 1. Since there are two possible values for each digit, there are 2 6 numbers. However, if the first digit is 0, the number becomes a 5 digit number which we cannot include in our count. We need to remove the 2 5 numbers with 5 digits. So we have = = 32. There are 32 binary numbers with 6 digits. (b) How many possible 6 digit binary numbers are there where the last digit is 1? Notice that all binary numbers whose last digit is 0 are even, and all binary numbers whose last digit is 1 are odd. Since there are 32 binary numbers with 6 digits, half of them must be odd. Therefore, there are 16 binary numbers with 6 digits whose last digit is 1. ***14. For any given length n 2 (a) How many possible binary numbers with n digits are there? 2 n 1 (b) How many possible numbers are there where the last digit is 1? 2 n 2 12

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