# 1 The Imaginary Lines

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1 1 The Imaginary Lines The earth s surface is made up of large land masses known as continents, water bodies known as oceans and seas, and a large number of small islands. The geographers created the globe for the purpose of locating places on the earth. Some imaginary lines are drawn horizontally and vertically on the globe. The vertical lines are known as longitudes and the horizontal lines are called latitudes. Latitudes Latitudes are imaginary circles running from east to west on a globe. One such imaginary line of latitude is the equator. It divides the earth into two equal halves known as hemispheres. The northern part of the earth above the equator is known as the Northern Hemisphere and the southern part of the earth below the equator is called the Southern Hemisphere. Latitudes are also called parallels of latitude as they run parallel to each other and to the equator. Latitudes are measured with the unit degree ( ). The equator is the 0 latitude. Poles are 90 North and 90 South of the equator. The parallels in the Northern Hemisphere are labelled 10 N, 20 N, and so on. On the other hand, the parallels in the Southern Hemisphere are labelled 10 S, 20 S, etc. There are 181 latitudes in all: Equator at 0 90 latitudes from 1 to 90 in the Northern Hemisphere 90 latitudes from 1 to 90 in the Southern Hemisphere Important Parallels of Latitudes The most important and the longest parallel of latitude is the equator. All the other latitudes are numbered from it. If we move northward from the equator, we will find the Tropic of Cancer at 23½ N, the Arctic Circle at 66½ N and the North Pole at 90 N. If we move southward from the equator, we will find the Tropic of Capricorn at 23½ S, the Antarctic Circle at 66½ S and the South Pole at 90 S. Parallels of Latitudes 1

2 Characteristics of Latitudes The lines of latitudes are parallel to each other and they never meet. All latitudes are actually circles drawn in each hemisphere. They become smaller as they move towards the poles. All latitudes, other than equator, are called small circles and they cannot divide the earth into two equal halves. North pole at 90 in the Northern Hemisphere and South Pole at 90 in the Southern Hemisphere are just two points on the tilted axis of the earth. Lines of Longitude Longitudes Longitudes are imaginary vertical lines drawn on a globe running from the north pole to the south pole. These are also known as meridians which means midday in Latin. The central longitude that divides the earth into the Eastern Hemisphere and the Western Hemisphere is known as the Prime Meridian. It is the 0 meridian. This meridian runs through the observatory at Greenwich in London in the United Kingdom, and is also known as the Greenwich Meridian. All the other meridians are numbered from the Prime Meridian. There are 180 meridians to its east. They are marked as 1 E 179 E. The 180 meridians to the west of the Prime Meridian are marked as 1 W 179 W. The meridian of 180 E and 180 W is the same line. It passes through the islands of the Pacific Ocean. It is called the International Date Line. A new date begins when we cross this meridian. There are 360 meridians in all: The Prime Meridian at 0 The International Date Line at meridians from 1 E to 179 E in the Eastern Hemisphere 179 meridians from 1 W to 179 W in the Western Hemisphere The International Date Line 2

3 Characteristics of Meridians or Longitudes All the meridians are of the same length as they meet at the poles. Meridians opposite to each other may form great circles and can divide the earth into two equal halves. Due to the shape of the earth, the distance between two longitudes is greater at the centre near the equator, and it keeps on decreasing as we move towards the poles. The longitudes to the east of the Prime Meridian are denoted with the symbol E meaning east and the longitudes to the west of the Prime Meridian are marked with the symbol W meaning west. The Prime Meridian Passing through the Royal Observatory at Greenwich Grid on the Globe The Grid System The latitudes and the longitudes intersect each other and form squares called grids. This network of grids is known as the grid system. It helps us to locate places accurately on the globe and maps. For this, we need to know the latitude and the longitude of the place. The point at which they cross each other will be the location of that place. Greenwich Mean Time The countries to the east of the Prime Meridian will face the sun first. Gradually, as the earth moves, the countries in the Western Hemisphere will face the sun. That is why the easternmost country, Japan, faces the sun first and America faces it in the end. The time at Greenwich is observed as the mean time and hence the name Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). Local time of a particular country can be calculated based on the GMT. Indian Standard Time A country may have many longitudes passing through it. Hence, different places may have different time within the country. Thus every country chooses a longitude that 3

4 passes through its centre and the time at that longitude is taken as the standard time of that country. In India, the longitude of Allahabad which is 82½ E, is taken for calculating the standard time. This standard time is known as the Indian Standard Time (IST). The Indian Standard Time is 5½ hours ahead of the Greenwich Mean Time. Maps Map is a visual representation of earth on a flat surface. It can be said as one of the oldest forms of communication. The art of making or drawing maps is called cartography. The oldest known map is a Babylonian clay tablet. Maps can provide The Standard Meridian of India a lot of information about physical features, political divisions, weather, climate, agriculture, industries, minerals, trade route, etc. A book of maps is called an Atlas. Map Reading We should know how to read a map in order to make full use of it. There is a certain kind of language associated with maps. There are different symbols, colours and signs to show different things in a map. We should be able to understand these. Directions The first thing we should understand when we look at a map is the direction. But it is really easy. In every map North the north direction will be shown with the help of an arrow pointing upwards. When you place a map on a table, the top of the map is the north direction. The bottom of the map is the south. The right side of the map is the east and the left side is the west. When you West East know the four main directions, you can easily locate South other sub-directions also. For example, north-east lies between the north and the east; north-west between the north and the west; south-west between the south and the west; and south-east between the south and the east. 4

5 Scale miles It is not possible to show the actual size kilometres of the things that are shown in the maps yards That is why scales are used. The scale is the ratio between two points on the ground and their corresponding distance on a map. For example, suppose the distance between Bengaluru and Hyderabad is 500 km. It is not possible to draw that much distance in a map. Instead the distance of 500 km on the ground will be represented by a smaller unit (like 5 cm) in the map. So the scale would be 5 cm : 500 km. Scale can be represented in three ways. They are representative fraction, written statement and graphic scale. Symbols Symbols have been developed to represent some features on the map. They can be graphical or pictorial. There are symbols to show mountains, rivers, lakes, dams, bridges, temples, churches, railway tracks, etc. Boundaries Physical Features Communications International Boundary River National Highway with number State/Province Boundary Canal State Highway/Major Road District Boundary Lake/Reservoir Other Road Boundary in Dispute Marsh Road with bridge Settlements Glacier Road (under construction) Country Capital Peak (Height in metres) Track/Footpath State Headquarters Sea depth (in metres) Railway Union Territory Hq. Coral Reef Railway (under construction) District Headquarters Desert Airport Other Town Salt pan Seaport Tourist place Waterfall Symbols in a Map Colours Different colours are also used in maps. Many colours used on maps have a relationship to the object or feature on the ground. For example, water bodies such as oceans, seas, rivers, etc. are shown in blue. Plains or lowlands are shown in green. Blue rivers Yellow plains Green forests Red plateaus Brown mountains, hills, deserts, etc. 5

6 Do you know? 1. The earliest known globe was made by a scholar named Crates around 140 BC. 2. The westernmost point on land, according to the path of the International Date Line, is the Attu Island in Alaska. 3. The easternmost point on land, according to the path of the International Date Line, is the Caroline Island in Kiribati. 4. Latitude of a place can be determined using an instrument called Sextant. Navigators carry this instrument to find their location over the sea. 5. Chronometer is an instrument used by the navigators to determine the longitude of a place. Let s Recall Latitudes and longitudes are the imaginary lines drawn on the globe. The Prime Meridian runs through Greenwich in London and the International Date Line passes through the islands of the Pacific Ocean. The Greenwich Mean Time is the time followed to find the time of different places at different longitudes. The Grid system is the network of grids formed by the intersection of latitudes and longitudes. Now I Can Answer A. Complete the following web charts. Major Latitudes Major Longitudes 6

7 B. Tick the correct answer. 1. Latitudes are the imaginary horizontal lines running from north to south east to west west to east 2. The 66½ S latitude is the Arctic Circle the Antarctic Circle the Equator 3. The latitude that divides the earth exactly into two halves the Equator the Arctic circle the Antarctic circle 4. Longitudes are also called meridians parallels grids 5. Longitudes and latitudes intersect and form small circles semi-circles grids C. Answer the following questions. 1. Why are imaginary lines drawn on the surface of the globe? 2. Differentiate between latitudes and longitudes. 3. Which is the most important latitude and why? 4. What is a grid system? 5. Which meridian is accepted as the 0 or Prime Meridian? Name the village and the country through which it passes. D. Define the following. 1. Latitude 2. Longitude 3. Hemisphere 4. International Date Line 5. Greenwich Mean Time E. Write whether the following statements are true or false. 1. The central longitude that divides the earth into the Eastern Hemisphere and the Western Hemisphere is known as the Prime Meridian. 2. All the meridians are of different lengths as they meet at the poles. 3. The Indian Standard Time is 5½ hours ahead of the Greenwich Mean Time. 4. Grids help us to locate places accurately on the globe and maps. 5. The art of making or drawing maps is called cartography. 7

8 E. Mark the major latitudes on the globe. Activities 1. Look at the index page of your school atlas where the grids of places are given. Locate the following cities of India and the world. Note down their longitudes and latitudes. India: Allahabad, Srinagar, Patna, Imphal, Ahmedabad, Delhi, Bhubaneswar, Chennai, Bengaluru, Kochi, Hyderabad World: Tokyo, Washington D.C., Muscat, Nairobi, Accra 2. Look at the diagram of the International Date Line on page 2. Find out why it is zigzag and not a straight line. 8

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