Introduction. John C.S. Lui. Department of Computer Science & Engineering The Chinese University of Hong Kong

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1 Introduction John C.S. Lui Department of Computer Science & Engineering The Chinese University of Hong Kong cslui John C.S. Lui (CUHK) Computer Systems Performance Evaluation 1 / 13

2 Outline Outline 1 Overview of the Course John C.S. Lui (CUHK) Computer Systems Performance Evaluation 2 / 13

3 Outline Overview of the Course 1 Overview of the Course John C.S. Lui (CUHK) Computer Systems Performance Evaluation 3 / 13

4 Introduction Introduction to analytical tools which are needed to construct/analyze models of resource contention systems. computers networks It is a course on methodologies PLUS applications Not covered: measurement John C.S. Lui (CUHK) Computer Systems Performance Evaluation 4 / 13

5 Course Outline Introduction Probability and Random Variable (review) Stochastic Processes What are they? Bernoulli/Poisson processes Markov chains applications Elementary queueing theory Little s Law M/M/1 queue and variants transforms and M/G/1 queue stochastic differential equations and M/G/1 queue applications John C.S. Lui (CUHK) Computer Systems Performance Evaluation 5 / 13

6 Course Outline (continue) Intermediate queueing theory priority queues, queues with vacation bounding techniques matrix solution methods applications Bounds, inequalities and approximation techniques aggregation and decomposition isolation applications Priority Queueing Systems Large deviation theory Fluid Analysis Introduction to Stochastic Dynamic Programming Queueing networks John C.S. Lui (CUHK) Computer Systems Performance Evaluation 6 / 13

7 If time allows Stochastic comparison Markov-modulated Processes and their analysis Online Stochastic Combinatorial Optimization Economic Models of Communication Networks Non-product form networks, dynamic control of queueing systems, multi-armed bandit problems and statistical issues John C.S. Lui (CUHK) Computer Systems Performance Evaluation 7 / 13

8 Overview given a system Internet, department LAN, web server,... want to know its performance throughput, avg. response time,... utility high-level design phase (e.g., reliable multicast protocols,...) low-level design phase (e.g., bus arbitration algorithms on multiprocessors,...) system configuration (e.g., how many disks, how much memory,...) questions: appropriate performance metrics? performance evaluation methodologies? salient features of performance evaluations? John C.S. Lui (CUHK) Computer Systems Performance Evaluation 8 / 13

9 Performance Metrics User s point of view response time (web server, telnet, ftp) average variance tail quality of result (video on demand, imprecise computation) fraction of frames lost System s point of view throughput number of supported sessions John C.S. Lui (CUHK) Computer Systems Performance Evaluation 9 / 13

10 Average response time vs. throughput throughput max. throughput actual througput avg. resp. time actual response time min. avg. response time load load Figure: An illustration of throughput and response time low delay, low throughput; high throughput, high delay once load exceeds threshold, performance often falls apart (e.g., thrashing in paging system) John C.S. Lui (CUHK) Computer Systems Performance Evaluation 10 / 13

11 Other Metrics device utilization fraction of time device busy useful secondary measure for tracking system problems e.g., 100% CPU utilization. can explain long response time reliability: prob. of system failure availability: fraction of time system operational John C.S. Lui (CUHK) Computer Systems Performance Evaluation 11 / 13

12 Methods measurement: measure performance of existing system simulation: build software emulator of system; execute it; use traces or random numbers to generate workload analysis: build mathematical model that captures essence of system; use mathematical tools to evaluate performance hybrid: combinations of above John C.S. Lui (CUHK) Computer Systems Performance Evaluation 12 / 13

13 Salient System Features resource contention need to determine waiting times need to evaluate different scheduling policies unknown service requirements use statistical description, e.g., average, variance suggest to use probabilistic methods queueing theory stochastic analysis John C.S. Lui (CUHK) Computer Systems Performance Evaluation 13 / 13

14 Grading Homework 30% Project 30% Final Exam 40% John C.S. Lui (CUHK) Computer Systems Performance Evaluation 14 / 13

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