Chapter 1 Exam Questions (Soil and Plant Nutrition)

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Chapter 1 Exam Questions (Soil and Plant Nutrition)"

Transcription

1 Chapter 1 Exam Questions (Soil and Plant Nutrition) Soil particle size is important. Which is a larger particle, sand or clay? Sand What are the components of soil and the relative percentage of each? Air (25%), Water (25%), Organic Matter (5%), and Minerals (45%). Why should we add organic matter? Organic matter helps bring air and water into the soil as it creates soil structure and provides new nutrients. Soil naturally contains very little organic matter. Name at least three sources of organic matter. Compost, manures, leaf mold, saw dust, cover crops. The measure of acidity or alkalinity is commonly called ph. What are two beneficial soil organisms? earthworms, insect larvae, night crawlers, saprophytic bacteria, micorrhizae, fungi_ Name a cover crop? Rye, clover, barley, vetch, oats, fava beans, alfafa, buckwheat Lime raises or lowers the ph of the soil? raises In order for a nutrient to be available it must be present in inorganic form. N stands for _nitrogen P stands for phosphorous and K stands for potassium. A complete fertilizer has _nitrogen, phosphate, and potash. Wood ashes are acidic or alkaline? acidic What 2 forms of nitrogen are absorbed by plants? Ammonia and ammonium ions Name three (3) of the four primary components of soil: 1. Air 2. Mineral 3. Water Organic Matter True or False: Sandy soils are more easily compacted than clay soils. Soil is made up of: a. mineral matter b. organic matter c. air

2 d. water e. all the above How will compaction affect the productivity of a soil? Compaction decreases the pore space and therefore the ability for oxygen and water to enter the soil. Plant roots have a hard time navigating the soil, microorganisms will decrease their productivity without air and water, and organic matter will not break down as readily. An ideal garden soil is: a. fertile b. well drained c. fairly high in organic matter d. all the above Soils low in organic matter can be improved by the addition of: a. fertilizer b. soapy water c. compost d. limestone Poor drainage in clay soils is probably the most common soil problem which causes difficulty in growing plants. Provide two (2) reasons for performing a soil test. Determine soil ph, Determine Nutrient Levels, Get recommendations True or False: The primary reason for correcting soil ph is to improve nutrient availability. Describe two (2) benefits provided by adding organic matter to soil. Improve soil structure, Increase water holding capacity, add nutrients, etc. You have purchased a 50 pound bag of fertilizer. Identify the element represented by each number. 16 Nitrogen 4 Phosphorous 8 Potassium Give an example (numerical) of each of the following fertilizers: a. balanced fertilizer: , , etc. b. incomplete fertilizer: , , etc. Give the nutrient name for the following elemental abbreviations: a. P: Phosphorous

3 b. Fe: Iron c. Mg: Magnesium d. K: Potassium List two (2) reasons for performing a soil test. Determine soil ph, Determine Nutrient Levels, Get recommendations True or False: The primary reason for correcting soil ph is to improve nutrient availability. Describe two (2) benefits provided by adding organic matter to soil. Improve soil structure, Increase water holding capacity, add nutrients, etc. _B The four principle components of soil are: a. colloids, water, oxygen & compost b. air, water, minerals & organic matter c. sand, rocks, organic matter & air _A The three textural classes of soil are: a. sand, silt & clay b. water, minerals & air c. organic matter, loam & subsoil strata d. grass clippings, rhizomes and runners C The area in the soil that water is stored so plants can absorb it is the: a. pockets b. water table c. pore space d. tube area _D The ability of the soil to hold essential elements in the soil so plants can access them during plant growth is called: a. nutrient level b. ph c. fertilization level d. cation exchange capacity or CEC C magnesium: a. hydrated c. dolomitic d. basic The most commonly used limestone that is also a good source of calcium and b. slagged B Soil ph is the measurement of the: a. calcium level b. hydrogen ion concentration

4 c. NPK levels d. none of the above C Cation Exchange Capacity and porosity can be increased in a soil by adding: a. fertilizer b. sand c. organic matter d. gypsum C The letters NPK represent in order: a. Nitrate, phosporicium & potassium b. Nitrogen, Potassium & Phosphate c. Nitrogen, Phosphorus & Potassium B a. 20% N b. 34% N c. 48% N d. 55% N A a b c Ammonium nitrate has: Superphosphate is represented by the numbers: C The smallest particle that makes up a soil is called a: a. Cation b. Grain c. Colloid d. None of the above C Retaining more water, reduced pore space, reduced oxygen flow and restricted root growth are the effects of a. fertilization b. drainage c. soil compaction d. drought B An acidic soil will have a ph while an alkaline soil will have a ph. a. above 7.0, below 7.0 b. below 7.0, above 7.0 c. above 1.2, below 13.5 d. none of the above D Aluminum Sulphate is used to make the soil ph: a. more alkaline

5 b. more basic c. more nutrient rich d. more acidic D When taking a soil test the box/bag must: a. be filled to line b. have full address including zip code c. have crop to be grown noted d. all of the above The mineral fraction of a soil is made up of soil particles known as clay, silt, and sand. Soil texture and soil structure are important in plant growth because they influence the amount of air and water available to plants. Sandy soils hold relatively small amounts of water because their large pore spaces allow water to drain freely. Clay soils will hold a relatively large amount of water due to its majority of small pore spaces. *The term " ", defines the amount of water remaining in the soil after gravitational flow has stopped. *Water available to growing plants is that amount: a. which drains from gravitational pull. b. contained in the soil between field capacity and permanent wilting point. c. which runs off site during irrigation. d. held tightly by the clay fraction in the soil.. List two changeable fractions of a soil and how a gardener would change them for the better. Organic matter, ph, nutrients Soil particles have a positive charge which causes them to attract elements having a negative charge. Soils differ in their capacity to hold nutrients. Lime requirements of a soil should be determined by obtaining a soil test. Soil ph does not influence the availability of plant nutrients.

6 As the ph value increases (i.e. from 7 to 9) the soil becomes more basic and Aluminum Sulphate is used to lower it. As the ph value decreases (i.e. from 7 to 5) the soil becomes more acidic and lime is used to raise it. Assuming that it is needed, when is the best time to apply lime to a soil and what is the best method to use when applying lime for ph change? The best time to apply lime is in the fall and winter months, or at least 2 to 3 months before planting. Lime should be applied right before tilling or plowing the land so it can be distributed throughout the soil. What is the cation exchange capacity of a soil and how will this value affect or ability to grow plants? CEC is the ability of a soil to attract negatively charged particles, including important plant minerals and nutrients, that plant roots can seek out and take up. True or False: A plant can more readily use organic forms of N from the soil. (1 pt True or False: Dolomitic lime contains Manganese and Calcium. (1 pt) Nutrient deficiency symptoms on ornamentals always indicate a low nutrient level in the soil.

WHAT IS IN FERTILIZER OTHER THAN NUTRIENTS?

WHAT IS IN FERTILIZER OTHER THAN NUTRIENTS? WHAT IS IN FERTILIZER OTHER THAN NUTRIENTS? Raymond C. Ward Ward Laboratories Inc. Kearney, NE Commercial fertilizer is a source of plant nutrients that can be applied to soil to nourish crops when the

More information

Calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) are secondary nutrients, but they are

Calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) are secondary nutrients, but they are Chapter 4 Magnesium 32 4 Magnesium Charles S. Wortmann UNL Professor of Agronomy Revised from: Kenneth D. Frank UNL Associate Professor Emeritus, Agronomy Calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) are secondary

More information

Managing Soil Acidity

Managing Soil Acidity Managing Soil Acidity Mark L. McFarland, Vincent A. Haby, Larry A. Redmon, and David H. Bade* Department of Soil and Crop Sciences SCS-2001-05 What Causes Soil Acidity? The minerals from which a soil is

More information

Understanding the. Soil Test Report. Client and Sample Identification

Understanding the. Soil Test Report. Client and Sample Identification Understanding the Soil Test Report Page 1 of 7 Crops absorb the nutrients required from soil in order to grow, so ensuring that your soil is meeting the crops needs is critical. Having the proper level

More information

ph is an expression of the concentration of hydrogen ions in solution

ph is an expression of the concentration of hydrogen ions in solution What is Acidity? An acid is a substance that gives off hydrogen ions ( H + ). A base is a substance that gives off hydroxyl ions. ( OH - ). ph is an expression of the concentration of hydrogen ions in

More information

SULFUR, CALCIUM and MAGNESIUM

SULFUR, CALCIUM and MAGNESIUM SULFUR, CALCIUM and MAGNESIUM Sulfur, calcium and magnesium are required in smaller quantities than other macronutrients nutrients and are less likely to be deficient for optimum plant growth. Thus, they

More information

UNDERSTANDING THE SOIL TEST REPORT

UNDERSTANDING THE SOIL TEST REPORT NC STATE UNIVERSITY Urban Horticulture Note No. 6 North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service Durham County Center 721 Foster Street Durham, North Carolina 27701 919-560-0525 Fax: 919-560-0530 www.ces.ncsu.edu/durham/

More information

Fertilizing Garden Soils

Fertilizing Garden Soils Fertilizing Garden Soils From Cornell Cooperative Extension, Chemung County More gardening information at www.gardening.cornell.edu Soil Nutrients Twenty nutrients have been identified which plants require

More information

Sulfur deficiency in corn Jim Camberato, Stephen Maloney, and Shaun Casteel 1 Agronomy Department, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN

Sulfur deficiency in corn Jim Camberato, Stephen Maloney, and Shaun Casteel 1 Agronomy Department, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN Purdue University Department of Agronomy Soil Fertility Update May 2012 URL: http://www.kingcorn.org/news/timeless/sulfurdeficiency.pdf Sulfur deficiency in corn Jim Camberato, Stephen Maloney, and Shaun

More information

Fertility Needs of No-Till Corn, Soybean and Wheat. Raymond C. Ward Ward Laboratories, Inc Kearney, NE

Fertility Needs of No-Till Corn, Soybean and Wheat. Raymond C. Ward Ward Laboratories, Inc Kearney, NE Fertility Needs of No-Till Corn, Soybean and Wheat Raymond C. Ward Ward Laboratories, Inc Kearney, NE www.wardlab.com Soil Sample for Fertility Dry or Frozen Ground Uniform Slice Top and Subsoil Sampling

More information

Fertility Guidelines for Hops in the Northeast Dr. Heather Darby, University of Vermont Extension Agronomist

Fertility Guidelines for Hops in the Northeast Dr. Heather Darby, University of Vermont Extension Agronomist Fertility Guidelines for Hops in the Northeast Dr. Heather Darby, University of Vermont Extension Agronomist The increasing acreage of hops in the Northeast has prompted the need for fertility guidelines

More information

Fertility Management Corn on Corn

Fertility Management Corn on Corn Fertility Management Corn on Corn Ray Ward Ward Laboratories, Inc Kearney Nebraska www.wardlab.com Guiding Producers Today to Feed the World Tomorrow Topics Nutrient loss from crop mining Evaluation of

More information

Agronomic and Economic Considerations on Michigan Farms

Agronomic and Economic Considerations on Michigan Farms Agronomic and Economic Considerations on Michigan Farms MSU Phosphorus and Potassium Fertilizer Recommendations for Field Crops The key ingredients: Soil Test Information Yield Goal Buildup, Maintenance

More information

IV. PLANT NUTRIENT ELEMENTS

IV. PLANT NUTRIENT ELEMENTS IV. PLANT NUTRIENT ELEMENTS 1. Introduction There are sixteen (16) elements that have been established as essential for the optimal growth of chlorophyll-containing plants. These elements have been divided

More information

Title: Call center and answering services for the medical & home health care industry

Title: Call center and answering services for the medical & home health care industry Title: Call center and answering services for the medical & home health care industry Word Count: 444 Summary: Now discover a whole new perspective to health care.\edical and home health care services

More information

SHORT DESCRIPTION OF TECHNICAL PAPER CONTENT

SHORT DESCRIPTION OF TECHNICAL PAPER CONTENT Soil Testing is one of a range Animal Welfare Approved technical papers designed to provide practical advice and support to farmers. For more information visit www.animalwelfareapproved.org SHORT DESCRIPTION

More information

MATH 110 Landscape Horticulture Worksheet #5

MATH 110 Landscape Horticulture Worksheet #5 MATH 110 Landscape Horticulture Worksheet #5 Ratios and Percentages All fertilizers have three numbers on the label, which indicate the fertilizer analysis, or "percentage by weight" of nitrogen, phosphate

More information

Understanding ph management and plant nutrition Part 3: Fertilizers

Understanding ph management and plant nutrition Part 3: Fertilizers Understanding ph management and plant nutrition Part 3: Fertilizers Bill Argo, Ph.D. Blackmore Company, Tel: 800-874-8660, Int l 734-483-8661, E-mail: bargo@blackmoreco.com Originally printed in 2003 in

More information

Interpreting Plant Analysis Reports

Interpreting Plant Analysis Reports Hwy P.O. Box 51 Northwood, ND 5827 (71) 587-1 Fax (71) 587-13 Home page: agvise.com 92 13th t. N. P.O. Box 187 Benson, MN 52 (32) 843-419 Fax (32) 843-274 Interpreting Plant Analysis Reports N Zn P.O.

More information

Soil ph. Table 4.1. Desirable Soil ph for Optimum Crop Production ph Range

Soil ph. Table 4.1. Desirable Soil ph for Optimum Crop Production ph Range SECTION CONTENTS: Soil ph Soil Acidity Liming Materials Lime Timing, Placement and Frequency of Application Excess Alkalinity Natural and Induced Lime Tables Soil ph What is soil acidity? In simple terms,

More information

N-P-K FERTILIZERS. by M.L. Vitosh Extension Specialist, Crop and Soil Sciences

N-P-K FERTILIZERS. by M.L. Vitosh Extension Specialist, Crop and Soil Sciences Michigan State University Extension! Extension Bulletin E-896! Reprint July 1996 N-P-K FERTILIZERS by M.L. Vitosh Extension Specialist, Crop and Soil Sciences T here are many grades and analyses of nitrogen

More information

LAB 5 - PLANT NUTRITION. Chemical Ionic forms Approximate dry Element symbol Atomic weight Absorbed by plants tissue concentration

LAB 5 - PLANT NUTRITION. Chemical Ionic forms Approximate dry Element symbol Atomic weight Absorbed by plants tissue concentration LAB 5 PLANT NUTRITION I. General Introduction All living organisms require certain elements for their survival. Plants are known to require carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), nitrogen (N), phosphorus

More information

Plant nutrients. The quantity of nutrients available to the plants is affected by: substrate quality water quality plant type.

Plant nutrients. The quantity of nutrients available to the plants is affected by: substrate quality water quality plant type. Plant nutrients All plants require nutrients to survive and grow. Plants take nutrients from the air, the soil, and the water. Because you cannot see nutrients they are colourless gases or are like dust

More information

What Is Humic Acid? Where Does It Come From?

What Is Humic Acid? Where Does It Come From? What Is Humic Acid? Humic and Fulvic acids are the final break-down constituents of the natural decay of plant and animal materials. These organic acids are found in pre-historic deposits. Humic matter

More information

Agro-One Soil Analysis

Agro-One Soil Analysis Lab Sample ID: 70947940 Field/Location: MONDAY GROUP 1 Date Sampled: 10/03/2011 Phosphorus (P) 160 Potassium (K) 599 Calcium (Ca) 5,232 Magnesium (Mg) 573 Element Element Element Soil ph 6.8 Manganese

More information

Landscape Fertilizers: Selection, Handling, Application and Storage...

Landscape Fertilizers: Selection, Handling, Application and Storage... Landscape Fertilizers: Selection, Handling, Application and Storage... Lawn and garden experts have longknown that plants, especially turfgrass, benefit from the regular application of supplemental fertilizers.

More information

FERTILIZER GUIDELINES FOR AGRONOMIC CROPS IN MINNESOTA

FERTILIZER GUIDELINES FOR AGRONOMIC CROPS IN MINNESOTA FERTILIZER GUIDELINES FOR AGRONOMIC CROPS IN MINNESOTA 1 2 Table of Contents Understanding the Soil Test Report... 5 Fertilizer Suggestions for: Alfalfa... 7 Barley... 9 Buckwheat... 12 Canola... 13 Corn...

More information

SOIL TEST INTERPRETATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS HANDBOOK

SOIL TEST INTERPRETATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS HANDBOOK 1 SOIL TEST INTERPRETATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS HANDBOOK Originally written 1983 By Daryl D. Buchholz Revised 5/2004 Contributors: James R. Brown Deanna K. Crocker John D. Garrett Roger G. Hanson John

More information

Three Reasons to Broaden Your Fertigation Knowledge

Three Reasons to Broaden Your Fertigation Knowledge Three Reasons to Broaden Your Fertigation Knowledge While the benefits of fertigation are being recognized by more irrigation managers today than ever before, the staff of Irrigation Business & Technology

More information

PRODUCTS ANALYSIS ADVANTAGES. Total Nitrogen (N) 12.5% Nitrate Nitrogen (NO3) 12.5% Calcium Oxide (CaO) 23.5% Calcium (Ca) 16.8%

PRODUCTS ANALYSIS ADVANTAGES. Total Nitrogen (N) 12.5% Nitrate Nitrogen (NO3) 12.5% Calcium Oxide (CaO) 23.5% Calcium (Ca) 16.8% is a fully water-soluble crystal calcium nitrate fertilizer, a highly efficient CNsource of available calcium and nitrogen for plants. Calcium is a "quality nutrient" that enhances quality and prolongs

More information

CALCIUM AND MAGNESIUM: THE SECONDARY COUSINS George Rehm, University of Minnesota

CALCIUM AND MAGNESIUM: THE SECONDARY COUSINS George Rehm, University of Minnesota CALCIUM AND MAGNESIUM: THE SECONDARY COUSINS George Rehm, University of Minnesota 1. Introduction In the discipline of soil fertility, sulfur (S), calcium (Ca), and magnesium (Mg) are put into the category

More information

What is soil quality?

What is soil quality? USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service Indicator? Test? Function? Soil Quality Indicators Physical, Chemical and Biological Indicators for Soil Quality Assessment and Management A series of information

More information

NITROGEN IN SOIL AND FERTILIZERS James J. Camberato

NITROGEN IN SOIL AND FERTILIZERS James J. Camberato 1 NITROGEN IN SOIL AND FERTILIZERS James J. Camberato Nitrogen influences turf health and quality more than any other nutrient. Nitrogen is present in grass plants in greater quantities than any other

More information

Name: PLSOIL 105 & 106 First Hour Exam February 27, 2012. Part A. Place answers on bubble sheet. 2 pts. each.

Name: PLSOIL 105 & 106 First Hour Exam February 27, 2012. Part A. Place answers on bubble sheet. 2 pts. each. Name: PLSOIL 105 & 106 First Hour Exam February 27, 2012 Part A. Place answers on bubble sheet. 2 pts. each. 1. A soil with 15% clay and 20% sand would belong to what textural class? A. Clay C. Loamy sand

More information

Irrigated Winter Wheat

Irrigated Winter Wheat Southern Idaho Fertilizer Guide Irrigated Winter Wheat Brad Brown, Soil Scientist Parma Research and Extension Center The following fertilizer guidelines are based on University of Idaho research that

More information

Improving Existing Pasture

Improving Existing Pasture Improving Existing Pasture I. Introduction The first thought of many is to plow up and reseed old pasture areas. However in most cases it may be best to try to work with and improve some or all of the

More information

If your soil has a high salinity content, the plants

If your soil has a high salinity content, the plants E-60 7-01 Managing Soil Salinity Tony Provin and J.L. Pitt* If your soil has a high salinity content, the plants growing there will not be as vigorous as they would be in normal soils. Seeds will germinate

More information

NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS FOR GRAPEVINES. Andrew Teubes Viticultural Consultant

NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS FOR GRAPEVINES. Andrew Teubes Viticultural Consultant NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS FOR GRAPEVINES Andrew Teubes Viticultural Consultant Nutrient requirements Five (5) critical aspects of importance for grapevine nutrition Which elements are required by the vine

More information

Salinity Management and Soil Amendments for Southwestern Pecan Orchards

Salinity Management and Soil Amendments for Southwestern Pecan Orchards Salinity Management and Soil Amendments for Southwestern Pecan Orchards Thomas L. Thompson, Professor and Soils Specialist James L. Walworth, Associate Professor and Soils Specialist Department of Soil,

More information

A SOIL TESTING SERVICE FOR FARMERS IN THAILAND, USING MOBILE LABORATORIES

A SOIL TESTING SERVICE FOR FARMERS IN THAILAND, USING MOBILE LABORATORIES A SOIL TESTING SERVICE FOR FARMERS IN THAILAND, USING MOBILE LABORATORIES Narong Chinabut Office of Science for Land Development Land Development Department, Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives, Bangkok

More information

Sustainable Fescue Lawns in the Piedmont

Sustainable Fescue Lawns in the Piedmont Sustainable Fescue Lawns in the Piedmont The Value of Lawns Add value to your home Stabilize the soil & prevent erosion Filter water before it reaches drinking water Produce oxygen Trap pollutants in thatch

More information

STUDY QUESTIONS FOR GEOLOGY 408U/508

STUDY QUESTIONS FOR GEOLOGY 408U/508 Geology 408/608 Study Questions 1 STUDY QUESTIONS FOR GEOLOGY 408U/508 These questions should be used as a guide to your study of the course material for exam preparation. A significant portion of exam

More information

Testing Water for Gardening and Lawn Irrigation

Testing Water for Gardening and Lawn Irrigation wellcare information for you about Testing Water for Gardening and Lawn Irrigation Within a household, water may serve many functions beyond everyday household uses such as drinking, cooking, laundry,

More information

Optimum soil test levels

Optimum soil test levels A3030 Optimum soil test levels for Wisconsin K.A. Kelling L.G. Bundy S.M. Combs J.B. Peters Soil test results for phosphorus, potassium, and other mineral elements are interpreted on Wisconsin soil test

More information

Page 1 Guides for Educators (May 2014) Figure 1. Nitrogen cycle ( Soil as a Plant Sees It, University of Nebraska, 1991).

Page 1 Guides for Educators (May 2014) Figure 1. Nitrogen cycle ( Soil as a Plant Sees It, University of Nebraska, 1991). Nitrogen (N) is the most abundant element in the atmosphere, and it generally is the most limiting nutrient for crops. Nitrogen cycles in soil through various processes and in various forms (fig. 1). Some

More information

How to Read A Soil Analysis Report

How to Read A Soil Analysis Report Special Publication 10-12 How to Read A Soil Analysis Report Angela O Callaghan, Ph.D. Area Extension Specialist Social Horticulture When people send soil samples to laboratories for analysis, the reports

More information

Total Suspended Solids Total Dissolved Solids Hardness

Total Suspended Solids Total Dissolved Solids Hardness Total Suspended Solids (TSS) are solids in water that can be trapped by a filter. TSS can include a wide variety of material, such as silt, decaying plant and animal matter, industrial wastes, and sewage.

More information

You will need a metre tube. Insert the tube directly into the ground, twist and extract so you get approximately metres of soil.

You will need a metre tube. Insert the tube directly into the ground, twist and extract so you get approximately metres of soil. Soil quality testing Soil Core A soil core is useful when conducting the following tests for soil quality. It allows you to see and test soil properties that you otherwise would not have access to. You

More information

APPENDIX B CHARACTERIZATION OF SOILS AT TEST SITES

APPENDIX B CHARACTERIZATION OF SOILS AT TEST SITES APPENDIX B HARATERIZATION OF SOILS AT TEST SITES A.1 LAMBTON FAILITY 2015 ANNUAL LANDFILL REPORT BIOMONITORING PROGRAM pendix B haracterization of Soils at Test Sites pendix B HARATERIZATION OF SOILS

More information

Nitrogen: All Forms Are Not Equal

Nitrogen: All Forms Are Not Equal Reprinted from the June 2009 Edition of GMPro Magazine Nitrogen: All Forms Are Not Equal Summary: By understanding the different chemical forms of nitrogen, you can manage rootzone ph and avoid toxic buildup

More information

SOIL FERTILITY MANAGEMENT BASICS. Organic Soil Amendments and Fertilizers

SOIL FERTILITY MANAGEMENT BASICS. Organic Soil Amendments and Fertilizers SOIL FERTILITY MANAGEMENT BASICS Organic Soil Amendments and Fertilizers What are Your Objectives for Soil and Crops? Increase soil organic matter Improve soil tilth Enhance nitrogen availability Increase

More information

Interpretation of Soil and Water Analysis

Interpretation of Soil and Water Analysis 15 1 1 5 Interpretation of Soil and Water Analysis W i l l i a m L. P e a c o c k a n d L. P e t e r C h r i s t e n s e n Grapevines are sensitive to high levels of soluble salts and toxic ions in both

More information

POTASSIUM. Functions of Potassium in Plants. Potassium Deficiency Symptoms

POTASSIUM. Functions of Potassium in Plants. Potassium Deficiency Symptoms POTASSIUM Potassium is the last of what might be called the big three soil nutrients nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. These three primary nutrients are, by far, the nutrients most commonly limiting

More information

Amazing World Under Our Feet

Amazing World Under Our Feet Crop Science Investigation Workshop Series Lesson Plans Amazing World Under Our Feet Subject: Crop Production Intro to Soil Grade Level(s): 4 th 8 th grades Lesson Title: What is soil and why is soil important?

More information

Soils should be warm and moist for at least a week before SME sampling. Chilean may not be allowed at all after 2012

Soils should be warm and moist for at least a week before SME sampling. Chilean may not be allowed at all after 2012 ORGANIC GREENHOUSE TOMATO NUTRITION by Vern Grubinger Vegetable and Berry specialist University of Vermont Extension vernon.grubinger@uvm.edu www.uvm.edu/vtvegandberry Most organic greenhouse tomatoes

More information

SOIL. Extension Master Gardeners. Soil Preparation. Soil Preparation. From Red Clay to Brown Gold. of Buncombe County. Ready to Plant?

SOIL. Extension Master Gardeners. Soil Preparation. Soil Preparation. From Red Clay to Brown Gold. of Buncombe County. Ready to Plant? Extension Master Gardeners of Buncombe County Presented By Linda McNab Master Gardener Volunteer North Carolina Cooperative Extension Buncombe County Center SOIL From Red Clay to Brown Gold Soil Preparation

More information

MAINE SOIL TESTING SERVICE

MAINE SOIL TESTING SERVICE INTERPRETING SOIL TEST RESULTS FOR COMMERCIAL CROPS MAINE SOIL TESTING SERVICE INTERPRETING SOIL TEST RESULTS FOR COMMERCIAL CROPS *****A glossary of terms appears at the end of this document***** Uses

More information

St. Augustine Orchid Society Choosing Your Fertilizer Based on Your Water Quality by Sue Bottom,

St. Augustine Orchid Society  Choosing Your Fertilizer Based on Your Water Quality by Sue Bottom, Most of the well water and public water supply in the St. Augustine area are derived from wells in shell strata and limestone so the water tends to be moderately to very alkaline. This will cause white

More information

These calculations are on a hectare basis or for a given size of an experimental plot.

These calculations are on a hectare basis or for a given size of an experimental plot. Fertilizer Calibration Objective: The objective of this lesson is to help you to learn to convert a fertilizer recommendation to the required amounts per unit area. These calculations are on a hectare

More information

CHEMICAL FERTILIZERS FOR FISH PONDS

CHEMICAL FERTILIZERS FOR FISH PONDS WATER HARVESTING AND AQUACULTURE FOR RURAL DEVELOPMENT CHEMICAL FERTILIZERS FOR FISH PONDS INTERNATIONAL CENTER FOR AQUACULTURE AND AQUATIC ENVIRONMENTS AUBURN UNIVERSITY INTRODUCTION Chemical fertilizers

More information

ORGANIC FERTILIZERS - The Nutrient Story

ORGANIC FERTILIZERS - The Nutrient Story ORGANIC FERTILIZERS - The Nutrient Story Organic fertilizers contain trace minerals which are often critical to plant health and growth and missing in artificial fertilizers. Organic fertilizers do not

More information

Kugler Company. Keeping Quality First Since 1924

Kugler Company. Keeping Quality First Since 1924 Kugler Company Keeping Quality First Since 1924 Rapid City, SD Waterloo, IA Sterling, CO Culbertson, NE Terre Haute, IN Burlington, CO Ulysses, KS a Foliar applications cannot by themselves meet

More information

Investigating What's In Soil

Investigating What's In Soil Investigating What's In Soil This document is part of an Inquiry-based Science Curriculum from The Guided Inquiry supporting Multiple Literacies Project at the University of Michigan Project Co-Directors:

More information

SOIL AND IRRIGATION WATER INTERPRETATION MANUAL

SOIL AND IRRIGATION WATER INTERPRETATION MANUAL 24959-89 SOIL AND IRRIGATION WATER INTERPRETATION MANUAL Hach Company, 1993-1001. All rights are reserved. Printed in U.S.A. 5-15-93-2ED, rb rev1 10/01 TABLE OF CONTENTS Page PREFACE SECTION I An Introduction

More information

Nutrient Management for Commercial Fruit & Vegetable Crops in Minnesota

Nutrient Management for Commercial Fruit & Vegetable Crops in Minnesota Nutrient Management for Commercial Fruit & Vegetable Crops in Minnesota Carl J. Rosen and Roger Eliason Department of Soil, Water, and Climate University of Minnesota Carl J. Rosen is an extension soil

More information

AgriLife Extension Solutions

AgriLife Extension Solutions Understanding Water Quality Reports for Your Pond Todd Sink, Ph.D. Extension Fisheries Specialist Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service Mikayla House Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service Water quality tests

More information

Fertilizer. Recommendations Guide. EC750 September 2005. Cooperative Extension Service South Dakota State University U.S. Department of Agriculture

Fertilizer. Recommendations Guide. EC750 September 2005. Cooperative Extension Service South Dakota State University U.S. Department of Agriculture Fertilizer EC750 September 2005 Recommendations Guide Cooperative Extension Service South Dakota State University U.S. Department of Agriculture South Dakota Fertilizer Recommendations Guide September

More information

PLANT NUTRITION AND SOILS (CHEMISTRY IN THE GARDEN)

PLANT NUTRITION AND SOILS (CHEMISTRY IN THE GARDEN) PLANT NUTRITION AND SOILS (CHEMISTRY IN THE GARDEN) Plants need water, carbon dioxide and a range of trace minerals known as 'nutrients' to grow. They obtain these nutrients, and most of their water, from

More information

SULFUR AND MICRONUTRIENT RESPONSES ON CORN AND SOYBEANS George Rehm Department of Soil, Water, and Climate, University of Minnesota, St.

SULFUR AND MICRONUTRIENT RESPONSES ON CORN AND SOYBEANS George Rehm Department of Soil, Water, and Climate, University of Minnesota, St. SULFUR AND MICRONUTRIENT RESPONSES ON CORN AND SOYBEANS George Rehm Department of Soil, Water, and Climate, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN Introduction The importance of sulfur and micronutrients

More information

Composting. What You eed to Know!

Composting. What You eed to Know! Composting What You eed to Know! What is Compost? What is Compost? Cornell: The definition of composting is the biological stabilization and decomposition of organic substrates under conditions which allow

More information

Crop Nutrient Needs in South and Southwest Texas

Crop Nutrient Needs in South and Southwest Texas B-6053 04-01 Crop Nutrient Needs in South and Southwest Texas Charles Stichler and Mark McFarland* Crop fertilization is not an exact science. The soil is a dynamic, changing, and complex mixture of organic

More information

Fri_B03 Healthy Soils I. Introduction: Soil or Dirt A. Natural soils and urban soils B. Goals of plants and soil in built landscapes

Fri_B03 Healthy Soils I. Introduction: Soil or Dirt A. Natural soils and urban soils B. Goals of plants and soil in built landscapes Fri_B03 Healthy Soils I. Introduction: Soil or Dirt A. Natural soils and urban soils B. Goals of plants and soil in built landscapes II. III. Physical Properties of Soil A. Texture B. Structure C. Density

More information

Effects of some synthetic fertilizers on the soil ecosystem By: Heide Hermary, March 2007

Effects of some synthetic fertilizers on the soil ecosystem By: Heide Hermary, March 2007 Effects of some synthetic fertilizers on the soil ecosystem By: Heide Hermary, March 2007 Schematic representations of the nitrogen cycle often make it look as if the nitrogen undergoes simple chemical

More information

Plants need an adequate level of nutrients

Plants need an adequate level of nutrients EC 1503 April 2000 $1.50 Fertilizing Your Garden Vegetables, Fruits, and Ornamentals J. Hart and R. McNeilan Plants need an adequate level of nutrients to thrive. This publication will help you ensure

More information

ennessee is one of the top livestock producing states in the country. Much of the livestock in Tennessee is raised by smaller-scale, parttime

ennessee is one of the top livestock producing states in the country. Much of the livestock in Tennessee is raised by smaller-scale, parttime T ennessee is one of the top livestock producing states in the country. Much of the livestock in Tennessee is raised by smaller-scale, parttime producers. No matter what size operation, good pasture management

More information

Substrate ph: Getting it Right for Your Greenhouse Crops

Substrate ph: Getting it Right for Your Greenhouse Crops Substrate ph: Getting it Right for Your Greenhouse Crops Neil Mattson Assistant professor and Floriculture Extension Specialist, Department of Horticulture Cornell University, 134A Plant Sciences Bldg,

More information

What Is Soil? S- 4.11A

What Is Soil? S- 4.11A What Is oil? ObjectivesThe student will identify the major components of soil. The student will be able to distinguish different soils based on physical characteristics. Grade Level 1-3 4-6 TEK: - K.10,A,B;

More information

Strawberry Production Basics: Matted Row

Strawberry Production Basics: Matted Row Strawberry Production Basics: Matted Row David T. Handley, Vegetable and Small Fruits Specialist University of Maine Cooperative Extension Highmoor Farm, P.O. Box 179, Monmouth, Maine 04259 (207) 933-2100

More information

Temperature N Source and Rate CEC (less when high) Application method + H +

Temperature N Source and Rate CEC (less when high) Application method + H + Ammonia Volatilization Urease activity Air Exchange Temperature N Source and Rate CEC (less when high) Application method NH 4 NH 3 H Urea If ph and temperature can be kept low, little potential exists

More information

Understanding ph management and plant nutrition Part 5: Choosing the best fertilizer

Understanding ph management and plant nutrition Part 5: Choosing the best fertilizer Understanding ph management and plant nutrition Part 5: Choosing the best fertilizer Bill Argo, Ph.D. Blackmore Company, Tel: 800-874-8660, Int l 734-483-8661, E-mail: bargo@blackmoreco.com Originally

More information

FERTILIZERS AND THEIR USE

FERTILIZERS AND THEIR USE FERTILIZERS AND THEIR USE A pocket guide for extension officers The designation employed and the presentation of material in the publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the

More information

Science of Life Explorations

Science of Life Explorations Science of Life Explorations Student Scientists: Make Your Bed Activity #2 Study Soil While we are still talking about soil, let s check three other soil properties that will affect your garden: compaction

More information

Quality requirements for wood ash as K component in recycled NPK fertilizers

Quality requirements for wood ash as K component in recycled NPK fertilizers 1 Quality requirements for wood ash as K component in recycled NPK fertilizers Trond Knapp Haraldsen 1 Eva Brod 2 Tore Krogstad 2 1Bioforsk Soil and Environment, Ås 2University of Life Sciences, Ås ASH

More information

Nitrogen Cycling in Ecosystems

Nitrogen Cycling in Ecosystems Nitrogen Cycling in Ecosystems In order to have a firm understanding of how nitrogen impacts our ecosystems, it is important that students fully understand how the various forms of nitrogen cycle through

More information

Determining nutrient needs

Determining nutrient needs A3340 Corn fertilization L.G. Bundy Profitable corn production requires an adequate soil fertility program. Insufficient nutrients will lower yields; excess nutrients will lower profit margins and may

More information

Do not oven-dry the soil

Do not oven-dry the soil Fertilizing Corn Fact Sheet No..38 Crop Series Soil by J.G. Davis and D.G. Westfall* Adequate soil fertility is one of the requirements for profitable corn production. Nitrogen (N) is the most yield-limiting

More information

K component in recycled NPK fertilizers

K component in recycled NPK fertilizers 1 Quality requirements for wood ash as K component in recycled NPK fertilizers Trond Knapp Haraldsen 1 Eva Brod 2 Tore Krogstad 2 1Bioforsk Soil and Environment, Ås 2University of Life Sciences, Ås ASH

More information

Abu Dhabi Farmers Services Centre Technical Development Section Protected Agriculture Unit. Hydroponics manual. Contents. 1.

Abu Dhabi Farmers Services Centre Technical Development Section Protected Agriculture Unit. Hydroponics manual. Contents. 1. Abu Dhabi Farmers Services Centre Technical Development Section Protected Agriculture Unit Hydroponics manual Contents 1. Introduction 1.1. Purpose and objectives of the manual 1.2. What is hydroponics

More information

Managing Soil ph and Crop Nutrients

Managing Soil ph and Crop Nutrients 8 Managing Soil ph and Crop Nutrients Fabián G. Fernández Department of Crop Sciences fernande@illinois.edu Robert G. Hoeft Department of Crop Sciences rhoeft@illinois.edu The inherent complexity of crop

More information

College of Agricultural Sciences Agricultural Research and Cooperative Extension

College of Agricultural Sciences Agricultural Research and Cooperative Extension Start Farming Introduction to Soils Fact 4 Determining Nutrient Applications for Small Farms Basic Calculations Conventional Generally production systems in Pennsylvania use a mixture of nutrient sources.

More information

SOIL FERTILITY BASICS

SOIL FERTILITY BASICS Soil Science Extension North Carolina State University SOIL FERTILITY BASICS NC Certified Crop Advisor Training Steven C. Hodges SOIL FERTILITY BASICS Chapter 1 Basic Concepts - 1 Chapter 1 Basic Concepts

More information

Module Three Characterizing Compounds Using Mass Percents and Empirical Formulas. Chem 170. Stoichiometric Calculations.

Module Three Characterizing Compounds Using Mass Percents and Empirical Formulas. Chem 170. Stoichiometric Calculations. Chem 170 Stoichiometric Calculations Module Three Characterizing Compounds Using Mass Percents and Empirical Formulas DePauw University Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry Page 1 Introduction to Module

More information

Chapter D9. Irrigation scheduling

Chapter D9. Irrigation scheduling Chapter D9. Irrigation scheduling PURPOSE OF THIS CHAPTER To explain how to plan and schedule your irrigation program CHAPTER CONTENTS factors affecting irrigation intervals influence of soil water using

More information

Ways of Making Terra Preta: Biochar Activation

Ways of Making Terra Preta: Biochar Activation Ways of Making Terra Preta: Biochar Activation by Hans-Peter Schmidt (Delinat-Institute) Biochar is not a fertilizer, but rather a nutrient carrier and a habitat for microorganisms. First of all it has

More information

B4 Learning Outcome Questions

B4 Learning Outcome Questions Question Name 4 collection methods: What is the formula used to estimate the population size of an organism: What assumptions need to be made when using capture-recapture data? What could affect the distribution

More information

Agricultural Extension Service The University of Tennessee PB1637

Agricultural Extension Service The University of Tennessee PB1637 Agricultural Extension Service The University of Tennessee PB1637 1 Table of Contents Introduction Essential Plant Nutrients Functions of the Essential Nutrients in Plants Visual Diagnoses of Plant Nutrient

More information

Nutrient Deficiencies

Nutrient Deficiencies Integrated Pest Management Nutrient Deficiencies and Application Injuries in Field Crops John Sawyer Department of Agronomy Nitrogen deficiency in corn IPM 42 Revised July 2004 Nutrient deficiencies in

More information

Higher Geography. Physical Environments Biosphere Soils

Higher Geography. Physical Environments Biosphere Soils Higher Geography Physical Environments Biosphere Soils Higher Geography course The 3 types of soil studied as part of the Higher Geography course are: Brown Earths Podzols Gleys Characteristics of Brown

More information

Programme in mole calculation

Programme in mole calculation Programme in mole calculation Step 1 Start at the very beginning Atoms are very small indeed! If we draw a line 1 metre long, 6,000,000,000 (6 billion) atoms could be lined end to end. So a scientist cannot

More information

For all turfgrass areas. Now you can test soil reaction at different levels in the soil profile. Check Soil ph on:

For all turfgrass areas. Now you can test soil reaction at different levels in the soil profile. Check Soil ph on: Turf-Tec ph Meter Test soil ph in the mat, thatch and above and below the root zone. ph can be checked, 0" to 4" inch level right on the turfgrass area. Simply insert probe to desired depth, allow to stand

More information