Candy Phylogeny Lab. Procedure:

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1 Candy Phylogeny Lab Material Candy Bar (2 each) o Baby Ruth o Reee Piece o rhey Cookie and Cream o Snicker Cruncher o Snicker o MM Peanut o MM Plain o rhey o rhey Almond o Skittle Picture of Candy Bar (Multiple Copie; 2 et per group maller ize for Venn Diagram, larger ize for tree) Pen Card tock Giant Sticky Note Plate Data table Tape Marker Scior Set Up: Print copie of the candy bar picture and data table Cut out the candy bar picture Cut the card tock into neted ize; hould have one et per group o Example (each box repreent a eparate heet of paper): o Open 1 et of the candy bar (except for kittle) and cut each into halve to view the internal feature Place the cut piece on plate, label and et at the front of the room (can cover with additional plate o tudent can t ee the candy, until you are ready) Place heet of the blank Giant Sticky note around the room, paced out enough o each group will have pace to work. Procedure:

2 1. Introduce group to phylogenetic and phylogenetic relationhip. a. Phylogenetic allow for the recontruction of evolutionary hitory by depicting poible hitorical relationhip between pecie. b. The major goal of contructing phylogenetic relationhip are to: i. Clarify evolution of a group ii. Aid in the claification of the group 2. Dicu the method utilized for contructing phylogenie a. Phenetic i. an attempt to claify organim baed on overall imilarity, uually in morphology or other obervable trait, regardle of their evolutionary relation. ii. the tudy of relationhip among a group of organim on the bai of the degree of imilarity between them, be that imilarity molecular, phenotypic, or anatomical. The aim i conider a many characteritic a poible to claify org to produce a variety of named group iii. Produce A tree like network expreing phenetic relationhip, a phenogram. It link organim by etimate of overall imilarity a evidenced by an analyi of character b. Evolutionary Taxonomy i. Traditional taxonomy ii. Claifie org uing a combo of phylogenetic relationhip, recency of iii. common decent, and degree of evolutionary change Conider the whole taxa a oppoed to ingle pecie in uch a way that group of pecie can be inferred a giving rie to new group. c. Claditic i. The tudy of the pathway of evolution, particularly the recency of common decent ii. iii. Intereted particularly in the branching how many branche among group of org, which branche connect to which other branche; what i the branching equence Unlike phenetic, which conider all characteritic, it only conider a retricted et of characteritic. Org are aigned to a group becaue they hare unique derived characteritic not found in other organim iv. Seek to determine the order in which the evolutionary line diverged or branched v. Create a ladder like network that expree ancetor decendant relationhip a cladogram 3. Explain the following : a. phylogenetic tree erve a a viual repreentation of the poible hitorical relationhip between pecie b. Thi i the phylogeny c. Thee tree are contructed uing a cladogram 4. Show an example of a phylogenetic tree a. How to read: i. Specie at the tip or end repreent pecie, genera, or taxa living today (extant pecie) or are extinct ii. iii. Branche of tree repreent ancetral population of pecie through time Node deignate point where one pecie plit into 2 or more decendant population

3 iv. Shared derived characteritic are hown along the branche b. The tree help to how that the more derived characteritic 2 organim hare, the cloer their evolutionary relationhip i i. Cloe relationhip hown by a recent fork from the upporting branch ii. The cloer the fork in the branch between 2 organim, the cloer their relationhip 5. Walk the group through the tep in creating a phylogenetic tree a. Chooe taxa b. Determine the characteritic/character tate for each organim c. A you oberve the different characteritic, fill out a data table to indicate the character tated for each i. d. Ue the data table to ort your organim into bin baed on the character ued to compare them. Venn diagram are helpful for thi i. Start with the characteritic that all the organim hare (Vertebrae) ii. Select the next common characteritic (2 pair of limb) and create they next venn diagram. iii. Move all the organim with thi character into thi bubble. Thi hould leave hark in the firt, larger bubble and everything ele in the maller bubble. iv. We can read thi a hark have vertebrae; Bullfrog, kangaroo, and human have vertebrae and 2 pair of limb. v. vi. Continue until you have placed all the organim in appropriate bin. e. Now ue the Venn Diagram to draw a cladogram. (ee example below)

4 i. 6. Inform the group they will now determine the phylogeny of common chocolate candy. a. Show tudent the 9 wrapped chocolate candie. b. Ak them to conider how the candie are imilar or different and chooe a couple tudent to anwer. i. For tudent in lower grade: hand out the copie of the data heet with characteritic you want them to focu on already lited. ii. For tudent in higher grade (or for thoe tudent needing a challenge): hand out blank copie of the data heet they will determine what characteritic to look at in their group. c. Explain that they will now get the chance to ee if they can categorize the chocolate and create a cladogram like we did together in the example. 7. Place the tudent into mall group (2 5 tudent per group) 8. Give each group a et of the mall candy bar picture. a. Intruct the group to complete the data heet baed on the characteritic of each candy, by placing x or check mark in the correponding boxe. b. Let the tudent know that if they can t remember what i inide the candy, they can end a repreentative to the front of the room to view the internal feature of the candy (thi can alo be likened to doing genetic analyi ) 9. A group complete the data table, give them a et of neted card tock heet. a. They can ue thee heet and the candy bar picture to create their Venn diagram. 10.Intruct tudent that once their Venn diagram are completed, they can turn over their data heet and make a ketch or draft of their cladogram/phylogenic tree. a. Once the group i ure of the tructure of their tree, let them go to their giant ticky heet and give them a et of the larger candy bar picture and tape. b. Have them contruct their final phylogenetic tree on the wall ticky. 11.Once all the group have finihed, allow the group to preent their tree and to explain their grouping to the cla. 12.After all group have preented, ak the following dicuion quetion: a. Were the tree all the ame? Why or why not? b. What thing were the ame? What thing were different? c. What do you think looking inide of the candie repreent? d. Show the group the bag of Skittle. i. How would thi fit into your tree? ii. What would need to be changed and/or added?

5 13.For an additional challenge, diplay the following data heet and ak tudent if they think they can repeat thi proce with actual organim and their characteritic like biologit do. a. b. Have tudent contruct a new Venn diagram and tree. c. Thi can alo be done a a race, with the fatet team receiving firt choice of the candy to hare amongt their group. d. If time i limited, thi can be aigned a a homework practice.

6 Data Sheet: Character r he y r ey w/ Al m on d r he y C C B a b y R ut h S ni ck er S ni ck er Cr un ch er Re ec e Pi ec e M M Pl ai n M M Pe an ut Total Chocolate Bar Shape Nut Caramel Rice Cripie Blank Data Sheet: Character r he y r ey w/ Al m on d r he y C C Ba by R ut h S ni c k e r Sn ic ke r Cr un ch er Re ec e Pi ec e M M Pl ai n M M Pe an ut Total

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