The Misplaced and Dangling Modifier. is often misplaced and it will be the last place you look (get it? )

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "The Misplaced and Dangling Modifier. is often misplaced and it will be the last place you look (get it? )"

Transcription

1 The Misplaced and Dangling Modifier is often misplaced and it will be the last place you look (get it? )

2 **Somebody raise your hand and ask this question** Mr. Rodney, what s a Modifier and why is it misplaced and what about that other modifier? Modifiers (participle phrases, adjective clauses) are words, phrases, or clauses that add description to sentences. Typically, you will find a modifier snuggled right next to either in front of or behind the word it logically describes. Sometimes a writer places the modifier too far away from the word it should describe. Born in the confusion is a misplaced modifier, an error. A dangling modifier is a phrase or clause that is not clearly and logically related to the word or words it modifies (placed next to). Unlike a misplaced modifier, a dangling modifier cannot be corrected by simply moving it to a different place in a sentence.

3 **Somebody raise your hand and ask this question** Mr. Rodney, what s a participle phrase? A participle phrase will begin with a present or past participle. If the participle is present, it will dependably end in -ing. Likewise, a regular past participle will end in a consistent ed. Irregular past participles, unfortunately, conclude in all kinds of ways. Since all phrases require two or more words, a participle phrase will often include objects and/or modifiers that complete the thought

4 Participle phrases always function as adjectives, adding description to the sentence. Read these examples: The horse trotting up to the fence hopes that you have an apple or carrot. Trotting up to the fence modifies the noun horse. The water drained slowly in the pipe clogged with dog hair. Clogged with dog hair modifies the noun pipe. Eaten by mosquitoes, we wished that we had made hotel, not campsite, reservations. Eaten by mosquitoes modifies the pronoun we

5 **Somebody raise your hand and ask this question** Mr. Rodney, what s an adjective clause? An adjective clause also called an adjectival or relative clause will meet three requirements: First, it will contain a subject and verb. Next, it will begin with a relative pronoun [who, whom, whose, that, or which] or a relative adverb [when, where, or why]. Finally, it will function as an adjective, answering the questions What kind? How many? or Which one?

6 The adjective clause will follow one of these two patterns: Relative Pronoun or Adverb + Subject + Verb Relative Pronoun as Subject + Verb

7 Adjective Clause Examples: Whose big, brown eyes pleaded for another cookie Whose = relative pronoun; eyes = subject; pleaded = verb. Why Fred cannot stand sitting across from his sister Melanie Why = relative adverb; Fred = subject; can stand = verb [not, an adverb, is not officially part of the verb]. That bounced across the kitchen floor That = relative pronoun functioning as subject; bounced = verb.

8 The modifier and where we should put it Take the simple, one-word adjective blue. If we add it to the sentence that follows, where should it go? At a downtown dealership, Kara bought a truck from a salesman with a comb over. At a downtown dealership, Kara bought a blue truck from a salesman with a comb over.

9 Sometimes a writer places the modifier too far away from the word it should describe. Born in the confusion is a misplaced modifier, an error. Read and fix these examples: Churning in the Atlantic Ocean, we anxiously watched the weather report for information about the hurricane. We anxiously watched the weather report for information about the hurricane churning in the Atlantic Ocean. Raymond wore his one collared shirt to the job interview, which was unfortunately stained with yellow mustard. Raymond wore his one collared shirt, which was unfortunately stained with yellow mustard, to the job interview.

10 In a similar manner, multi-word phrases and clauses often go right next to the word they describe. Here are some examples: Identify the participle phrase and the noun it describes Gazing out the window, Paul missed the homework assignment that Prof. Zuromski wrote on the board. Gazing out the window is a participle phrase describing Paul, the noun that follows. Sam gobbled the sandwich, which was soggy with tomato juice, as he rushed to class. Which was soggy with tomato juice is an adjective clause describing sandwich, the noun before it.

11 More Examples of Misplaced Modifiers Read and fix these examples: Professor Jones, who was late with another essay, waited for the slacker student. Professor Jones waited for the slacker student who was late with another essay. She handed out brownies to the children stored in Tupperware. She handed out brownies, stored in Tupperware, to the children.

12 Dangling Modifiers and how to fix them: Sometimes the dangling modifier error occurs because the sentence fails to specify anything to which the modifier can refer. Looking toward the west, a funnel shaped cloud stirred up dust.

13 2 Ways to Fix a Dangling Modifier: Correction Method 1 1. Leave the modifier as it is. 2. Change the main part of the sentence so that it begins with the term actually modified. 3. This change will put the modifier next to the term it modifies Dangling: Looking toward the west, a funnel shaped cloud stirred up dust. Good: Looking toward the west, I saw a funnel shaped cloud stir up dust.

14 Correction Method 2 1. Change the dangling phrase to a subordinate clause, creating a subject and verb. 2. Leave the rest of the sentence as it is. Dangling: When nine years old, my mother enrolled in medical school. Good: When I was nine years old, my mother enrolled in medical school. Dangling: Having been fixed the night before, Priscilla could use the car. Good: Since the car had been fixed the night before, Priscilla could use it..

Clauses and Phrases. How to know them when you see them! How they work to make more complex sentences!

Clauses and Phrases. How to know them when you see them! How they work to make more complex sentences! Clauses and Phrases How to know them when you see them! How they work to make more complex sentences! Why it s important to use them in your writing! What s a CLAUSE? Clauses are clusters of words. Clauses

More information

Diagramming Review. WJHS 8 th Grade English 29 April 2013

Diagramming Review. WJHS 8 th Grade English 29 April 2013 Diagramming Review WJHS 8 th Grade English 29 April 2013 Sentence Basics The subject of the sentence is the person or thing is performing the action of the sentence or is being described by the sentence.

More information

Grammar Boot Camp. Building Muscle: Phrases and Clauses. (click mouse to proceed)

Grammar Boot Camp. Building Muscle: Phrases and Clauses. (click mouse to proceed) Grammar Boot Camp Building Muscle: Phrases and Clauses (click mouse to proceed) Your Mission: To Study Phrases To Study Clauses To Exercise your Writing Muscles This presentation is enhanced with Question

More information

RULE Modifiers should be placed as near as possible to the words they modify in order to keep the meaning clear.

RULE Modifiers should be placed as near as possible to the words they modify in order to keep the meaning clear. RULE Modifiers should be placed as near as possible to the words they modify in order to keep the meaning clear. WRITE Start with each of the following plain sentences and revise them, using various modifiers

More information

Strategies for Technical Writing

Strategies for Technical Writing Strategies for Technical Writing Writing as Process Recommendation (to keep audience in mind): Write a first draft for yourself. Get your explanations and as many details as possible down on paper. Write

More information

A sentence is made up of three parts.

A sentence is made up of three parts. Notes and Exercises A sentence is made up of three parts. SUBJECT: What or whom the sentence is about. VERB: What the subject did or is. The REST: Everything else in the sentence. EXAMPLES Rachel talks

More information

Sentence Variety. Dr. Karen Petit

Sentence Variety. Dr. Karen Petit Sentence Variety Dr. Karen Petit Unvaried Sentences Unvaried sentence structures make ideas sound simplistic and repetitious: The pencil was yellow. The pencil was new. The pencil was rolling off the table.

More information

TERMS. Parts of Speech

TERMS. Parts of Speech TERMS Parts of Speech Noun: a word that names a person, place, thing, quality, or idea (examples: Maggie, Alabama, clarinet, satisfaction, socialism). Pronoun: a word used in place of a noun (examples:

More information

Sentences: Types, and Common Mistakes

Sentences: Types, and Common Mistakes Sentences: Types, and Common Mistakes Sentences are classified as simple, compound, complex, and compound-complex. This designation is based on the clauses used to create the sentence. Clauses: Every clause

More information

Understanding Clauses and How to Connect Them to Avoid Fragments, Comma Splices, and Fused Sentences A Grammar Help Handout by Abbie Potter Henry

Understanding Clauses and How to Connect Them to Avoid Fragments, Comma Splices, and Fused Sentences A Grammar Help Handout by Abbie Potter Henry Independent Clauses An independent clause (IC) contains at least one subject and one verb and can stand by itself as a simple sentence. Here are examples of independent clauses. Because these sentences

More information

The Book of Grammar Lesson Six. Mr. McBride AP Language and Composition

The Book of Grammar Lesson Six. Mr. McBride AP Language and Composition The Book of Grammar Lesson Six Mr. McBride AP Language and Composition Table of Contents Lesson One: Prepositions and Prepositional Phrases Lesson Two: The Function of Nouns in a Sentence Lesson Three:

More information

MODIFIERS. There are many different types of modifiers. Let's begin by taking a look at the most common ones.

MODIFIERS. There are many different types of modifiers. Let's begin by taking a look at the most common ones. MODIFIERS A modifier is a word, phrase, or clause that describes another word or word group. Many types of words and phrases can act as modifiers, such as adjectives, adverbs, and prepositional phrases.

More information

Checklist for Recognizing Complete Verbs

Checklist for Recognizing Complete Verbs Checklist for Recognizing Complete Verbs Use the following six guidelines to help you determine if a word or group of words is a verb. 1. A complete verb tells time by changing form. This is the number

More information

Sentence Basics A few definitions will help:

Sentence Basics A few definitions will help: If you have glanced through the Writing Center s resources, you can see that there are a lot of things to know about grammar, and a lot of mistakes that students can make with grammar. However, the most

More information

Grammar & Style Worksheet Clauses/ Sentence Variety

Grammar & Style Worksheet Clauses/ Sentence Variety I. MAIN CLAUSES, SUBORDINATE CLAUSES AND FRAGMENTS A Clause is a group of words that contains at least one subject and one verb. Clauses: Harvey(subject) cares(verb) about Beatrice The Train(subject) was(verb)

More information

ESL Sentence Structure

ESL Sentence Structure ESL Sentence Structure Here are some suggestions for ESL students regarding sentence structure in English: Use a linking verb between a subject and complement. For example: I am ready for the trip. Jennifer

More information

Simple, Compound, Complex and Compound-Complex Sentences

Simple, Compound, Complex and Compound-Complex Sentences Simple, Compound, Complex and Compound-Complex Sentences Simple Sentences Simple sentences contain a subject and a verb, AND they are one complete thought. You may notice that this is the EXACT definition

More information

NOTES ON WORDS, PHRASES, SENTENCES AND CLAUSES

NOTES ON WORDS, PHRASES, SENTENCES AND CLAUSES Universidad de Los Andes Facultad de Humanidades y Educación Escuela de Idiomas Modernos NOTES ON WORDS, PHRASES, SENTENCES AND CLAUSES In English, as in many other languages in the world, individual words

More information

A prepositional phrase begins with a preposition and ends with a noun or pronoun.

A prepositional phrase begins with a preposition and ends with a noun or pronoun. Prepositions A prepositional phrase begins with a preposition and ends with a noun or pronoun. Example: after dinner After is the preposition Dinner is the object of the preposition After dinner is the

More information

Phrases and Clauses. Walton College of Business Writing Center

Phrases and Clauses. Walton College of Business Writing Center Phrases and Clauses Walton College of Business Writing Center What is a Clause? A clause is a group of words that contains both a subject and a verb. Each of the following samples is a clause: The toddler

More information

Using Language Stage Research** and CCEE ELA Language Domain, Standard 1, to Develop Conventions of Standard English

Using Language Stage Research** and CCEE ELA Language Domain, Standard 1, to Develop Conventions of Standard English Using Language Stage Research** and CCEE ELA Language Domain, Standard, to Develop Conventions of Standard English Language Stage CCSS* Supporting Speaking and Writing for Students with Complex Communication

More information

IGCSE English Language

IGCSE English Language IGCSE English Language Technical Skills: Grammar Copyright 2012 Eddis Tutorial Services, LLC Grammar is boring! I don t know why I have to learn grammar, it s so boring and I already know how to write.

More information

SEVENTH WEEK COMPLEX SENTENCES: THE NOUN CLAUSE

SEVENTH WEEK COMPLEX SENTENCES: THE NOUN CLAUSE SEVENTH WEEK COMPLEX SENTENCES: THE NOUN CLAUSE COMPLEX SENTENCE: a kid of sentence which has one independent clause and one or more dependent clauses. KINDS OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES: (a) Adverb Clause (b)

More information

UMD ARC/Writing & Reading Center. Parts of a Sentence

UMD ARC/Writing & Reading Center. Parts of a Sentence UMD ARC/Writing & Reading Center Parts of a Sentence I. SUBJECT The subject is what the sentence is about. Also called the naming part of the sentence, the subject answers the question, "Who or what?"

More information

Adjective, Adverb, Noun Clauses. Gerund,Participial and Infinitive Phrases. English Department

Adjective, Adverb, Noun Clauses. Gerund,Participial and Infinitive Phrases. English Department Adjective, Adverb, Noun Clauses Gerund,Participial and Infinitive Phrases Jafar Asgari English Department Kashan University of Medical Sciences Structure of Complex Sentences Every Complex sentence is

More information

Jessica's English Sentences Dolch K-3 Sentences 1-218 Vocabulary and Grammar By Jessica E. Riggs

Jessica's English Sentences Dolch K-3 Sentences 1-218 Vocabulary and Grammar By Jessica E. Riggs Jessica's English Sentences Dolch K-3 Sentences 1-218 Vocabulary and Grammar By Jessica E. Riggs Students should master at least ten of the sentences per day, ideally, and be able to write them at once

More information

I. Prepositional Phrases

I. Prepositional Phrases Unit 7 Phrases and Clauses A phrase is a group of words, without a subject and verb, that functions in a sentence as one part of speech. There are several types of phrases, among them prepositional, appositive,

More information

Unit 1. Unit Vocabulary. Before You Read. How to Study for a Test

Unit 1. Unit Vocabulary. Before You Read. How to Study for a Test Unit 1 Before You Read Before you read a text, you should look at the title and the pictures and think about what you know about the topic. These questions will help you prepare to read the text on this

More information

Cohesive devices Teacher resource: textual features

Cohesive devices Teacher resource: textual features Cohesive devices Teacher resource: textual features Textual features relevant to the second objective of Dimension 2 are described below. These are features that teachers may like to draw on to further

More information

Getting a Sense of the Sentence

Getting a Sense of the Sentence Getting a Sense of the Sentence The purpose of this handout is to give you a brief overview of what a correct sentence is and how to write different types of correct sentences. Definition of a Correct

More information

Year 3 Grammar Guide. For Children and Parents MARCHWOOD JUNIOR SCHOOL

Year 3 Grammar Guide. For Children and Parents MARCHWOOD JUNIOR SCHOOL MARCHWOOD JUNIOR SCHOOL Year 3 Grammar Guide For Children and Parents A guide to the key grammar skills and understanding that your child will be learning this year with examples and practice questions

More information

SENTENCE STRUCTURE. An independent clause can be a complete sentence on its own. It has a subject and a verb.

SENTENCE STRUCTURE. An independent clause can be a complete sentence on its own. It has a subject and a verb. SENTENCE STRUCTURE An independent clause can be a complete sentence on its own. It has a subject and a verb. A dependent clause cannot be a complete sentence on its own. It depends on the independent clause

More information

Chapter 3 Growing with Verbs 77

Chapter 3 Growing with Verbs 77 Chapter 3 Growing with Verbs 77 3.2 Direct Objects A direct object is the noun or pronoun that receives the direct action of a verb. The verb used with a direct object is always an action verb and is called

More information

active and passive adjective 276 Primary adverb

active and passive adjective 276 Primary adverb active and passive Many verbs can be active or passive. For example, bite: The dog bit Ben. (active) Ben was bitten by the dog. (passive) In the active sentence, the subject (the dog) performs the action.

More information

1) The subject. The man walked down the street. 2) A participle (word ending in ing or ed) Walking up the street, he tripped.

1) The subject. The man walked down the street. 2) A participle (word ending in ing or ed) Walking up the street, he tripped. 1) The subject The man walked down the street. 2) A participle (word ending in ing or ed) Walking up the street, he tripped. Worried about tripping, he bumped into his wife. 3) A connective As she walked,

More information

HWP Punctuation, Grammar & Editing REVIEW 2

HWP Punctuation, Grammar & Editing REVIEW 2 HWP Punctuation, Grammar & Editing REVIEW 2 Part 1 1. Choose the correctsentence. A. Downton Abbey, currently in it s third season, airs Sundays on PBS. B. The series takes place during the 1910s. C. Elaine,

More information

1. Why do we use adjective clauses?

1. Why do we use adjective clauses? ADJECTIVE CLAUSES 1. Why do we use adjective clauses? to give more information about a noun or noun phrase I saw the movie. ( Which one??? ) to give more specific information about a noun or noun phrase

More information

THERE ARE SEVERAL KINDS OF PRONOUNS:

THERE ARE SEVERAL KINDS OF PRONOUNS: PRONOUNS WHAT IS A PRONOUN? A Pronoun is a word used in place of a noun or of more than one noun. Example: The high school graduate accepted the diploma proudly. She had worked hard for it. The pronoun

More information

Nouns are naming words - they are used to name a person, place or thing.

Nouns are naming words - they are used to name a person, place or thing. Adjectives Adjectives are describing words - they tell you more about nouns. Nouns are naming words - they are used to name a person, place or thing. Adjectives tell you more about the noun. Using adjectives

More information

Grammar Kinds of Sentences

Grammar Kinds of Sentences Kinds of Sentences There are four kinds of sentences: declarative, interrogative, imperative, and exclamatory. 1. A declarative sentence makes a statement. It tells something, states a fact or opinion,

More information

Module 4 Simple, compound and complex sentences

Module 4 Simple, compound and complex sentences Module 4 Simple, compound and complex sentences Aim This module highlights the difference between compound and complex sentences. It also shows a variety of ways in which complex sentences can be constructed.

More information

Basic Sentence Parts. Mr. Brasher

Basic Sentence Parts. Mr. Brasher Basic Sentence Parts Mr. Brasher Subjects and Predicates Complete Subjects and Predicates Sentence- group of words with two main parts: complete subject and complete predicate. Together, express a complete

More information

Sentence Skills Review

Sentence Skills Review Sentence Skills Review The CPT sentence skills test measures students editing skills. The minimum required score for this exam is 86%. This booklet gives students the opportunity to review some basic grammar

More information

Sentence structure

Sentence structure Semester III Group B Grammar 3 Mrs. Skirdj Sentence structure The subject is a noun, noun phrase or pronoun representing the person or thing that performs the action of the verb. There are two types of

More information

Proficiency Evaluation Test Intermediate to Advanced

Proficiency Evaluation Test Intermediate to Advanced Proficiency Evaluation Test Intermediate to Advanced Name I. Grammar / Vocabulary II. Reading Comprehension III. Writing Sample IV. Conversation / Interview Directions for the Tutor: Allow the participant

More information

GMAT.cz www.gmat.cz info@gmat.cz. GMAT.cz KET (Key English Test) Preparating Course Syllabus

GMAT.cz www.gmat.cz info@gmat.cz. GMAT.cz KET (Key English Test) Preparating Course Syllabus Lesson Overview of Lesson Plan Numbers 1&2 Introduction to Cambridge KET Handing Over of GMAT.cz KET General Preparation Package Introduce Methodology for Vocabulary Log Introduce Methodology for Grammar

More information

PART I SENTENCE STRUCTURE

PART I SENTENCE STRUCTURE 3 Though experienced writers may, from time to time, purposely use an incomplete sentence down a reader should be avoided. for emphasis or effect, the accidental sentence fragment that can either confuse

More information

What is a noun? A noun is a word used to name a person, animal, place, thing, and abstract idea.

What is a noun? A noun is a word used to name a person, animal, place, thing, and abstract idea. Grammar What is a noun? A noun is a word used to name a person, animal, place, thing, and abstract idea. What are the two types of nouns? Common Noun A common noun is a noun referring to a person, place,

More information

This handout will help you understand what relative clauses are and how they work, and will especially help you decide when to use that or which.

This handout will help you understand what relative clauses are and how they work, and will especially help you decide when to use that or which. The Writing Center Relative Clauses Like 3 people like this. Relative Clauses This handout will help you understand what relative clauses are and how they work, and will especially help you decide when

More information

Compound Sentences and Coordination

Compound Sentences and Coordination Compound Sentences and Coordination Mary Westervelt Reference: Ann Hogue (2003) The Essentials of English: A Writer s Handbook. New York, Pearson Education, Inc. When two sentences are combined in a way

More information

GRAMMAR AND MECHANICS Understanding Relative Clauses

GRAMMAR AND MECHANICS Understanding Relative Clauses GRAMMAR AND MECHANICS Understanding Relative Clauses A relative (or adjective) clause modifies a noun or pronoun and is introduced by a relative pronoun (who, whom, whose, which, or that) or occasionally

More information

Grammar Imitation Lessons: Simple Sentences

Grammar Imitation Lessons: Simple Sentences Name: Block: Date: Grammar Imitation Lessons: Simple Sentences This week we will be learning about simple sentences with a focus on subject-verb agreement. Follow along as we go through the PowerPoint

More information

- ENGLISH TEST - PRE-INTERMEDIATE 100 QUESTIONS

- ENGLISH TEST - PRE-INTERMEDIATE 100 QUESTIONS Exercise 1: Tick (P) the suitable answer. 1. What's... job? A your B yours C you 2. The traffic is... than it was many years ago. A badder B more bad C worse 3. I've... washed the floor. It's wet. A already

More information

Grammar Core Sentence Parts

Grammar Core Sentence Parts Grammar Core Sentence Parts Simple Subject: noun or pronoun in the sentence that answers the question who? or what? Simple Predicate: the verb/verb phrase in the sentence that answers the question did

More information

Chapter I - Passive Voice

Chapter I - Passive Voice Chapter I - Passive Voice When do we use the passive? We use the passive when it is more important to know what happens to the subject. Who or what causes the action is less important (and often unknown).

More information

Avoiding Run-On Sentences, Comma Splices, and Fragments

Avoiding Run-On Sentences, Comma Splices, and Fragments Avoiding Run-On Sentences, Comma Splices, and Fragments Understanding sentence structure helps in identifying and correcting run-on sentences and sentence fragments. A computer s spell checker does not

More information

Read this newspaper article and complete the tasks below.

Read this newspaper article and complete the tasks below. CHAPTER 6 The Present Perfect FORM 1 Examining Form Read this newspaper article and complete the tasks below. county: a geographical and political division within a state in the U.S. 1. There are five

More information

GRAMMAR. Eight Parts of Speech. Noun Pronoun Adjective Verb Adverb Conjunction Preposition Interjection

GRAMMAR. Eight Parts of Speech. Noun Pronoun Adjective Verb Adverb Conjunction Preposition Interjection 1 GRAMMAR Eight Parts of Speech Noun Pronoun Adjective Verb Adverb Conjunction Preposition Interjection Noun Name or classify persons, places, things, and concepts 1. Proper Nouns: Name particular people,

More information

Relative Pronouns. Unit14

Relative Pronouns. Unit14 Unit14 Relative Pronouns Relative pronouns are used to link two sentences that have the same noun or pronoun in them. Relative pronouns form the beginning of a relative clause. In English there are five

More information

- ENGLISH TEST - BEGINNER 100 QUESTIONS

- ENGLISH TEST - BEGINNER 100 QUESTIONS Exercise 1: Tick (P) the suitable answer. - ENGLISH TEST - 1. Do you work on Saturdays? A Yes, I work B Yes, I do C Yes, I am 2. How old are you? A No, I'm not B I'm 35 C I'm a waiter 3. Do you have a

More information

Year 7. Grammar booklet 2 and tasks Adverbs, adjectives, pronouns and revision of spellings

Year 7. Grammar booklet 2 and tasks Adverbs, adjectives, pronouns and revision of spellings Year 7 Grammar booklet 2 and tasks Adverbs, adjectives, pronouns and revision of spellings Adverbs An adverb tells us more about a verb. It describes or modifies the verb in some way. Most (but not all)

More information

4. Other Kinds of Subject-Verb Agreement

4. Other Kinds of Subject-Verb Agreement 4. Other Kinds of Subject-Verb Agreement In this chapter, we will look at some of the subject-verb agreement problems that give students the most trouble. But first, here is a brief description of how

More information

T h e A u x i l i a r y V e r b

T h e A u x i l i a r y V e r b T h e A u x i l i a r y V e r b Recognize an auxiliary verb when you see one. Every sentence must have a verb. To depict doable activities, writers use action verbs. To describe conditions, writers choose

More information

Understanding Complex Sentences

Understanding Complex Sentences Understanding Complex Sentences A clause : a group of related words that contains a subject and a verb CLAUSES MAIN CLAUSE SUBORDINATE CLAUSE DJECTIVE CLAUSE NOUN CLAUSE ADVERBIAL CLAUSE Understanding

More information

Handouts for Conversation Partners: Grammar

Handouts for Conversation Partners: Grammar Handouts for Conversation Partners: Grammar Contents A Cheat Sheet on the Tenses in English... 2 Conditionals... 3 Past Participles... 5 Present Perfect Tense... 6 Present Perfect Continuous... 6 Past

More information

T h e P h r a s e. After slithering down the s tairs and across the road to scare nearly to death Mrs. Philpot busy pruning her rose bushes

T h e P h r a s e. After slithering down the s tairs and across the road to scare nearly to death Mrs. Philpot busy pruning her rose bushes T h e P h r a s e Recognize a phrase when you see one. A phrase is two or more words that do not contain the subject-verb pair necessary to form a clause. Phrases can be very short or quite long. Here

More information

English Grammar Passive Voice and Other Items

English Grammar Passive Voice and Other Items English Grammar Passive Voice and Other Items In this unit we will finish our look at English grammar. Please be aware that you will have only covered the essential basic grammar that is commonly taught

More information

An adverb clause is a dependent clause that modifies a verb, adjective or another adverb. It usually modifies the verb.

An adverb clause is a dependent clause that modifies a verb, adjective or another adverb. It usually modifies the verb. Lesson 276 - Adjective, Adverb, and Noun Clauses Example: They arrived before the game had ended. ("before the game had ended" is the object, or object of Some of the words that introduce noun clauses

More information

Writing Assessment Focuses

Writing Assessment Focuses Writing Assessment Focuses The I Can statements link to the Assessment and Progression sheets and support children in their involvement in the targets setting process. They will need to be mediated and

More information

Tips for Writing Strong Sentences. by Glynnis Whitwer October 30, 2013

Tips for Writing Strong Sentences. by Glynnis Whitwer October 30, 2013 Tips for Writing Strong Sentences by Glynnis Whitwer October 30, 2013 The basis of good writing Great sentences come in all sizes. Some are great because they are short: Jesus wept. (John 11:35) Some are

More information

Subordinating Ideas Using Phrases It All Started with Sputnik

Subordinating Ideas Using Phrases It All Started with Sputnik NATIONAL MATH + SCIENCE INITIATIVE English Subordinating Ideas Using Phrases It All Started with Sputnik Grade 9-10 OBJECTIVES Students will demonstrate understanding of how different types of phrases

More information

SENTENCE FAULTS T.Reawadee Anghcuan

SENTENCE FAULTS T.Reawadee Anghcuan SENTENCE FAULTS T.Reawadee Anghcuan SENTENCE FAULTS Common problems: - fragment - faulty parallelism - run-on sentence & comma splice - misplaced modifier FRAGMENT A sentence fragment is an incomplete

More information

This handout will discuss two types of dependent clauses: subordinate clauses and adjective clauses.

This handout will discuss two types of dependent clauses: subordinate clauses and adjective clauses. DEPENDENT CLAUSES All sentences consist of one or more clauses. A clause is a group of words that contains a subject and a verb. Some clauses are independent while others are dependent, and for a sentence

More information

Understanding Verbs: Gerunds, Participles, and Infinitives

Understanding Verbs: Gerunds, Participles, and Infinitives Understanding Verbs: Gerunds, Participles, and Infinitives A verbal is a verb that functions as some other part of speech in a sentence. In the English language, there are three basic types of verbals:

More information

7th Grade Grammar Review Packet

7th Grade Grammar Review Packet 7th Grade Grammar Review Packet KEY 1. Nouns 1. A noun is defined as a: person, place, thing or idea 2. A proper noun is: a specific person, place, thing or idea 3. A proper noun always starts with a:

More information

Las Vegas High School 2010-11 Writing Workshop. Combining Sentences

Las Vegas High School 2010-11 Writing Workshop. Combining Sentences Las Vegas High School 2010-11 Writing Workshop Combining Sentences If you continually use short sentences in your writing, your paragraphs will sound very choppy. Read this paragraph and notice how it

More information

A Writer s Reference, Seventh Edition Diana Hacker Nancy Sommers

A Writer s Reference, Seventh Edition Diana Hacker Nancy Sommers A Writer s Reference, Seventh Edition Diana Hacker Nancy Sommers What s new on the companion Web site? hackerhandbooks.com/writersref The companion Web site for A Writer s Reference, Seventh Edition, now

More information

Verb Tenses. We use different verb tenses to indicate the various points in time.

Verb Tenses. We use different verb tenses to indicate the various points in time. Verb Tenses Verbs express the action of a person or an object in a sentence, e.g., John runs, or they tell us the condition of someone or something, e.g., Mandy seems ill. Each sentence expresses an idea

More information

Children can struggle to write sentences for a number of reasons. Many different skills come into play when writing a sentence including:

Children can struggle to write sentences for a number of reasons. Many different skills come into play when writing a sentence including: Parent s Corner #3 By Melinda Matthews, SPELD NSW Referral Officer Teachers on the Teachers Certificate Course are having fun learning various strategies to help reluctant students write sentences. For

More information

Subject-Verb Agreement A grammar help worksheet by Abbie Potter Henry

Subject-Verb Agreement A grammar help worksheet by Abbie Potter Henry Subject-Verb Agreement A grammar help worksheet by Abbie Potter Henry (Subjects are in bold typeface and verbs are underlined) Subject-Verb Agreement means that subjects and verbs must always agree in

More information

Y1 Parts of Speech: Sentence Structure: Punctuation: I can write a simple sentence with a subject and a verb. I can use and to join two clauses

Y1 Parts of Speech: Sentence Structure: Punctuation: I can write a simple sentence with a subject and a verb. I can use and to join two clauses Y1 Parts of Speech: Sentence Structure: Punctuation: I can write a simple with a subject and a verb I can use and to join two clauses I can use finger spaces to separate words I can use full stops to end

More information

2. PRINCIPLES IN USING CONJUNCTIONS. Conjunction is a word which is used to link or join words, phrases, or clauses.

2. PRINCIPLES IN USING CONJUNCTIONS. Conjunction is a word which is used to link or join words, phrases, or clauses. 2. PRINCIPLES IN USING CONJUNCTIONS 2.1 Definition of Conjunctions Conjunction is a word which is used to link or join words, phrases, or clauses. In a sentence, most of conjunctions are from another parts

More information

Exercise Answers. 1. Encouraged by her coach s praise, Melody repeated her routine on the balance beam.

Exercise Answers. 1. Encouraged by her coach s praise, Melody repeated her routine on the balance beam. Exercise Answers Identify the verb phrases in the following sentences. State whether they are main verb phrases, present participle phrases, past participle phrases or gerunds. encouraged by her coach

More information

English. Universidad Virtual. Curso de sensibilización a la PAEP (Prueba de Admisión a Estudios de Posgrado) Parts of Speech. Nouns.

English. Universidad Virtual. Curso de sensibilización a la PAEP (Prueba de Admisión a Estudios de Posgrado) Parts of Speech. Nouns. English Parts of speech Parts of Speech There are eight parts of speech. Here are some of their highlights. Nouns Pronouns Adjectives Articles Verbs Adverbs Prepositions Conjunctions Click on any of the

More information

Fry Instant Word List

Fry Instant Word List First 100 Instant Words the had out than of by many first and words then water a but them been to not these called in what so who is all some oil you were her sit that we would now it when make find he

More information

Rubrics & Checklists

Rubrics & Checklists Rubrics & Checklists fulfilling Common Core s for Fifth Grade Informative Writing Self-evaluation that's easy to use and comprehend Scoring that's based on Common Core expectations Checklists that lead

More information

Rubrics & Checklists

Rubrics & Checklists Rubrics & Checklists fulfilling Common Core s for Fifth Grade Narrative Writing Self-evaluation that's easy to use and comprehend Scoring that's based on Common Core expectations Checklists that lead students

More information

Fry Instant Words High Frequency Words

Fry Instant Words High Frequency Words Fry Instant Words High Frequency Words The Fry list of 600 words are the most frequently used words for reading and writing. The words are listed in rank order. First Hundred Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group

More information

Chapter 2 Phrases and Clauses

Chapter 2 Phrases and Clauses Chapter 2 Phrases and Clauses In this chapter, you will learn to identify phrases and clauses. You will also learn about independent and dependent clauses. 1 R oyer Grammar and Punctuation We combine the

More information

Sentence Fragments. Part I: Finding the Subject

Sentence Fragments. Part I: Finding the Subject Sentences Fragments Sentence Fragments Every well-formed sentence in English must have a subject (what the sentence is about) and a predicate (what is being said about the subject). A sentence fragment

More information

Below is a suggested thirteen-week schedule for completing this course.

Below is a suggested thirteen-week schedule for completing this course. Grammar and Style of the Sentence Course Overview Grammar and Style of the Sentence is an online course designed to teach basic principles of grammar and style to improve your writing. New topics are introduced

More information

DEFINITION OF CLAUSE AND PHRASE:

DEFINITION OF CLAUSE AND PHRASE: 1 PHRASE vs. CLAUSE In order to punctuate sentences correctly and avoid fragments, we need to know the difference between two kinds of word groups: phrases and clauses. We can see the difference in the

More information

English -GRAMMAR AND READING ACTIVITIES- 6th Level San José SSCC School Seville- MARCH MY BIRTHDAY STUDYING MONTH WATCHING ARE TEST YES DOING

English -GRAMMAR AND READING ACTIVITIES- 6th Level San José SSCC School Seville- MARCH MY BIRTHDAY STUDYING MONTH WATCHING ARE TEST YES DOING Name: A) Write a short composition about your daily routine using present simple and frequency adverbs. You can use the previous text ( My Daily Routine )as a model to do your work. A) COMPLETE THE CONVERSATION:

More information

Expository/Informative Essay

Expository/Informative Essay Expository/Informative Essay The Expository/Informative Essay The Informative Essay is the first one you will learn to write. This kind of writing explains something, tells something, or it gives directions.

More information

Nouns may show possession or ownership. Use an apostrophe with a noun to show something belongs to someone or to something.

Nouns may show possession or ownership. Use an apostrophe with a noun to show something belongs to someone or to something. Nouns Section 1.4 Possessive Nouns Nouns may show possession or ownership. Use an apostrophe with a noun to show something belongs to someone or to something. Jane s dress is red. The table s legs were

More information

The Structure of English Language - Clause Functions

The Structure of English Language - Clause Functions Coordinate The Structure of English Language - Clause Functions Coordinate subordinate adverbial adjectival The simplest sentences may contain a single clause. (Simple is a standard description of one

More information

Dangling and Misplaced Modifiers. A Guide to Identifying and Fixing Them

Dangling and Misplaced Modifiers. A Guide to Identifying and Fixing Them Dangling and Misplaced Modifiers A Guide to Identifying and Fixing Them What are modifiers? Modifiers are words or groups of words that describe, limit, or modify other words or groups of words in a sentence.

More information

Adjectives quiz. Level A. 1. Her hair is long and. A) curly B) happy C) slim D) late. 2. He drives a bright red sports car. It's very.

Adjectives quiz. Level A. 1. Her hair is long and. A) curly B) happy C) slim D) late. 2. He drives a bright red sports car. It's very. Level A 1. Her hair is long and. A) curly B) happy C) slim D) late 2. He drives a bright red sports car. It's very. A) wild B) shallow C) fast D) tall 3. Today, the weather's going to be. A) hopeful B)

More information

SENTENCE STRUCTURE BASICS

SENTENCE STRUCTURE BASICS ENTENCE TRUCTURE BAIC All sentences consist of one or more clauses. A clause is a group of words that contains a subject and a verb. ome clauses are independent, and others are dependent. For a sentence

More information